Denis Sassou Nguesso
Denis Sassou Nguesso is a Congolese politician, the President of the Republic of the Congo since 1997. During his first period as President, he headed the single-party régime of the Congolese Party of Labour for 12 years. Under pressure from international sources, he introduced multiparty politics in 1990 and was stripped of executive powers by the 1991 National Conference, remaining in office as a ceremonial head of state, he was defeated, placing third. Sassou Nguesso was an opposition leader for five years before returning to power during the Second Civil War, in which his rebel forces ousted President Pascal Lissouba. Following a transitional period, he won the 2002 presidential election, which involved low opposition participation; the introduction of a new constitution, passed by referendum in 2015, enabled Sassou Nguesso to stand for another term. He was re-elected in the 2016 presidential election with a majority in the first round. Sassou Nguesso is backed by a variety of political parties, most the PCT.
He is the President of the PCT Central Committee. A member of the Mbochi tribe, Sassou Nguesso was born in Edou in the Oyo district in northern Congo in 1943, his parents are Émilienne Mouebara. Nguesso was the youngest child in the family, his father, Julien was a notable hunter chief in Edou. He received primary education in Fort Rousset, now Owando, he studied in Dolisie Normal College between 1956 and 1960. Joined the army in 1960 just before the country was granted independence, he received military training in Algeria. In 1962, he returned to Congo and was reassigned to active officers with the rank of second lieutenant, he received military training in Saint Maixent, graduating with the rank of lieutenant, before returning to join Congo's elite paratroop regiment. He was one of the first officers of the Airborne Group, the first paratroop battalion of the Congolese Army, created in 1965, he commanded the Airborne Group, the army and the Brazzaville Military Zone headed the Intelligence department of the State Security Services.
He became captain commander, was promoted to colonel and as army general. He had socialist leanings and supported the opposition to Fulbert Youlou in Les Trois Glorieuses of August 1963, he was part of the 1968 military coup that brought Marien Ngouabi to power, he was a founding member of the Congolese Party of Labor in December 1969. In 1970, Sassou Nguesso was made Director of Security and a minister in the new presidential council. During the extraordinary session of the Central Committee of the PCT, held from 5 to 12 December 1975, the party's political bureau was dissolved and a five-member Revolutionary Special Staff was established with Nguesso as one of its member; when Ngouabi was assassinated in March 1977, Nguesso played a key role in maintaining control heading the Military Committee of the Party that controlled the state until the succession of Colonel Joachim Yhombi-Opango. Sassou Nguesso was rewarded with a promotion to colonel and the post of vice-president of the CMP, he remained there until 5 February 1979, when Yhombi-Opango was forced from power in a technical coup, accused of corruption and political deviancy.
On 8 February, the CMP chose Nguesso as the new President, at the Third Extraordinary Congress of the PCT his position was unanimously approved on 27 March 1979. As the newly elected president, Sassou Nguesso negotiated loans from the International Monetary Fund and allowed foreign investors from France and the Americas to operate in the vital oil and mineral extraction operations, he traveled to Moscow in 1981 to sign a twenty-year friendship pact with the Soviet Union. Sassou Nguesso was re-elected for a five-year term as President of the PCT Central Committee and President of the Republic at the party's Third Ordinary Congress on 27–31 July 1984, he was Chairman of the Organization of African Unity from 1986 to 1987. In late 1987 he faced down a serious military revolt in the north of the country with French aid. At the PCT's Fourth Ordinary Congress on 26–31 July 1989, Sassou Nguesso was re-elected as President of the PCT Central Committee and President of the Republic. With the collapse of the socialist states of Eastern Europe, with influence from the French, Sassou Nguesso began to prepare the process of bringing the country to capitalism.
In December 1989 he announced the end of government control of the economy and declared a partial amnesty for political prisoners. Into the following year he attempted to improve the failing economic situation and reduce the outrageous levels of corruption. Starting in September 1990 political parties other than the PCT were allowed and Sassou Nguesso made a symbolic state visit to the United States of America, laying the grounds for a new series of conditional IMF loans that year. In February 1991, a national conference began; the conference, which concluded in June 1991, chose André Milongo as prime minister during the transitional period leading to scheduled elections in 1992. Milongo was given executive powers, leaving Sassou Nguesso as a figurehead president. Sassou Nguesso's power was so limited by the Conference that he was barred from travelling outside of Co
A fringe theory is an idea or viewpoint which differs from the accepted scholarship in its field. Fringe theories include the models and proposals of fringe science, as well as similar ideas in other areas of scholarship, such as the humanities; the term fringe theory is used in a narrower sense as a pejorative synonymous with pseudo-scholarship. Precise definitions that distinguish between held viewpoints, fringe theories, pseudo-scholarship are difficult to construct because of the demarcation problem. Issues of false balance or false equivalence can occur when fringe theories are presented as being equal to accepted theories. Fringe theories are ideas which depart from a prevailing or mainstream theory. A fringe theory is neither that of a respected minority; the term in general is closer to the popular understanding of the word theory—a hypothesis, guess, or uncertain idea—than to the concept of an established scientific theory. Although the term is used within the context of fringe science, fringe theories have been discussed in diverse areas of scholarship, including Biblical criticism, finance, law and politics.
They exist in fields of study which are themselves outside the mainstream, such as cryptozoology and parapsychology. Fringe theories meet with varying levels of academic acceptance. Financial journalist Alexander Davidson characterized fringe theories as "peddled by a small band of staunch supporters," but not without merit. Daniel N. Robinson described them as occupying "a limbo between the decisive dead end and the credible productive theory." However, the term is used pejoratively. In this sense, there is some overlap with other dismissive labels, such as pseudoarchaeology and pseudoscience. Describing ideas as fringe theories may be less pejorative than describing them as pseudoscholarship; such theories "explain" historical or political events as the work of a powerful secret organization — "a vast, preternaturally effective international conspiratorial network," according to Richard Hofstadter. The conspirators are possessed of "almost superhuman power and cunning," as described by historian Esther Webman.
Margaret Wertheim suggested that fringe theories should be treated in a manner similar to outsider art. In 2003 she curated an exhibit at the Santa Monica Museum of Art, dedicated to the work of fringe physicist Jim Carter. Wertheim wrote that a "credentialed physicist... can recognize a fringe theory by sight" when it comes in the form of an eccentrically formatted manuscript. However, it is difficult to distinguish between respected minority theories. A workable definition of what constitutes a fringe theory may not be possible; this is an aspect of the demarcation problem that occurs within the humanities. Geologist Steven Dutch approached the demarcation problem by dividing scientific ideas into three categories: fringe and center, based upon their adherence to scientific methodology and their level of acceptance. Authors, including Richard Duschl, expanded these categories. Under Duschl's system, a fringe theory is a mix of pseudoscience; the majority of fringe theories never become part of established scholarship.
Rejected ideas may help to refine mainstream thought, but most outside theories are incorrect and have no wider impact. Some ideas do receive wider acceptance until they are no longer viewed as fringe theories; such theories become the mainstream view. A known example is Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift, which served as the basis for the accepted model of plate tectonics. Other ideas which have made the transition include the germ theory of disease, Birkeland's explanation of the aurora and complexity theory in project management. Behavioral finance was described in a 2002 journal article as "at the fringe of... modern financial theory", but it has since been applied in many fields of business. Sometimes this change is not gradual. Writing for the New York Law Journal, Andrew Bluestone described how a single court case in New York changed the use of an obscure common law statute regarding attorney misconduct from a "fringe theory of law" to an accepted, mainstream cause for legal action in the state.
Former mainstream theories such as phlogiston and luminiferous aether may be superseded and relegated to the fringe. Such shifts between fringe theory and accepted theories are not always clear-cut. In 1963, Reuben Fine wrote that mainstream psychology had adopted aspects of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis but that many students of the discipline believed psychoanalysis to be a "lunatic fringe theory which has little to do with scientific psychology", psychoanalysis is now considered discredited, according to author Frederick Crews who stated, "if you consult psychology faculties in top American universities, you will find no one now who believes in the Freudian system of thought; as a research paradigm it’s pretty much dead." The news media may play a role in the popularization of fringe theories. The media sometimes reduce complex topics to two sides and frame issues in terms of an underdog challenger fighting the main
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Paris-Sorbonne University was a public research university in Paris, active from 1971 to 2017. It was the main inheritor of the Faculty of Humanities of the University of Paris. In 2018, it was merged with Pierre and Marie Curie University and some smaller entities to forming a new university called Sorbonne University. Paris-Sorbonne University was ranked as France's as well as one of the world's most prominent ones in the humanities. QS World University Rankings ranked it 13th in humanities internationally in 2010, 17th in 2011 and 2012. Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked it as France's highest reputed institution of higher education overall in 2012. Paris-Sorbonne University was one of the inheritors of the Faculty of Humanities of the University of Paris, which ceased to exist following student protests in May 1968; the Faculty of Humanities of was the main focus of the University of Paris, subsequently Paris-Sorbonne University was one of its main successors. It was a member of the Sorbonne University Group.
Paris-Sorbonne University enrolled about 24,000 students in 20 departments specialising in arts and languages, divided in 12 campuses throughout Paris. Seven of the campuses were situated in the historic Latin Quarter, including the historic Sorbonne university building, three in the Marais and Clignancourt respectively. In addition, the university maintained one campus in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Paris-Sorbonne University comprised France's prestigious communication and journalism school, CELSA, located in the Parisian suburb of Neuilly-sur-Seine. Paris-Sorbonne University maintained about 400 international agreements; as a successor of the faculty of humanities of the University of Paris, it was a founding member the Sorbonne University group, an alliance with the successor of the faculty of law and economics and of the faculty of science of the University of Paris. This group allowed Paris-Sorbonne University students to study several dual degrees in combinations. Two graduate certificates in law from Panthéon-Assas University were accessible for all the student members of the Sorbonne University group.
Paris-Sorbonne University merged with Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University into the Sorbonne University, effective from 1 January 2018. Mamadou Diouf, Senegalese professor of Western African history at Columbia University Ioan Petru Culianu, Romanian historian Shahrzad Rafati, Iranian-Canadian media entrepreneur Charlotte Casiraghi, fashion journalist Henri Guaino French politician Marie Drucker, French journalist Luc Ferry, French philosopher Soudabeh Fazaeli, Iranian seismologist, researcher and writer Philippe Barbarin, French Catholic Archbishop of Lyon and cardinal Hamad Bin Abdulaziz Al-Kawari Qatari diplomat Christiane Taubira, Minister of Justice of France Jean-Pierre Thiollet, French writer Caterina Magni Italian-French archaeologist Bernard Romain, French painter and sculptor Habib Tawa, Lebanese-French historian Samir Kassir, Lebanese-French professor of history at Saint-Joseph University Shunichi Yamaguchi, Japanese politician William Irigoyen, French journalist Donald Adamson, British historian Sorbonne University, its successor University of Paris, its predecessor Sorbonne Education in France Official website Paris-Sorbonne University Abu Dhabi Campus Site DIES
Pan-Africanism is a worldwide movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all indigenous and diasporan ethnic groups of sub-Saharan African descent. Based on a common fate going back to the Atlantic slave trade, the movement extends beyond continental Africans with a substantial support base among the African diaspora in the Caribbean, Latin America, the United States and Canada, it is based on the belief that unity is vital to economic and political progress and aims to "unify and uplift" people of sub-Saharan African descent. The ideology asserts that the fate of all sub-Saharan African countries are intertwined. At its core Pan-Africanism is a belief that “Sub-Saharan African people, both on the continent and in the diaspora; the Organization of African Unity was established in 1963 to safeguard the sovereignty and territorial integrity of its Member States and to promote global relations within the framework of the United Nations. The African Union Commission has its seat in Addis Ababa and the Pan-African Parliament has its seat in Johannesburg and Midrand.
Pan-Africanism stresses the need for "collective self-reliance". Pan-Africanism exists as a grassroots objective. Pan-African advocates include leaders such as Haile Selassie, Julius Nyerere, Ahmed Sékou Touré, Kwame Nkrumah, Thomas Sankara and Muammar Gaddafi, grassroots organizers such as Marcus Garvey and Malcolm X, academics such as W. E. B. Du Bois, others in the diaspora. Pan-Africanists believe that solidarity will enable the continent to fulfill its potential to independently provide for all its people. Crucially, an all-African alliance would empower African people globally; the realization of the Pan-African objective would lead to "power consolidation in Africa", which "would compel a reallocation of global resources, as well as unleashing a fiercer psychological energy and political assertion...that would unsettle social and political structures...in the Americas". Advocates of Pan-Africanism—i.e. "Pan-Africans" or "Pan-Africanists"—often champion socialist principles and tend to be opposed to external political and economic involvement on the continent.
Critics accuse the ideology of homogenizing the experience of people of African descent. They point to the difficulties of reconciling current divisions within countries on the continent and within communities in the diaspora; as a philosophy, Pan-Africanism represents the aggregation of the historical, spiritual, artistic and philosophical legacies of Africans from past times to the present. Pan-Africanism as an ethical system traces its origins from ancient times, promotes values that are the product of the African civilisations and the struggles against slavery, racism and neo-colonialism. Alongside a large number of slaves insurrections, by the end of the 18th century a political movement developed across the Americas and Africa that sought to weld disparate movements into a network of solidarity, putting an end to oppression. Another important political form of a religious Pan-Africanist worldview appeared in the form of Ethiopianism. In London, the Sons of Africa was a political group addressed by Quobna Ottobah Cugoano in the 1791 edition of his book Thoughts and Sentiments on the Evil of Slavery.
The group addressed meetings and organised letter-writing campaigns, published campaigning material and visited parliament. They wrote to figures such as Granville Sharp, William Pitt and other members of the white abolition movement, as well as King George III and the Prince of Wales, the future George IV. Modern Pan-Africanism began around the start of the 20th century; the African Association renamed the Pan-African Association, was established around 1897 by Henry Sylvester-Williams, who organized the First Pan-African Conference in London in 1900. With the independence of Ghana in March 1957, Kwame Nkrumah was elected as the first Prime Minister and President of the State. Nkrumah emerged as a major advocate for the unity of Independent Africa; the Ghanaian President embodied a political activist approach to pan-Africanism as he championed the "quest for regional integration of the whole of the African continent". This period represented a "Golden Age of high pan-African ambitions". Nkrumah’s pan-African principles intended for a union between the Independent African states upon a recognition of their commonality.
Pan-Africanism under Nkrumah evolved past the assumptions of a racially exclusive movement associated with black Africa, adopted a political discourse of regional unity In April 1958, Nkrumah hosted the first All-African Peoples' Conference in Accra, Ghana. The Conference invited delegates of major political leaders. With the exception of South Africa, all Independent States of the Continent attended: Egypt, Ghana, Libya, Morocco and Sudan; the Conference signified a monumental event in the pan-African movement, as it revealed a political and social union between those considered Arabic states and the black African regions. Further, the Conference espoused a common African Nationalist identity, among the States, of unity and anti-Imperialism. Frantz Fanon, freedom fighter and a member of the Algerian FLN party attended the conference as a delegate for Algeria. Considering the armed struggle of the FLN against French colonial rule, the attendees of the Conference agreed to support the struggle of those States under colonial oppression.