1914–1918 Inter-Allied Victory medal (France)
The 1914–1918 Inter-Allied Victory medal was a French commemorative medal established on 20 July 1922. It was the French version of a common allied campaign medal where each allied nation issued a Victory Medal to their own nationals, all issues having certain common features, including the same ribbon, a winged figure of victory on the obverse and a similar inscription on the reverse, the French version reading "LA GRANDE GVERRE POUR CIVILISATION 1914-1919", it was awarded to all soldiers who served three months, consecutive or not, between 2 August 1914 and 11 November 1918 in the war zone. It was awarded to civilian nurses, aliens who served directly under French command and generals who had a command for at least three months, prisoners of war from Alsace and Lorraine who served in the French forces. Article 10 of the establishing law states: "The right to the medal is granted to soldiers who were killed by the enemy or died from wounds of war and those who died of disease or injury incurred in service."
The next of kin of those killed or died were required to procure the medal at their own expense. In response to a proposal first made by the French Marshal Ferdinand Foch, supreme commander of the Allied Forces during the First World War, most allied nations issued a Victory Medal following a common design, thereby avoiding any need for countries to exchange campaign medals; each country produced their own version, following certain common criteria. The medal was to be in bronze with a 36 mm diameter, having a winged figure of victory on the obverse, a common inscription on the reverse and suspension by a double rainbow design ribbon. Japan and Siam replaced the figure of victory, since a winged victory symbol was not culturally relevant; the following versions were awarded: It should be noted that at the start of the war in 1914, the countries of Poland and Czechoslovakia were parts of the Russian and Austro-Hungarian Empires respectively. A certificate confirming the award was given to each recipient confirming his right to wear the medal.
Allied Victory Medal French medals for the First World War
Verdun is a small city in the Meuse department in Grand Est in northeastern France. It is an arrondissement of the department. Verdun is the biggest city in Meuse, although the capital of the department is Bar-le-Duc, smaller than Verdun, it is well known for giving its name to a major battle of the First World War. Verdun was founded by the Gauls, it has been the seat of the bishop of Verdun since the 4th century, with interruptions. In 486, following the decisive Frankish victory at the Battle of Soissons, the city refused to yield to the Franks and was thus besieged by King Clovis I; the 843 Treaty of Verdun divided Charlemagne's empire into three parts. The city has been famous for sugared almonds from 1200 onwards. Verdun was part of the middle kingdom of Lotharingia, in 1374 it became a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire; the Bishopric of Verdun formed together with Tull and Metz the Three Bishoprics, which were annexed by France in 1552. From 1624 to 1636, a large bastioned citadel was constructed on the site of the Abbey of Saint Vanne.
In 1670, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban visited Verdun and drew up an ambitious scheme to fortify the whole city. Although much of his plan was built in the following decades, some of the elements were not completed until after the Napoleonic Wars. Despite the extensive fortifications, Verdun was captured by the Prussians in 1792 during the War of the First Coalition, but abandoned by them after the Battle of Valmy. During the Napoleonic War, the citadel was used to hold British prisoners of war. In the Franco-Prussian War, Verdun was the last French fortress to surrender in 1870. Shortly afterwards, a new system of fortification was begun; this consisted of a mutually supporting ring of 22 polygonal forts up to 8 kilometres from the city, an inner ring of 6 forts. The Battle of Verdun was fought on August 20, 1792 between French Revolutionary forces and a Prussian army; the Prussians were victorious. This therefore opened the path to Paris. Norwich Duff visited Verdun in 1819, shortly after the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars.
He wrote: Verdun is prettily situated in a valley surrounded by hills. The River Meuse runs through the town and forms several canals and ditches round the town, fortified and, I believe, by the great Marshal Vauban; the citadel and were at work on them. Though there is little to see at Verdun, every part of it felt interesting from the number of our countrymen confined here during the war. Verdun is famous for its sweetmeats, sugar plums, confits etc. which are said to be the best in France. They made. Verdun was the site of a major battle, the longest-lasting, of the First World War. One of the costliest battles in military history, Verdun exemplified the policy of a "war of attrition" pursued by both sides, which led to an enormous loss of life and large casualty lists. Following the failure of the Schlieffen Plan in 1914 and the solidifying of the Western Front, Germany remained on the strategic defensive in the west throughout most of 1915. In the winter of 1915–16, German General Erich von Falkenhayn, the chief of the German General Staff made plans for a large offensive on the Western Front that aimed to break the French Army through the application of firepower at a point that the French had to hold for reasons of national prestige.
As Falkenhayn recalled it, his so-called "Christmas memorandum" to Kaiser Willhelm II envisioned a massive but limited attack on a French position'for the retention of which the French Command would be compelled to throw in every man they have'. Once the French army had bled to death, Britain could be brought down by Germany's submarine blockade and superior military strength; the logic of initiating a battle not to gain territory or a strategic position but to create a self-sustaining killing ground—to bleed the French army white—pointed to the grimness of military vision in 1916. Recent scholarship by Holger Afflerbach and others, has questioned the veracity of the Christmas memo. No copy has surfaced and the only account of it appeared in Falkenhayn's post-war memoir, his army commanders at Verdun, including the German Crown Prince, denied any knowledge of an attrition strategy. It is possible that Falkenhayn did not design the battle to bleed the French army but used this supposed motive after the fact in an attempt to justify the Verdun offensive, despite its failure.
Verdun was the strongest point in pre-war France, ringed by a string of powerful forts, including Douaumont and Fort Vaux. By 1916, the salient at Verdun jutted into the German lines and lay vulnerable to attack from three sides; the historic city of Verdun had been an oppidum of the Gauls before Roman times and a key asset in wars against Prussia, Falkenhayn suspected that the French would throw as many men as necessary into its defence. France had weakened Verdun's defences after the outbreak of the war, an oversight that would contribute to the removal of Joseph Joffre from supreme command at the end of 1916; the attack was slated to begin on 12 February 16 February, but the snow forced repeated postponements. Falkenhayn massed artillery to the north and east of Verdun to precede the infantry advance with intensive artillery bombardment, his attack would hit the French positions on the right bank of the Meuse. Although F
1st Foreign Regiment
The 1st Foreign Regiment and the 2nd Foreign are the original and most senior founding regiments of the French Foreign Legion. The regiment is responsible for running special institutions of the Legion; these include the magazine Képi Blanc, the Legion's Athletics Team, the Legion Military Band, the Legion Museum and numerous other Legion initiatives. The 1st Foreign Regiment 1er RE in its various command functions, is an elite command regiment; the 1er RE and all regiments of the French Foreign Legion, that their Legion Majors, Legion Adjudant Chefs and Legion Adjudants, form both a French and non-French elite composition. Under the first restoration, the Bourbons would only conserve the Swiss, in souvenir to their loyal service rendered to France during four centuries, with them four foreign regiments out of which one colonial, formed of Spanish and Portuguese; the eight reorganized foreign regiments by Napoleon at the Hundred Days formed in 1815 the Royal Foreign Legion, which became the Hohenlohe Legion in 1821 the Hohenlohe Regiment.
Licensed in 1830, the latter contributed to form the twenty first light the French Foreign Legion. The Swiss regiments of the restoration disappeared in 1830 the Swiss reincorporated again the French Army from 1855 to 1859 under the successive denomination of 2nd Foreign Legion and 1st Foreign Regiment. On April 1, 1841: creation of the 1st Foreign Regiment. 1859: merged with the 2nd Foreign Regiment and became the Foreign Regiment. 1875: became the French Foreign Legion. January 1, 1885: became again the 1st Foreign Regiment; the Legion retook since 1831 the tradition of Pionniers. The 1st Regiment of the Foreign Legion was created in 1841 based on 3 battalions in the newly created 1831 Foreign Legion; the 1st Regiment of the Foreign Legion became in 1855 the 1st Regiment of the 1st Foreign Legion. This regiment merged with the 2nd Foreign Regiment, in 1859 and became the Foreign Regiment came the 1st and 2nd battalion of the Foreign Legion, which produced the 1st Foreign Regiment of 1885 that became the 1st Foreign Infantry Regiment 1er REI in 1922 and the 1st Foreign Marching Infantry Regiment in 1943.
The 1st Foreign Regiment was created based on the 1st and 2nd Foreign Regiments of the 2nd Foreign Legion. The 1st Foreign Regiment was created based on the recreated 1st Foreign Infantry Regiment; this 1st Foreign Regiment gave formation on September 1, 1972, to the Foreign Legion Groupment which became the Foreign Legion Command on July 1, 1984. With the Foreign Legion Command, the 1st Foreign Regiment constitute the Mother House of the Foreign Legion; this expression inherited from Sidi Bel Abbès came from the primordial role the regiment played in conserving tradition and rendering the 1st Foreign Regiment a genuine turning plateau for the ensemble of the Foreign Legion. Quartier Vienot of Aubagne and Sidi Bel Abbès were both named in honor of Colonel Raphaël Vienot. Aubagne houses the French Foreign Legion Museum. Created in 1841 and stationed in Aubagne since 1962, the 1st Foreign Regiment is the patron of all Foreign Legion regiments. Beyond this historical aspect, the 1st Foreign Regiment represents a major cornerstone in the career paths of legionnaires.
The legionnaires initiate their careers from the 1st Foreign Regiment at the selection center of incorporation while confirming successful return upon completion of basic training before deploying to a legion operational regiment. Legionnaires pass by the 1st Foreign Regiment each time a posting of a regiment changes, finalize in the same regiment their departure formalities at the end of active duty service; the 1st Foreign Regiment, is a regiment with a combat and administrative vocation which major missions are the support of the Foreign Legion and directed by the Foreign Legion Command. However, during exterior and interior mission deployments requirements of units and regiments of the legion. In addition, the foreign regiment like all regiments of the French Army, does engage in the alert phase mission of Vigipirate; the 1st Foreign Regiment dispatches and supports world humanitarian missions around the globe during natural catastrophes and disasters. The 1st Foreign Regiment 1er was created in Aleria on April 1, 1841 from the first three Legion battalions.
On January 1, 1849, the 1er RE, under the command of Colonel Émile Mellinet, was in garrison at Oran in Algeria. On July 6, 1856, the regiment received the regimental flag colors "Emperor Napoleon III at the 1st Foreign" before initiating the campaign in Kabylie; the foreign regiment first participated to the pacification of Algeria was funneled to the Crimean War where the regiment formed a brigade with the foreign brother regiment, 2nd Foreign Regiment 2e RE, at the corps of the 6th Division. The regiment participated to the Siege of Sevastopol; the regimental commander, colonel Vienot was killed in combat on May 1, 1855. The regiment participated to the apprehension of the Malakoff tower on September 8, 1855; the regim
3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment
The 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment is an infantry regiment of the French Foreign Legion. The regiment is stationed in French Guiana. Missions for the regiment are numerous and vary while including the protection of the Centre Spatial Guyanais, a European Space Agency facility; the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment 3e REI in its function, like all the various regiments of the Legion, is an elite regiment. The 3e REI and all regiments of the French Foreign Legion, under French command, differentiate from all armies of the world due to, that their Legion Majors, Legion Adjudant Chefs and Legion Adjudants, form both a French and non-French elite composition. On November 11, 1915. M.1erR. E, from the 2nd Marching Regiment of the 2nd Foreign Regiment'2èmeR. M.2èmeR. E. On November 15, 1920. On June 20, 1922. On December 5, 1942. On December 15, the Colonial Infantry Demi-Brigade became the 3rd Foreign Marching Infantry Regiment, 3ème Régiment étranger d'infanterie de marche. On July 1, 1943. E. I. M became again the Marching Regiment of the Foreign Legion On July 1, 1945.
M. L. E was redesignated as the 3ème R. E. I. On April 1, 1948. 3ème R. E. I; the most decorated regiment in the Foreign Legion, the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment is heir to the Marching Regiment of the Foreign Legion created in 1915. The R. M. L. E distinguished itself during the siege of de Belly-en-Santerre, on July 4, 1916. With 9 citations earned at the orders of the armed forces during the World War I, the R. M. L. E obtained the double fourragère with ribbon colors of the Legion of Honour and the Croix de Guerre 1914–1918; the R. M. L. E was stationed in Morocco in 1920, where it was designated for the first time as the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment. In 1943, the R. M. L. E was reformed and subsequently engaged in combat operations against the German forces at Mansour mountain, in Tunisia, before participating in the campaign of France from 1944 to 1945 within the ranks of the 5th Armored Division. Following theses events, the regiment reached the Rhine, conquered Stuttgart, made way to Austria during the moment of the armistice.
With three new citations, the regiment obtained a fourragère with ribbon colors of the Croix de Guerre 1939–1945, materialized on the double fourragère obtained during the first World War. The R. M. L. E was decorated by the "United Distinguished Badge U. S. " with inscription " Rhine-Bavarian Alps ". The Legion recorded that 42,883 men served on the western front in the Marching Regiments of the 1st Foreign Regiment and 2nd Foreign Regiment of the R. M. L. E having suffered 5,172 killed and around 25,000 wounded or missing, a total of 70% casualties over the course of the war. At the end of the war, the Marching Regiment of the Foreign Legion, R. M. L. E was the second most decorated regiment in the French Army. Following World War II, the R. M. L. E retook the denomination of 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment. Idle time was short term and the regiment was moved to Indochina as of December 1945. Subsequently, the regiment took positions around colonial routes 3 and 4. Ambushes and convoy attacks followed. In 1948, the first known parachute unit was founded.
3ème R. E. I before being absorbed one year by the corps of the 1st Foreign Parachute Battalion, 1er B. E. P. While combat intensified on July 25, 1948; the combat company of Captain Cardinal resisted heroically and held the line for 9 hours against non-stop assaults of the Việt Minh. In 1950, chef de battalion commander Forget and the entire 3rd battalion disappeared at Cao Bằng on route colonial 4 in a traditional Foreign Legion battlefield; the regiment was still engaged in combat at Đông Khê, Bac Khan and Dien Bien Phu in 1954. The regiment had lost the equivalent of 5 battalions in Indochina. With four new citations, the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment obtained a fourragère with ribbon colors of the Médaille militaire, with colors of the ribbon of the Croix de guerre des théâtres d'opérations extérieures. In the Indochina campaign, the regiment had lost seventy-seven officers, three hundred and sixty-four NCOs, three-thousand three-hundred and ninety-six other ranks: a total of three-thousand eight-hundred and thirty-seven Legionnaires.
In December 1954, the regiment disembarked at Bône in Algeria. The regiment was put in charge of the difficult sector of Aures Nementchas. Following the departure of the 3rd battalion for Madagascar, in 1957, the regiment intervened specially in the north and along the Tunisian dam. In 1962, the regiment was based in Madagascar, at Diego Suarez, where its members adapted to the tropical surroundings. On September 11, 1973, the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment garrisoned at Kouro
Hoyerswerda is a major district town in the district of Bautzen in the German state of Saxony. It is located in the Sorbian settlement area of Upper Lusatia, a region where some people speak the Sorbian language in addition to German. Hoyerswerda is divided into the Old the New Town surrounded by village areas; the Old Town is the historical centre with a lot of old houses and many sight-seeing attractions, the New Town is more modern and varicoloured. Prior to the renovation of the town, prefabricated apartment blocks predominated in this area; the town has many lakes and waterways in its surrounding area, because of its situation in Lusatia. This brings many tourists to spend their holidays there; the place is very attractive for cyclists and inline skaters who use created paths meandering among the lakes. The town is situated in the north of the District of Bautzen, close to the borders of Saxony with Brandenburg. Major cities and towns in proximity are Cottbus 35 kilometres in the north-west, Dresden 55 kilometres in the south-west and Berlin 150 kilometres in the north.
Hoyerswerda is part of Upper Lusatia and lies on a rural plain characterised by the presence of several lakes and some marshes. Hoyerswerda is divided beside the Old Town and New Town into the following districts: Bröthen-Michalken Dörgenhausen Knappenrode Schwarzkolm Zeißig The old town of Hoyerswerda is divided into eleven districts: Neida, Dresdner Vorstadt, Am Bahnhof, Am Stadtrand, an der Neupetershainer Bahn, An der Thrune, Innere Altstadt, Senftenberger Vorstadt, Spremberger Vorstadt, Nördliche Elsteraue, Südliche Elsteraue; the new town of Hoyerswerda is divided into 14 districts: Neustadt Zentrum, Kühnicht, Grünewaldring, Wohnkomplex I, Wohnkomplex II, Wohnkomplex III, Wohnkomplex IV, Wohnkomplex V/VE, Wohnkomplex VI, Wohnkomplex VII, Wohnkomplex VIII, Wohnkomplex IX, Wohnkomplex X. Sources: The first settlers arrived in this area in 700 AD, they were Milceni Slavs. Many artifacts from this old culture have been found in the Hoyerswerda area. 1000 AD saw the construction of the first church in the town.
In 1150, Hoyerswerda first appeared on a map of Lusatia. The city was first mentioned in 1268. At the time the mayor was Hoyer von Vredeberg. In 1371 it was designated an official market town. Before this Hoyerswerda was a little town with few structures, but the city grew under the leadership of the new mayor Karl IV, it received municipal rights from Freiherr von Duba on 19 December 1423, as well as the right to elect its own council. In the 17th century, the city experienced many problems due to the 30 Years War; the Number of inhabitants recovered by the end of the century. In 1624, Hoyerswerda became the capital of the Spremberg district. A few years the district took the name Hoyerswerda because of the growing importance of the city. In the middle of this century Hoyerswerda had become the largest town in the Lusatian region. In the 18th century the Polish King and Elector of Saxony, Augustus II the Strong, gave the Duchy of Hoyerswerda to Ursula Katharina Lubomirska, who helped the town develop trade and manufacturing.
In 1737, King Augustus III of Poland bought the town from Lubomirska. The King used to stop in the Hoyerswerda Castle during his travels from Dresden to Warsaw; the Battle of Hoyerswerda occurred nearby in 1759 during the Seven Years' War. In 1815, Hoyerswerda became part of the Prussian Province of Silesia. In 1871, with Prussia it became part of the German Empire. In 1873 a new railway between Hoyerswerda and Ruhland opened, it had a positive effect on the economic development of the city. In 1912, the Domowina, the organisation of the Sorbs, was founded in the city. In 1918, the Sorbs protested here against the policy of Germanisation; the town became part of the Prussian Province of Lower Silesia in 1919. At the end of the Second World War the town was declared a core centre of German defence and was therefore damaged; the invading Soviet Red Army set the town on fire. It became part of Saxony again after the war, but from 1952 until 1990, when the states of East Germany were abolished, it was administered by the Bezirk of Cottbus.
During the GDR period, Hoyerswerda became an important industrial town. The lignite processing enterprise "Schwarze Pumpe" was established in 1955. From 1957, the demand for new living space rose dramatically. In the following years, 10 new living areas were established with tens of thousands of apartments being built. In 1981, the city reached its maximum number of inhabitants, with 71,054 residents. At that time, more children per inhabitant were born in Hoyerswerda than anywhere else in the GDR. Upon reunification in 1990, the people of the city decided to become part of the reconstituted state of Saxony. With the end of the GDR and the reorganisation of the East German economy, many enterprises in the industrial region of Hoyerswerda were scaled down or closed. In 1991 multiple xenophobic attacks targeted immigrant workers from the Far East as well as asylum seekers from Asia and Eastern Europe. A hostel accommodating asylum seekers was attacked and petrol bombs were thrown. Media coverage of the unrest shocked many in Germany and abroad.
Between 1993 and 1998, several smaller villages became part of the city, but the n
The Rif War was an armed conflict fought from 1920 to 1927 between the colonial power Spain and the Berber tribes of the Rif mountainous region. Led by Abd el-Krim, the Riffians at first inflicted several defeats on the Spanish forces by using guerrilla tactics and captured European weapons. After France's military intervention against Abd el-Krim's forces and the major landing of Spanish troops at Al Hoceima, considered the first amphibious landing in history to involve the use of tanks and aircraft, Abd el-Krim surrendered to the French and was taken into exile. In 1909, Rifian tribes aggressively confronted Spanish workers of the iron mines of the Rif, near Melilla, which led to the intervention of the Spanish Army; the military operations in Jebala, in the Moroccan West, began in 1911 with the Larache Landing. Spain worked to pacify a large part of the most violent areas until 1914, a slow process of consolidation of frontiers that lasted until 1919 due to World War I; the following year, after the signing of the Treaty of Fez, the northern Moroccan area was adjudicated to Spain as a protectorate.
The Riffian populations resisted the Spanish, unleashing a conflict that would last for several years. In 1921, the Spanish troops suffered the catastrophic Disaster of Annual, the biggest defeat in the history of Spain, in addition to a rebellion led by Rifian leader Abd el-Krim; as a result, the Spanish retreated to a few fortified positions while Abd el-Krim created an entire independent state: the Republic of the Rif. The development of the conflict and its end coincided with the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, who took on command of the campaign from 1924 to 1927. In addition, after the Battle of Uarga in 1925, the French intervened in the conflict and established a joint collaboration with Spain that culminated in the Alhucemas landing which proved a turning point. By 1926 the area had been pacified; the Rif War is still considered controversial among historians. Some see in it a harbinger of the decolonization process in North Africa. Others consider it one of the last colonial wars, as it was the decision of the Spanish to conquer the Rif — nominally part of their Moroccan protectorate but de facto independent — that catalyzed the entry of France in 1924.
The Rif War left a deep memory both in Morocco. The Riffian insurgency of the 1920s can be interpreted as a precursor to the Algerian war of independence, which took place three decades later. During the early 20th century, Morocco was divided into protectorates ruled by Spain; the Rif region had been assigned to Spain, but given that the Sultans of Morocco had been unable to exert control over the region, Spanish sovereignty over the Rif was theoretical. For centuries, the Berber tribes of the Rif had fought off any attempt of outsiders to impose control on them. Though nominally Muslim, the tribes of the Rif had continued many pagan animist practices, such as worshipping water spirits and forest spirits. Attempts by the Moroccan sultans to impose orthodox Islam on the Rif had been resisted by the tribesmen. For centuries, Europeans had seen the Rif mountains and people on the mountains from ships in the Mediterranean Sea, but no European had ventured into the area. Walter Burton Harris, the Morocco correspondent for The Times, who covered the war, wrote that as late as 1912 only "one or two Europeans had been able to visit the cedar forests that lie south of Fez.
A few had traveled in the southern Atlas and pushed on into the Sus...and, all". As Harris wrote, the Berbers "were as inhospitable to the Arab as they were to the foreigner", killed any outsiders who ventured into their territory. Vincent Sheean, who covered the war for The New York Times, wrote that the Rif was a beautiful countryside of "Crimson mountains flung against a sky of hieratic blue, gorges magnificent and terrifying, peaceful green valleys between protecting precipices", a place that reminded him of his native Colorado; the Rif was rich in high-grade iron, which could be extracted via open pit mining. The promise of the Spanish state collecting revenues in the form of taxes and royalties from iron mining here was incentive for it to bring the Rif under its control; the Crown granted the concession to mine iron in the Rif to the millionaire Don Horacio Echevarrieta. By 1920 he had brought out 800,000 tons of valuable high grade iron through inexpensive open pit mining. Though profitable, the iron mining caused much environmental damage and required the displacement of the native people.
As they received no share of the profits, the Rifians soon began to oppose the mining in their territory. When King Alfonso XIII of Spain ascended to the throne in 1886, Spain was considered a world power, with colonies in the Americas, Africa and the Pacific, but in the Spanish–American War, Spain lost Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, in 1899 it sold the Mariana and Caroline Islands to Germany, retaining only some footholds on the Moroccan coast and Spanish Guinea. To compensate for the lost empire in the Americas and Asia, there emerged a powerful africanist faction in Spain led by Alfonso, who wanted a new empire in Africa; the Roman Catholic Church was politically powerful in Spain, much of the Spanish clergy preached the need for new crusade to continue the Reconquista by conquering Morocco, thus adding their voices to the africanist choir. For all these reasons, Spain began pushing into the Rif in 1909; the Berber tribesmen had a long tradition of fierce fighting skills, combined with high standards of fieldcraft and marksmanship.
They were capably led by Abd el-Krim, who showed b