Lomé is the capital and largest city of Togo. It has an urban population of 837,437 while there were 1,570,283 permanent residents in its metropolitan area as of the 2011 census. Located on the Gulf of Guinea, Lomé is the country's administrative and industrial center, which includes an oil refinery, its chief port, where it exports coffee, cocoa and palm kernels. Lomé is not to be confused with the so-called federal capital district because it serves categorically as the administrative capital of the Togolese Republic including the regional and district level divisions called Maritime Region and Golfe Prefecture respectively; the Ewes in Ghana and Togo who first settled here preferred it to be so, to prevent them from taking the necessary steps towards the gaining of independence. The city was founded by the Ewes and thereafter in the 19th century by German and African traders, becoming the capital of Togoland in 1897; the city's population grew in the second half of the 20th century. The city had 30,000 inhabitants in 1950: by 1960 the population had reached 80,000, increasing to 200,000 by 1970.
Since 1975, investments had been targeted for development. At the same time, which have an important role in serving the suburbs of the city, deteriorated however. Market gardening around the city increased, spurred by growing unemployment, rural migration and the demand for vegetables. Market gardening, first extended to the north, is carried on along the beach, planting hedges provides protection; the various studies of the land market of the city show that the areas are quite heterogeneous, combining opulent villas and modest housing, without social and spatial division of the city. Other problems experienced by Lomé are related to garbage collection, the fight against unhealthy urban living conditions has become a priority of the city and its inhabitants. Lomé is surrounded by a lagoon to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the south, the village of Bè to the east and the border of Aflao, Ghana to the West; the city has seen massive growth in recent times due to an oil refinery in the east. Neighborhoods in Lomé include Ablogamé, Amoutivé, Bé, Dékon, Kodjoviakopé, Noukafou, Nyékonakpoé, Tokoin and Xédranawoe.
Neighbourhoods in the north of the city are separated from the Lomé is recognized by the Togolese government as a Municipal Greater Urban Area. Cities and towns in the Greater Lomé Metropolitan Area include: Aflao, Agbalépédogan, Akodésséwa, Anfamé, Kanyikopé, Kélékougan, Lomé II, Adidogome and Totsivi. Services of the Municipality of Lomé far beyond the boundaries of the Gulf and the town north and east of the city. Lomé has a tropical savanna climate despite its latitude close to the equator; the capital of Togo is dry with an annual average rainfall of 800–900 mm and on average 59 rainy days per year. Despite this, the city experiences heavy fog most of the year and receives a total of 2330 bright sunshine hours annually; the annual mean temperature is above 27.5 °C but heat is constant as monthly mean temperatures range from 24.9 °C in July, the least warm month of the year to 29.6 °C in February and in April, the hottest months of the year. The Lomé Convention is a trade and aid agreement between the European Union and 71 African and Pacific countries.
It was first signed on 28 February 1975, in Lomé. The first Lomé Convention, which came into force in April 1976, was designed to provide a new framework of cooperation between the European Community and developing ACP countries, in particular former British, Dutch and French colonies, it had two main aspects. It provided for most ACP agricultural and mineral exports to enter the EC free of duty. Preferential access based on a quota system was agreed for products, such as sugar and beef, in competition with EC agriculture. Secondly, the EC committed to the ECU for 3 billion in investment in the ACP countries; the convention was renewed three times. Lomé II increased the investment expenditure for the ECU to 5.5 billion. Lomé III came into force in March 1985 and May 1986, expired in 1990. Lomé IV was signed in December 1989, its trade provisions cover ten years, 1990 to 1999. Aid and investment commitments for the first five years amounted to 12 billion. In all, some 70 ACP states are party to Lomé IV, compared with the 46 signatories of Lomé I.
The Lomé Peace Accord between the warring parties in the civil war in Sierra Leone was signed in Lomé. With the assistance of the international community, Sierra Leone President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah and Revolutionary United Front leader Foday Sankoh signed the Peace Accord on 7 July 1999. However, the agreement did not last and the Sierra Leone Civil War continued for two more years. Located 200 kilometres from Accra, Ghana and 150 kilometres from Cotonou, Lomé is an important port, including a free trade zone opened in 1968, it exports phosphates, cocoa and palm oil, much of the transit going to the neighbouring countries of Ghana, Mali and Burkina Faso. The port holds an oil refinery; the city in general has great potential. However, political instability that began to surface in the passing years and continues today has affected the country's tourism sector. In 2003, the country received 57,539 visitors, an increase of 1% compared to 2002. 22% of tourists came f
Aimé Fernand David Césaire was a Francophone and French poet and politician from Martinique. He was "one of the founders of the négritude movement in Francophone literature", his works included Une Tempête, a response to Shakespeare's play The Tempest, Discours sur le colonialisme, an essay describing the strife between the colonizers and the colonized. His works have been translated into many languages. Aimé Césaire was born in Basse-Pointe, Martinique, in 1913, his father was a tax inspector and his mother was a dressmaker. He still learned to read and write, his family moved to the capital of Martinique, Fort-de-France, in order for Césaire to attend the only secondary school on the island, Lycée Schoelcher. He considered himself of Igbo descent from Nigeria, considered his first name Aimé a retention of an Igbo name. Césaire traveled to Paris to attend the Lycée Louis-le-Grand on an educational scholarship. In Paris, he passed the entrance exam for the École Normale Supérieure in 1935 and created the literary review L'Étudiant noir with Léopold Sédar Senghor and Léon Damas.
Upon returning home to Martinique in 1936, Césaire began work on his long poem Cahier d'un retour au pays natal, a vivid and powerful depiction of the ambiguities of Caribbean life and culture in the New World. Césaire married fellow Martinican student Suzanne Roussi in 1937. Together they moved back to Martinique in 1939 with their young son. Césaire became a teacher at the Lycée Schoelcher in Fort-de-France, where he taught Frantz Fanon, becoming a great influence for Fanon as both a mentor and contemporary. Césaire served as an inspiration for, but did not teach, writer Édouard Glissant; the years of World War II were ones of great intellectual activity for the Césaires. In 1941, Aimé Césaire and Suzanne Roussi founded the literary review Tropiques, with the help of other Martinican intellectuals such as René Ménil and Aristide Maugée, in order to challenge the cultural status quo and alienation that characterized Martinican identity at the time. Césaire's many run-ins with censorship did not deter him, from being an outspoken defendant of Martinican identity.
He became close to French surrealist poet André Breton, who spent time in Martinique during the war. In 1947, his book-length poem Cahier d'un retour au pays natal, which had first appeared in the Parisian periodical Volontés in 1939 after rejection by a French book publisher, was published; the book mixes poetry and prose to express Césaire's thoughts on the cultural identity of black Africans in a colonial setting. Breton contributed a laudatory introduction to this 1947 edition, saying that the "poem is nothing less than the greatest lyrical monument of our times." In 1945, with the support of the French Communist Party, Césaire was elected mayor of Fort-de-France and deputy to the French National Assembly for Martinique. He was one of the principal drafters of the 1946 law on departmentalizing former colonies, a role for which pro-independence politicians have criticized him. Like many left-wing intellectuals in 1930s and 1940s France, Césaire looked toward the Soviet Union as a source of progress and human rights.
He grew disillusioned with Communism, after the Soviet Union's 1956 suppression of the Hungarian revolution. He announced his resignation from the PCF in a text entitled Lettre à Maurice Thorez. In 1958 Césaire founded the Parti Progressiste Martiniquais, his writings during this period reflect his passion for social engagement. He wrote Discours sur le colonialisme, a denunciation of European colonial racism and hypocrisy, republished in the French review Présence Africaine in 1955. In 1960, he published Toussaint Louverture, based on the life of the Haitian revolutionary. In 1969, he published the first version of Une Tempête, a radical adaptation of Shakespeare's play The Tempest for a black audience. Césaire served as President of the Regional Council of Martinique from 1983 to 1988, he retired from politics in 2001. In 2006, he refused to meet the leader of the Union for a Popular Movement, Nicolas Sarkozy, a probable contender at the time for the 2007 presidential election, because the UMP had voted for the 2005 French law on colonialism.
This law required teachers and textbooks to "acknowledge and recognize in particular the positive role of the French presence abroad in North Africa, a law considered by many as a eulogy to colonialism and French actions during the Algerian War. President Jacques Chirac had the controversial law repealed. On 9 April 2008, Césaire had serious heart troubles and was admitted to Pierre Zobda Quitman hospital in Fort-de-France, he died on 17 April 2008. Césaire was accorded the honor of a state funeral, held at the Stade de Dillon in Fort-de-France on 20 April. French President Nicolas Sarkozy did not make a speech. Pierre Aliker, who served for many years as deputy mayor under Césaire, gave the funeral oration. Martinique's airport at Le Lamentin was renamed Martinique Aimé Césaire International Airport on 15 January 2007. A national commemoration ceremony was held on 6 April 2011, as a plaque in Césaire's name was inaugurated in the Panthéon in Paris; each year links to its corresponding " in poetry" article for poetry, or " in literature" article for othe
University of Paris
The University of Paris, metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was a university in Paris, active 1150–1793, 1806–1970. Emerging around 1150 as a corporation associated with the cathedral school of Notre Dame de Paris, it was considered the second oldest university in Europe. Chartered in 1200 by King Philip II of France and recognised in 1215 by Pope Innocent III, it was often nicknamed after its theological College of Sorbonne, in turn founded by Robert de Sorbon and chartered by French King Saint Louis around 1257. Internationally reputed for its academic performance in the humanities since the Middle Ages – notably in theology and philosophy – it introduced several academic standards and traditions that have endured since and spread internationally, such as doctoral degrees and student nations. Vast numbers of popes, royalty and intellectuals were educated at the University of Paris. A few of the colleges of the time are still visible close to Pantheon and Luxembourg Gardens: Collège des Bernardins, Hotel de Cluny, College Sainte Barbe, College d'Harcourt, Cordeliers.
In 1793, during the French Revolution, the university was closed and by Item-27 of the Revolutionary Convention, the college endowments and buildings were sold. A new University of France replaced it in 1806 with four independent faculties: the Faculty of Humanities, the Faculty of Law, the Faculty of Science, the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Theology. In 1970, following the May 1968 events, the university was divided into 13 autonomous universities. Although all the thirteen universities that resulted of the original University of Paris split can be considered its inheritors, just three universities of the post-1968 universities embodied direct faculties successors while inheriting the name "Sorbonne", as well as its physical location in the Latin Quarter: the Pantheon-Sorbonne University. From 2010, University of Paris successors started to reorganise themselves into different groups of universities and institutions that were upgraded to "pôles de recherche et d'enseignement supérieur".
As a result, various university groups exist in the Paris area, among them Sorbonne Paris Cité, Sorbonne Universities, the University of Paris-Saclay, Paris Lumiéres, Paris-Seine, so on. In January 2018, two of the inheritors of the old University of Paris, Paris-Sorbonne University and Pierre and Marie Curie University, merged into a single university called Sorbonne University. In 2019, two other inheritors of the University of Paris, namely Paris Diderot University and Paris Descartes University, are expected to merge. In 1150, the future University of Paris was a student-teacher corporation operating as an annex of the Notre-Dame cathedral school; the earliest historical reference to it is found in Matthew of Paris' reference to the studies of his own teacher and his acceptance into "the fellowship of the elect Masters" there in about 1170, it is known that Pope Innocent III completed his studies there in 1182 at the age of 21. The corporation was formally recognised as an "Universitas" in an edict by King Philippe-Auguste in 1200: in it, among other accommodations granted to future students, he allowed the corporation to operate under ecclesiastic law which would be governed by the elders of the Notre-Dame Cathedral school, assured all those completing courses there that they would be granted a diploma.
The university had four faculties: Arts, Medicine and Theology. The Faculty of Arts was the lowest in rank, but the largest, as students had to graduate there in order to be admitted to one of the higher faculties; the students were divided into four nationes according to language or regional origin: France, Normandy and England. The last came to be known as the Alemannian nation. Recruitment to each nation was wider than the names might imply: the English-German nation included students from Scandinavia and Eastern Europe; the faculty and nation system of the University of Paris became the model for all medieval universities. Under the governance of the Church, students wore robes and shaved the tops of their heads in tonsure, to signify they were under the protection of the church. Students followed the rules and laws of the Church and were not subject to the king's laws or courts; this presented problems for the city of Paris, as students ran wild, its official had to appeal to Church courts for justice.
Students were very young, entering the school at 13 or 14 years of age and staying for six to 12 years. Three schools were famous in Paris: the palatine or palace school, the school of Notre-Dame, that of Sainte-Geneviève Abbey; the decline of royalty brought about the decline of the first. The other two did not have much visibility in the early centuries; the glory of the palatine school doubtless eclipsed theirs, until it gave way to them. These two centres were much frequented and many of their masters were esteemed for their learning; the first renowned professor at the school of Ste-Geneviève was Hubold, who lived in the tenth century. Not content with the courses at Liège, he continued his studies at Paris, entered or allied himself with the chapter of Ste-Geneviève, attracted many pupils via his teaching. Distinguished professors from the school of Notre-Dame in the eleventh century incl
An ambassador is an official envoy a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and temporary diplomatic assignment. The word is often used more liberally for persons who are known, without national appointment, to represent certain professions and fields of endeavor such as sales. An ambassador is the ranking government representative stationed in a foreign capital; the host country allows the ambassador control of specific territory called an embassy, whose territory and vehicles are afforded diplomatic immunity in the host country. Under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, an ambassador has the highest diplomatic rank. Countries may choose to maintain diplomatic relations at a lower level by appointing a chargé d'affaires in place of an ambassador; the equivalent to an ambassador exchanged among members of the Commonwealth of Nations are known as High Commissioners.
The "ambassadors" of the Holy See are known as Apostolic Nuncios. The term is derived from Middle English ambassadour, Anglo-French ambassateur of Latin origin from the word Ambaxus-Ambactus, meaning servant or minister; the first known usage of the term was recorded around the 14th century. The foreign government to which an ambassador is assigned must first approve the person. In some cases, the foreign government might reverse its approval by declaring the diplomat a persona non grata, i.e. an unacceptable person. This kind of declaration results in recalling the ambassador to their home nation. In accordance with the Congress of Vienna of 1815 and the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, the ambassador and embassy staff are granted diplomatic immunity and personal safety while living abroad. Due to the advent of modern technologies, today's world is a much smaller place in relative terms. With this in mind, it is considered important that the nations of the world have at least a small staff living in foreign capitals in order to aid travelers and visitors from their home nation.
As an officer of the foreign service, an ambassador is expected to protect the citizens of their home country in the host country. Another result of the increase in foreign travel is the growth of trade between nations. For most countries, the national economy is now part of the global economy; this means increased opportunities to trade with other nations. When two nations are conducting a trade, it is advantageous to both parties to have an ambassador and a small staff living in the other land, where they act as an intermediary between cooperative businesses. One of the cornerstones of foreign diplomatic missions is to work for peace; this task can grow into a fight against international terrorism, the drug trade, international bribery, human trafficking. Ambassadors help stop these acts; these activities are important and sensitive and are carried out in coordination with the Defense Ministry of the state and the head of the nation. The rise of the modern diplomatic system was a product of the Italian Renaissance.
The use of ambassadors became a political strategy in Italy during the 17th century. The political changes in Italy altered the role of ambassadors in diplomatic affairs; because many of the states in Italy were small in size, they were vulnerable to larger states. The ambassador system was used to protect the more vulnerable states; this practice spread to Europe during the Italian Wars. The use and creation of ambassadors during the 15th century in Italy has had long-term effects on Europe and, in turn, the world's diplomatic and political progression. Europe still uses the same terms of ambassador rights as they had established in the 16th century, concerning the rights of the ambassadors in host countries as well as the proper diplomatic procedures. An ambassador was used as a representative of the state in which they are from to negotiate and disseminate information in order to keep peace and establish relationships with other states; this attempt was employed in the effort to maintain peaceful relations with nations and make alliances during difficult times.
The use of ambassadors today is widespread. States and non-state actors use diplomatic representatives to deal with any problems that occur within the international system. Ambassadors now live overseas or within the country in which it is assigned to for long periods of time so that they are acquainted with the culture and local people; this way they are more politically effective and trusted, enabling them to accomplish goals that their host country desires. The Congress of Vienna of 1815 formalized the system of diplomatic rank under international law: Ambassadors are diplomats of the highest rank, formally representing the head of state, with plenipotentiary powers. In modern usage, most ambassadors on foreign postings as head of mission carry the full title of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. "Ordinary" ambassadors and non-plenipotentiary status are used, although they may be encountered in certain circumstances. The only difference between an extraordinary ambassador and an ordinary ambassador is that while the former's mission is permanent, the latter serves only for a specific purpose.
Among European powers, the ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary was regarded as the personal representative of the Sovereign. The custom of dispatching ambassadors to the h
Togo the Togolese Republic, is a country in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north. The sovereign state extends south to the Gulf of Guinea. Togo covers 57,000 square kilometres, making it one of the smallest countries in Africa, with a population of 7.6 million. From the 11th to the 16th century, various tribes entered the region from all directions. From the 16th century to the 18th century, the coastal region was a major trading center for Europeans to search for slaves, earning Togo and the surrounding region the name "The Slave Coast". In 1884, Germany declared a region including present-day Togo. After World War I, rule over Togo was transferred to France. Togo gained its independence from France in 1960. In 1967, Gnassingbé Eyadéma led a successful military coup d'état after which he became president of an anti-communist, single-party state. In 1993, Eyadéma faced multiparty elections, which were marred by irregularities, won the presidency three times.
At the time of his death, Eyadéma was the longest-serving leader in modern African history, having been president for 38 years. In 2005, his son Faure Gnassingbé was elected president. Togo is a tropical, sub-Saharan nation, whose economy depends on agriculture, with a climate that provides good growing seasons. While the official language is French, many other languages are spoken in Togo those of the Gbe family; the largest religious group in Togo consists of those with indigenous beliefs, there are significant Christian and Muslim minorities. Togo is a member of the United Nations, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone and Economic Community of West African States. Archaeological finds indicate that ancient tribes were able to produce process iron; the name Togo is translated from the Ewe language as "land where lagoons lie". Not much is known of the period before arrival of the Portuguese in 1490. During the period from the 11th century to the 16th century, various tribes entered the region from all directions: the Ewé from the east, the Mina and Gun from the west.
Most of them settled in coastal areas. The slave trade began in the 16th century, for the next two hundred years the coastal region was a major trading centre for Europeans in search of slaves, earning Togo and the surrounding region the name "The Slave Coast". In 1884, a paper was signed at Togoville with the King Mlapa III, whereby Germany claimed a protectorate over a stretch of territory along the coast and extended its control inland, its borders were defined after the capture of hinterland by German forces and signing agreements with France and Britain. In 1905, this became the German colony of Togoland; the local population was forced to work, cultivate cotton and cocoa and pay high taxes. A railway and the port of Lomé were built for export of agricultural products; the Germans introduced modern techniques of cultivation of cocoa and cotton and developed the infrastructure. During the First World War, Togoland was invaded by Britain and France, proclaiming the Anglo-French condominium.
On 7 December 1916 the condominium collapsed and Togo was divided into British and French zones. 20 July 1922 Great Britain received the League of Nations mandate to govern the western part of Togo and France to govern the eastern part. In 1945, the country received the right to send three representatives to the French parliament. After World War II, these mandates became UN Trust Territories; the residents of British Togoland voted to join the Gold Coast as part of the new independent nation of Ghana in 1957. French Togoland became an autonomous republic within the French Union in 1959, while France retained the right to control the defense, foreign relations and finances; the Togolese Republic was proclaimed on 27 April 1960. In the first presidential elections in 1961, Sylvanus Olympio became the first president, gaining 100% of the vote in elections boycotted by the opposition. On 9 April 1961 the Constitution of the Togolese Republic was adopted, according to which the supreme legislative body was the National Assembly of Togo.
In December 1961, leaders of opposition parties were arrested because they were accused of the preparation of an anti-government conspiracy. A decree was issued on the dissolution of the opposition parties. Olympio tried to reduce dependence on France by establishing cooperation with the United States, Great Britain and Germany, he rejected efforts of French soldiers who were demobilized after the Algerian War and tried to get a position in the Togolese army. These factors led to a military coup on 13 January 1963, during which he was assassinated by a group of soldiers under the direction of Sergeant Gnassingbé Eyadéma. A State of emergency was declared in Togo; the military handed over power to an interim government led by Nicolas Grunitzky. In May 1963 Grunitzky was elected President of the Republic; the new leadership pursued a policy of developing relations with France. His main aim was to dampen the divisions between north and south, promulgate a new constitution, introduce a multiparty system.
Four years on 13 January 1967, Eyadéma Gnassingbé overthrew Grunitzky in a bloodless coup and assumed the presidency. He created the Rally of the Togolese People Party, banned activities of other political parties and introduced a one-party system in November 1969, he was reelected in 1979 and 1986. In 1983, the privatization program launched and in 1991 other political parties were allowed. In 1993, the EU froze the partnership, describing Eyadema's re-ele
A postgraduate diploma is a postgraduate qualification awarded after a university degree. It can be contrasted with a graduate diploma. Countries that award postgraduate diplomas include but are not limited to Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Hong Kong, Spain, South Africa, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Republic of Panama the Philippines, Russia, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Sri Lanka and Trinidad and Tobago. Level of education and recognition differ per issuing country. Australian equivalent of post graduate diploma is called Graduate Diploma. AQF level of the graduate diploma is eight. New Zealand universities offer postgraduate diplomas. NZQA level of post graduate diploma is eight. A postgraduate diploma indicates master's-level studies, it constitutes as the first year of a two-year master's degree. A university degree is required. In Canada, a postgraduate certificate program consists of two to three semesters, which can be completed in less than one year in some instances.
A University's degree or a master's degree is required to be accepted in this type of program. It offers the advantage of to focus on a concise subject, it is recommended for students wishing to enhance their professional skills as it concentrates on a more practical application in order to enter the labor market. Depending on the province, the title can vary: Post-Graduate Diploma, Post-Graduate Certification, Post-Baccalaureate or D. E. S. S.. See links to the Canadian education system. In India, there are a number of universities offering postgraduate diploma programs; these post-graduate diploma programs are one-year programs that are divided into two to four semesters, depending on hands-on training, field work, credit requirements. These are master's level programs; these programs are targeted to offer professional education and training to the candidates for the better employment opportunity and industry readiness. It is designed to provide in-depth exposure to concepts, scientific principles, implementation methodology of new approaches.
Post-graduate diplomas in Management, Post-graduate diploma in Banking & Finance, Remote Sensing & GIS, Industrial Maintenance Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing Technology, are examples of courses offered in India. Certain institutes provide postgraduate diploma programs which satisfies the credit requirement for a master's program with increased number of lower credit courses for 2 years, this programs are provisionally considered equivalent to a master's level. Postgraduate diploma programs are meant for those with a bachelor's degree to gain an advanced technical grasp and to those with a master's degree to enhance their interdisciplinary/translation grasp. Referred to as PgD, the postgraduate diploma has been awarded by the Higher Education and Training Awards Council, since June 2005 in institutions associated with and accredited by the council; this postgraduate qualification is awarded for a wide range of programmes in the sciences and humanities, among others. Entry requirement is a Level 8 Honours Degree in line with EQF standards, including Bachelor's degree or vocational degrees, such as the Meister or Staatlich Geprüfter Betriebswirt in Germany.
Most institutions operate under the Recognition of Prior Experiential Learning scheme meaning applicants who do not meet the normal academic requirements may be considered based on publications, relevant work or research experience, which will involve an assessment centre or interview process. In Ireland, the vast majority of postgraduate diplomas require the same duration and level of studies as a Master's degree, namely EQF Level 9, yet additional coursework or an independent research project replace the thesis. While progression to doctoral study is only possible at selected universities in Ireland, the Irish postgraduate diploma is accepted for entry to EQF Level 8 doctoral degree's in most countries. In Portugal a postgraduate diploma can be awarded under two circumstances: 1) as part of an independent program of studies; the postgraduate diploma is a postgraduate academic qualification taken after a bachelor's degree. It is awarded by a university or a graduate school, it takes two or more study terms to complete, a wide variety of courses are offered.
It is possible for graduate diploma holders to progress to a master's degree. Only postgraduate diplomas that are registered with the Ministry of Education are recognised by the industry; the postgraduate diploma is awarded by a variety of Spain universities and follows the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System grading system. For example, Pablo de Olavide University offers an English-language PgDip in the Integral Protection of Human Rights Defenders and Social Activists in cooperation with Protection International; the University of the Basque Country offers an English-language PgDip in International Election Observation and Electoral Assistance, run in cooperation with many organisations in the field of election monitoring, such as The Carter Center, Electoral Reform I
Algeria the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the world's largest Arab country, the largest in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, to the north by the Mediterranean Sea; the country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 1,541 communes. It has the highest human development index of all non-island African countries. Ancient Algeria has known many empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Carthaginians, Vandals, Umayyads, Idrisid, Rustamid, Zirid, Almoravids, Spaniards and the French colonial empire. Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a middle power.
It supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe, energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world and the second largest in Africa, while it has the 9th largest reserves of natural gas. Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria has one of the largest defence budget on the continent. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the United Nations and is a founding member of the Arab Maghreb Union. On 2 April 2019, president Abdelaziz Bouteflika resigned after nearly 20 years in power, following pressure from the country’s army after mass protests against Bouteflika's campaign for a fifth term; the country's name derives from the city of Algiers. The city's name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazā'ir, a truncated form of the older Jazā'ir Banī Mazghanna, employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found.
Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques. Tools of this era, starting about 30,000 BC, are called Aterian; the earliest blade industries in North Africa are called Iberomaurusian. This industry appears to have spread throughout the coastal regions of the Maghreb between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. Neolithic civilization developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghreb as early as 11,000 BC or as late as between 6000 and 2000 BC; this life, richly depicted in the Tassili n'Ajjer paintings, predominated in Algeria until the classical period. The mixture of peoples of North Africa coalesced into a distinct native population that came to be called Berbers, who are the indigenous peoples of northern Africa. From their principal center of power at Carthage, the Carthaginians expanded and established small settlements along the North African coast.
These settlements served as market towns as well as anchorages. As Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically. Berber civilization was at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing and political organization supported several states. Trade links between Carthage and the Berbers in the interior grew, but territorial expansion resulted in the enslavement or military recruitment of some Berbers and in the extraction of tribute from others. By the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 BC after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War, they succeeded in obtaining control of much of Carthage's North African territory, they minted coins bearing the name Libyan, used in Greek to describe natives of North Africa. The Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars.
In 146 BC the city of Carthage was destroyed. As Carthaginian power waned, the influence of Berber leaders in the hinterland grew. By the 2nd century BC, several large but loosely administered Berber kingdoms had emerged. Two of them were established behind the coastal areas controlled by Carthage. West of Numidia lay Mauretania, which extended across the Moulouya River in modern-day Morocco to the Atlantic Ocean; the high point of Berber civilization, unequaled until the coming of the Almohads and Almoravids more than a millennium was reached during the reign of Masinissa in the 2nd century BC. After Masinissa's death in 148 BC, the Berber kingdoms were reunited several times. Masinissa's line survived until 24 AD, when the remaining Berber territory was annexed to the Roman Empire. For several centuries Algeria was ruled by the Romans. Like the rest of No