Irinjalakuda is a Municipal town in Thrissur district, India. Irinjalakuda is the headquarters of Mukundapuram Taluk. Irinjalakuda is known for the Koodalmanikyam Temple and the Thachudaya Kaimals who had princely status until 1971; the name Irinjalakuda has been derived from "Iru" and "Chaal". According to another legend, the origin of the name Irinjalakuda came from'Irinjalikoodal'.'Koodal' means merge, merging of two rivers. So it shows that Irinjalakuda may have developed, from'Irinjalikoodal', that derived from'Inangikoodal', means merge. At present there is no river in Irinjalakuda, only the myth of river. Irinjalakuda can be derived from'iru njyaala koda' i.e. donation of two worlds, what Mahabali is said to have done in the story of the Vaamanaavataaram. According to Hindu mythology, Irinjalakuda was created by sage Parasurama. According to Keralolpatthi, out of the 64 gramas established in Kerala, Irinjalakuda was the head of some of them. Irinjalakuda was one of the most prominent among these Gramas.
Boundaries of this grama extends up to Aloor in the east and Kakkathuruthi in the west and extended to Koodapuzha in the east. Like the other Gramas this'Grama' followed Sankara Smruthi. Another legend suggests that the origin of the name Irinjalakuda were heard, "Irunnu Salayil Koodai", "Virinja Alu Kuda". There is a huge Banyan tree still standing in the centre of the Irinjalakuda spreading the branches to the sky like an umbrella; the Thachudaya Kaimal is a spiritual dignitary of Kerala Hindus and the temporal ruler of the Koodalmanikyam Temple and its Estates. The line is mentioned in the Skanda Purana; the Arms of the Kaimal and that of the temple bear the insignia of a coiled conch-shell with the words'Manikkam Keralar'. With the 26th amendment of the Indian constitution in 1971, the Princely order in India was abolished and the Thachudaya Kaimals lost their position in the temple and its estates, it is now managed by a Trust managed by the District Collector although a vestige of former power lies in his being the chief trustee of the temple.
The Devaswom was allotted land to accommodate institutions such as the Christ College, for public use to facilitate development activities in the region. Much land that belonged to Koodalmanikyam was subjected to encroachment. In 1762 Maharaja Kingdom of Cochin formed Mukundapuram taluk by adding Mapranam nadu and parts of Nandilathu nadu to Mukundapuram nadu. In the last decade of the 18th Century the last Naduvazhi Nambiar of Mukundapuram nadu died and Sakthan Thampuran confiscated all the powers and properties of Mukundapuram Nambiar and Mapranam Nambiar. Sakthan Thampuran divided old Mukundapuram Taluk into six Proverties viz.1) Thazhekkad 2) Areepalam, 3)Mukundapuram 4) Mapranam 5)Palathungal 6)Pudukkad for administrative and revenue purposes. Five more proverties were added to Mukundapuram Taluk afterwards: Kodassery, Thirumukkulam ), Pathinettarayalam and Malayattur. Tipu Sultan's Army was based at Thazhekkad Proverty of Mukundapuram Taluk on 24 December 1789 to attack the Nedumkotta, situated in the middle of Kochi Kingdom and was known as Travancore lines and attacked KonurKottavathil in January 1790.
When new Chalakudy taluk was formed in 2013 by bifrurcating Mukundapuram taluk it lost more than 50% of its territory. As of 2011 India census, Irinjalakuda had a population of 51,585. Males constitute 48% of the population and females 52%. Irinjalakuda has an average literacy rate of 96%, much higher than the national average of 74.65%. While male literacy stands at 97.12%, female literacy is 94.56%. 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. Its St. Thomas Cathedral is the episcopal. Before the arrival of Tipu Sulthan to Mukundapuram Taluk in December 1789 the headquarters of Padruado Archbishops of Cranganore of Nazranis was at Pookkatt.. Sakthan Thampuran brought four Christian families for improving commerce and trade to the place known as ‘Chanthappura’; when they struck gold in this field, more of this community migrated from Kombara chantha and settled in the area and now it became one of the strongholds of this community. Besides Hindu and Christian communities this area consists of Muslims.
Karukulangara Narasimhaswamy Temple, north west side, about 1.5 km from the Irinjalakuda municipal bus stand, a famous and oldest temple of Irinjalakuda A prominent Kerala mathematician-astronomer Madhava who founded the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics was from Sangamagrama, a town in medieval Kerala believed to be the town of Irinjalakuda. Nagapattinam Chandrashekhara Vasanthakokilam a carnatic singer and actress, was born as Kamakshi in Irinjalakkuda, Cochin State of British India, the present Kerala In the 18th century, the ruler of Kingdom of Cochin, Sakthan Thampuran, brought four Christian families for improving commerce and trade to the place known as'Chanthappura' in Irinjalakuda. Economic development took place and Kochi Divan Shanmughan Chetty constructed a canal link known as'Shanmugham Canal'
Odanad was a feudal state in late medieval Kerala. It was established in the 11th century, disestablished in 1746 when it became part of Travancore after Venad King Marthanda Varma's northern expedition. At the time of its dissolution, it was composed of the present-day taluks of Mavelikkara, Chenganur in the Alappuzha district and Karunagapally in the Kollam district. In the 15th century, the capital of Odanad was moved from Kandiyoor-Muttom, Mavelikkara to Eruva and Krishnapuram, near Kayamkulam, which led to the state being called Kayamkulam. After this shift, Kayamkulam became the commercial centre of Odanad, while Mavelikkara remained its cultural centre. Odanad was controlled among whom the ruler of Kayamkulam was the most prominent. Today, the region is better known as Onattukara, the name used for one of the many revenue villages included in the Mavelikkara taluk; the Sri Krishna Swamy Temple in Eruva, located two kilometres north of Kayamkulam, is one of the prominent establishments in Onattukara.
The word Odanad is a transliteration of the Malayalam word ഓടനാട്, ōṭānāṭŭ, a portmanteau of ഓട, ōṭā, meaning boat, നാട്, nāṭŭ, meaning land, so Odanad means the land of boats. An alternative hypothesis is that the first part of the word derives from ഓടമുള, ōṭāmuḷa, meaning bamboo, that Odanad means the land of bamboo. Kerala Varma Valiya Koil Thampuran's Sanskrit work Mayura Sandesam describes Odanad as the land of vines. Mavelikkara, the capital of Odanad, is associated with Maveli, the central figure in the festival of Onam; the state was hence known as Onattukara. The state was metonymically referred to as Kayamkulam after the capital was moved to the city of Kayamkulam. Copper plate inscriptions in Thiruvalla, dated to the 11th century, mention Odanad and Mattom its capital; these inscriptions, along with the Unnuneeli Sandesam note the significance of Chennithala whips in Odanad. Most of the records of the rulers of Odanad come from the temple records of the Kandiyoor Sree Mahadeva Temple.
In 1743, Odanad was bordered by the feudal states of Pandalam, Elayadath, Vadakkumkur and Thrikkunnapuzha, according to records left by Julius Valentin van Gollenesse, Commander of Dutch Malabar at the time. Odanad was demarcated from Vadakkumkur by the southern road from the Kandiyoor Sree Mahadeva Temple, which formed Odanad's western border with Madathumkur; the eastern half of the temple was under the jurisdiction of Vadakkumkur, while the western half was in Odanad. Following the annexation of Quilon by King Marthanda Varma of the newly established Kingdom of Travancore, Odanad organised a confederacy to liberate Quilon and restore its ruler; the Northern Alliance of Odanad, Purakkad and Cochin succeeded in retaking Quilon and restoring its ruler. When the ruler of Quilon died in 1734, Odanad claimed the territory by virtue of adoption and took possession of it. Travancore still claimed Quilon for itself and war broke out in 1739; the Queen of Elayadath, restored by the Dutch Empire, attacked Travancore from the east, while Odanad moved in from the north and the Dutch landed in the south.
Travancore made quick work of the untrained levies of Elayadath and, turning south, inflicted a crushing defeat on the Dutch in the Battle of Colachel. After failing to hold the Kilimanoor Fort in 1742, the forces of Odanad were chased back to the walls of their capital; the defeated ruler signed a separate peace agreement, the Treaty of Mannar, according to which Odanad became a tributary of Travancore and ceded it more than half of its territories. By 1746, Odanad had been persuaded by the Dutch to take up the leadership of a new confederation which included Chembakassery and Purakkad. In this fourth war between the states, Odanad was again defeated and its territories annexed to Travancore. Odanad was controlled among whom the ruler of Kayamkulam was the most prominent. Odanad maintained friendly relations with the Portuguese and the Dutch empires since the 16th century. Odanadu Dynasty was one of the strongest Military powered state in ancient kerala. One among the strongest and brave army power, Kayamkulam provided mortal support to the surrounding local states and helped them to lead war against their rivals.
The identity Weapon was " Double side sharpen Sword" called Kayamkulam Vaal. The Chettikulangara Devi Temple in Chettikulangara, Mavelikkara is dedicated to the Hindu goddess Chettikulangara Amma, considered as the mother goddess of Onattukara, it is believed to have been consecrated by Padmapadacharyar, a disciple of Adi Shankara, on the Uthrattathi day of Makara month in AD 823. The goddess worshipped here is believed to have been a family deity, emerged as the village and the regional deity. Local historians oppose the argument that the temple is not as ancient as the nearby Kandiyoor Sree Mahadeva Temple or Mavelikkara Krishna Swamy Temple and Kannamangalam Mahadeva Temple as it had not been mentioned in the Unnuneeli Sandesam. Written in the 14th century. There is no mentioning of the temple in the British survey records. According to late Kandiyoor Mahadeva Shasthri, Samudra Bandhan, a leading courtier of Ravi Varman, an ancient King of Venad had visited this temple and wrote poems on Bhagavathi.
They hold that Aadithya Kulasekharan, the King of Venad had visited the Chettkulangara temple. The mythology surrounding the temple has it, he had established 108 Durga temples, 108 Shiva temples, numerous Sastha temples, besides 108 Kalaris (place to learn traditional martial arts in fro
Thiruvananthapuram known by its former name Trivandrum, is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala. It is the most populous city in Kerala with a population of 957,730 as of 2011; the encompassing urban agglomeration population is around 1.68 million. Located on the west coast of India near the extreme south of the mainland, Thiruvananthapuram is a major Information Technology hub in Kerala and contributes 55% of the state's software exports as of 2016. Referred to by Mahatma Gandhi as the "Evergreen city of India", the city is characterised by its undulating terrain of low coastal hills; the Ays ruled the present region of Thiruvananthapuram until the 10th century. With their fall in the 10th century, the city was taken over by the Chera dynasty; the city was taken over by the Kingdom of Venad in the 12th century. In the 17th century the king Marthanda Varma expanded the territory and founded the princely state of Travancore and Thiruvananthapuram was made capital of Travancore. Following India's independence in 1947, Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of Travancore-Cochin state and remained capital when the new Indian state of Kerala was formed in 1956.
Thiruvananthapuram is a notable academic and research hub and is home to the University of Kerala, Kerala Technological University the regional headquarters of Indira Gandhi National Open University, many other schools and colleges. Thiruvananthapuram is home to research centers such as the National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Indian Space Research Organisation's Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, a campus of the Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research; the city is home to media institutions like Toonz India Ltd and Tata Elxsi Ltd, is home to Chitranjali Film Studio, one of the first film studios in Malayalam Cinema, Kinfra Film and Video Park at Kazhakoottom, India's first Infotainment Industrial park. Being India's largest city in the deep south, it is strategically prominent and hosts the Southern Air Command headquarters of the Indian Air Force, the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station and the upcoming Vizhinjam International Seaport.
Thiruvananthapuram is a major tourist centre, known for the Padmanabhaswamy Temple, the beaches of Kovalam and Varkala, the backwaters of Poovar and Anchuthengu and its Western Ghats tracts of Ponmudi and the Agastyamala. In 2012, Thiruvananthapuram was named the best Kerala city to live in, by a field survey conducted by The Times of India. In 2013, the city was ranked the fifteenth best city to live in India, in a survey conducted by India Today; the city was selected as the best-governed city in India in the survey conducted by Janaagraha Centre for citizenship and democracy in 2017. The city takes its name from the Malayalam word thiru-anantha-puram IPA:, meaning "The City of Lord Ananta", referring to the deity of the Sri Padmanabhaswamy Temple located in the city. Thiruvananthapuram is known in the literature, popular reference as Ananthapuri derived from the Sanskrit word Syanandurapuram, meaning "The City of Bliss" in Carnatic kirtanas composed by Swathi Thirunal, erstwhile Maharaja of Travancore.
The city was referred to as Trivandrum until 1991, when the government decided to reinstate the city's original name Thiruvananthapuram. Thiruvananthapuram is an ancient region with trading traditions dating back to 1000 BCE, it is believed that the ships of King Solomon landed in a port called Ophir in Thiruvananthapuram in 1036 BCE. The city was the trading post of spices and ivory. However, the ancient political and cultural history of the city was entirely independent from that of the rest of Kerala; the early rulers of the city were the Ays. Vizhinjam, now a region in the present-day Thiruvananthapuram, was the capital of Ay dynasty. Vizhinjam was an important port city from as early as 2nd century BC. During the Ay dynasty rule, Thiruvananthapuram witnessed many battles in which the Chola and Pandyan dynasties attempted to capture the port town. After the death of king Vikramaditya Varaguna in 925 AD, the glory of the Ays departed and all their territories became part of the Chera dynasty.
During the 10th century, the Cholas sacked Vizhinjam and surrounding regions. The port in Vizhinjam and the historic education center of Kanthalloor Sala was destroyed by Cholas during this period. A branch of the Ay family, controlling the Padmanabhaswamy Temple, merged with the Kingdom of Venad in the 12th century. In the late 17th century, Marthanda Varma who inherited the Kingdom of Venad expanded the kingdom by conquering kingdoms of Attingal, Kayamkulam, Kottayam, Meenachil and Ambalapuzha. In 1729, Marthanda Varma founded the princely state of Thiruvithamkoor and Thiruvananthapuram was made the capital in 1745 after shifting the capital from Padmanabhapuram in Kanyakumari district; the kingdom of Travancore was dedicated by Marthanda Varma to the deity Sri. Padmanabha; the rulers of Travancore ruled the kingdom as the servants of Sri. Padmanabha; the city developed into a significant artistic centre during this period. The golden age in the city's history was during the mid 19th century under the reign of Maharaja Swathi Thirunal and Maharaja Ayilyam Thirunal.
This era saw the establishment of the first English school, the Observatory, the General Hospital, the Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library and the University College. The first mental hospital in the state was started during the same period. Sanskrit College, Ayurveda Co
Governor-General of India
The Governor-General of India was the head of British India and after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state. The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William; the officer had direct control only over Fort William, but supervised other East India Company officials in India. Complete authority over all of British India was granted in 1833, the official came to be known as the "Governor-General of India". In 1858, as a consequence of the Indian Mutiny the previous year, the territories and assets of the East India Company came under the direct control of the British Crown; the Governor-General headed the central government of India, which administered the provinces of British India, including the Punjab, Bombay, the United Provinces, others. However, much of India was not ruled directly by the British Government. From 1858, to reflect the Governor-General's new additional role as the Monarch's representative in re the fealty relationships vis the princely states, the additional title of Viceroy was granted, such that the new office was entitled Viceroy and Governor-General of India.
This was shortened to Viceroy of India. The title of Viceroy was abandoned when British India split into the two independent dominions of India and Pakistan, but the office of Governor-General continued to exist in each country separately—until they adopted republican constitutions in 1950 and 1956, respectively; until 1858, the Governor-General was selected by the Court of Directors of the East India Company, to whom he was responsible. Thereafter, he was appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the British Government. After 1947, the Sovereign continued to appoint the Governor-General, but thereafter did so on the advice of the newly-sovereign Indian Government. Governors-General served at the pleasure of the Sovereign, though the practice was to have them serve five-year terms. Governors-General could have their commission rescinded; the first Governor-General of British India was Lord William Bentinck, the first Governor-General of independent India was Louis, Lord Mountbatten. Many parts of the Indian subcontinent were governed by the East India Company, which nominally acted as the agent of the Mughal Emperor.
In 1773, motivated by corruption in the Company, the British government assumed partial control over the governance of India with the passage of the Regulating Act of 1773. A Governor-General and Supreme Council of Bengal were appointed to rule over the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal; the first Governor-General and Council were named in the Act. The Charter Act 1833 replaced the Governor-General and Council of Fort William with the Governor-General and Council of India; the power to elect the Governor-General was retained by the Court of Directors, but the choice became subject to the Sovereign's approval. After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the East India Company's territories in India were put under the direct control of the Sovereign; the Government of India Act 1858 vested the power to appoint the Governor-General in the Sovereign. The Governor-General, in turn, had the power to appoint all lieutenant governors in India, subject to the Sovereign's approval. India and Pakistan acquired independence in 1947, but Governors-General continued to be appointed over each nation until republican constitutions were written.
Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma remained Governor-General of India for some time after independence, but the two nations were otherwise headed by native Governors-General. India became a secular republic in 1950; the Governor-General had power only over the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal. The Regulating Act, granted them additional powers relating to foreign affairs and defence; the other Presidencies of the East India Company were not allowed to declare war on or make peace with an Indian prince without receiving the prior approval of the Governor-General and Council of Fort William. The powers of the Governor-General, in respect of foreign affairs, were increased by the India Act 1784; the Act provided that the other Governors under the East India Company could not declare war, make peace or conclude a treaty with an Indian prince unless expressly directed to do so by the Governor-General or by the Company's Court of Directors. While the Governor-General thus became the controller of foreign policy in India, he was not the explicit head of British India.
That status came only with the Charter Act 1833, which granted him "superintendence and control of the whole civil and military Government" of all of British India. The Act granted legislative powers to the Governor-General and Council. After 1858, the Governor-General functioned as the chief administrator of India and as the Sovereign's representative. India was divided into numerous provinces, each under the head of a governor, Lieutenant Governor or Chief Commissioner or Administ
District magistrate (India)
A district magistrate abbreviated to DM, is an Indian Administrative Service officer, the senior most executive magistrate and chief in charge of general administration of a district in India. Since district magistrates are responsible for collection of land revenue in the district, the post is referred to as the district collector, as the office-bearer works under the supervision of a divisional commissioner, the post is known as deputy commissioner. District administration in India is a legacy of the British Raj. District collectors were members of the Indian Civil Service and were charged with supervising general administration in the district. Warren Hastings introduced the office of the district collector in 1772. Sir George Campbell, lieutenant-governor of Bengal from 1871-1874, intended "to render the heads of districts no longer the drudges of many departments and masters of none, but in fact the general controlling authority over all departments in each district."The office of a collector during the British Raj held multiple responsibilities – as collector, he was the head of the revenue organization, charged with registration and partition of holdings.
As district magistrate, he exercised general supervision over the inferior courts and in particular, directed the police work. The office was meant to achieve the "peculiar purpose" of collecting revenue and of keeping the peace; the superintendent of police, inspector general of jails, the surgeon general, the divisional forest officer and the chief engineer had to inform the collector of every activity in their departments. Until the part of the nineteenth century, no native was eligible to become a district collector, but with the introduction of open competitive examinations for the Indian Civil Service, the office was opened to natives. Anandaram Baruah, an eminent scholar of Sanskrit and the sixth Indian and the first Assamese ICS officer, became the third Indian to be appointed a district magistrate, the first two being Romesh Chandra Dutt and Sripad Babaji Thakur respectively; the district continued to be the unit of administration after India gained independence in 1947. The role of the district collector remained unchanged, except for the separation of most judicial powers to judicial officers of the district.
With the promulgation of the National Extension Services and Community Development Programme by the Nehru government in 1952, the district collector was entrusted with the additional responsibility of implementing the Government of India's development programs in the district. They are posted by the state government, from among the pool of Indian Administrative Service officers, who either are on Level 11, Level 12 or Level 13 of the Pay Matrix, in the state; the members of the IAS are either directly recruited by the Union Public Service Commission, promoted from State Civil Service or nominated from Non-State Civil Service. The direct recruits are posted as collectors after five to six years of service, whereas the promoted members from state civil services occupy this post after promotion to the IAS, which happens after two decades of service. A district magistrate and collector is transferred to and from the post by the state government; the office bearer is of the rank of deputy secretary or director in Government of India.
The responsibilities assigned to a district magistrate vary from state to state, but district collectors are entrusted with a wide range of duties in the jurisdiction of the district involving the following: As district magistrate Conducts criminal court of executive magistrate. Maintenance of law and order. Supervision of the police and jails. Supervision of subordinate executive conduct magisterial inquiries. Hearing cases under the preventive section of the Criminal Procedure Code. Supervision of jails and certification of execution of capital sentences. Authorising parole orders to inmates. Granting arms and ammunition licence under Arms Act. Prepares panel of names for appointment of public prosecutors and additional public prosecutors with consultation with session judge in district. Disaster management during natural calamities such as floods, famines or epidemics. Crisis management during riots or external aggression; as district collectorConducts revenue court. Arbitrator of land acquisition, its assessment and collection of land revenue.
Collection of income tax dues, excise duties, irrigation dues and its arrears. Registration of Property documents, sale deeds, power of attorneys, share certificates etc. Issue various kinds of statutory certificates including SC/ST, OBC & EWC, Nationality, Marriage etc; as deputy commissioner/district commissioner Reports to divisional commissioner on all matters. A district magistrate is assisted by some IAS and PCS for carrying out day-to-day work in various fields:- Additional district magistrate D, E and R. City magistrate and additional city magistrates Sub-divisional magistrates and other executive magistrates. Other officers from other departments at the district level report to him/her
The Skanda Purana is the largest Mahāpurāṇa, a genre of eighteen Hindu religious texts. The text contains over 81,000 verses, is part of Shaivite literature, titled after Skanda, a son of Shiva and Parvati, known as Kartikeya and Murugan. While the text is named after Skanda, he does not feature either more or less prominently in this text than in other Shiva-related Puranas; the text has been an important historical record and influence on the Hindu traditions related to the war-god Skanda. The earliest text titled Skanda Purana existed by the 8th century CE, but the Skanda Purana that has survived into the modern era exists in many versions, it is considered by scholars, in a historic sense, as among the "shiftiest, living" texts, edited, over many centuries, creating numerous variants. The common elements in the variant editions encyclopedically cover cosmogony, genealogy, festivals, temples, discussion of virtues and evil, of theology and of the nature and qualities of Shiva as the Absolute and the source of true knowledge.
The editions of Skandapurana text provide an encyclopedic travel handbook with meticulous Tirtha Mahatmya, containing geographical locations of pilgrimage centers in India and Tibet, with related legends, parables and stories. This Mahāpurāṇa, like others, is attributed to the sage Vyasa. Haraprasad Shastri and Cecil Bendall, in about 1898, discovered an old palm-leaf manuscript of Skanda Purana in a Kathmandu library in Nepal, written in Gupta script, they dated the manuscript to 8th century CE, on paleographic grounds. This suggests. R. Adriaensen, H. Bakker, H. Isaacson dated the oldest surviving palm-leaf manuscript of Skanda Purana to 810 CE, but Richard Mann adds that earlier versions of the text existed in the 8th century CE. Hans Bakker states that the text specifies holy places and details about the 4th and 5th-century Citraratha of Andhra Pradesh, thus may have an earlier origin; the oldest versions of the Skandapurana texts have been discovered in the Himalayan region of South Asia such as Nepal, the northeastern states of India such as Assam.
The critical editions of the text, for scholarly studies, rely on the Nepalese manuscripts. Additional texts style themselves as khandas of Skandapurana, but these came into existence after the 12th century, it is unclear if their root texts did belong to the Skandapurana, in some cases replaced the corresponding chapters of the original. Some recensions and sections of the Skandapurana manuscripts, states Judit Torzsok, have been traced to be from the 17th century or but the first 162 chapters in many versions are the same as the older Nepalese editions except for occasional omissions and insertions. There are a number of manuscripts that bear the title Skanda Purana; some of these texts, except for the title, have little in common with the well-known Skandapurana traced to the 1st millennium CE. The original text has accrued several additions, it is, therefore difficult to establish an exact date of composition for the Skanda Purana. Stylistically, the Skanda Purana is related to the Mahabharata, it appears that its composers borrowed from the Mahabharata.
The two texts employ similar stock compounds that are not found in the Ramayana. Some of the mythology mentioned in the present version of the Skanda Purana is undoubtedly post-Gupta period, consistent with that of medieval South India; this indicates. The Kashi Khanda, for example, acquired its present form around the mid-13th century CE; the latest part of the text might have been composed in as late as the 15th century CE. The whole corpus of texts which are considered as part of the Skanda Purana is grouped in two ways. According to one tradition, these are grouped in six saṁhitās, each of which consists of several khaṇḍas. According to another tradition, these are grouped in seven khaṇḍas, each named after a major pilgrimage region or site; the chapters are travel guides for pilgrimage tourists. The Maheśvara Khaṇḍa consists of 3 sections: the Kedāra Khaṇḍa the Kaumārikā Khaṇḍa or Kumārikā Khaṇḍa and the Arunācala Khaṇḍa or Arunācala Māhātmya, further divided into two parts: Pūrvārdha and Uttarārdha The Viṣṇu Khaṇḍa or Vaiṣṇava Khaṇḍa consists of nine sections: Veṅkaṭācalamāhātmya Puruṣottamakṣetramāhātmya Badarikāśramamāhātmya Kārttikamāsamāhātmya Mārgaśirṣamāsamāhātmya 17 chapters, Mathura Tirtha region) Bhāgavatamāhātmya Vaiśākhamāsamāhātmya Ayodhyāmāhātmya and Vāsudevamāhātmya The Brahma Khaṇḍa has three sections: Setumāhātmya Dharmāraṇya Khaṇḍa and Uttara Khaṇḍa or Brahmottara Khaṇḍa The Kāśī Khaṇḍa is divided into two parts: Pūrvārdha and Uttarārdha The Āvantya Khaṇḍa consists of: Avantikṣetramāhātmya Caturaśītiliṅgamāhātmya and Revā Khaṇḍa The Nāgara Khaṇḍa consists of Tirtha-māhātmya.
The Prabhāsa Khaṇḍa
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was an Indian activist, the leader of the Indian independence movement against British colonial rule. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world; the honorific Mahātmā was applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa – is now used worldwide. In India, he was called Bapu, a term that he preferred and Gandhi ji, is known as the Father of the Nation. Born and raised in a Hindu merchant caste family in coastal Gujarat and trained in law at the Inner Temple, Gandhi first employed nonviolent civil disobedience as an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, in the resident Indian community's struggle for civil rights. After his return to India in 1915, he set about organising peasants and urban labourers to protest against excessive land-tax and discrimination. Assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for various social causes and for achieving Swaraj or self-rule.
Gandhi led Indians in challenging the British-imposed salt tax with the 400 km Dandi Salt March in 1930, in calling for the British to Quit India in 1942. He was imprisoned upon many occasions, in both South Africa and India, he lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn hand-spun on a charkha. He ate simple vegetarian food, undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification and political protest. Gandhi's vision of an independent India based on religious pluralism was challenged in the early 1940s by a new Muslim nationalism, demanding a separate Muslim homeland carved out of India. In August 1947, Britain granted independence, but the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two dominions, a Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan; as many displaced Hindus and Sikhs made their way to their new lands, religious violence broke out in the Punjab and Bengal. Eschewing the official celebration of independence in Delhi, Gandhi visited the affected areas, attempting to provide solace.
In the months following, he undertook several fasts unto death to stop religious violence. The last of these, undertaken on 12 January 1948 when he was 78 had the indirect goal of pressuring India to pay out some cash assets owed to Pakistan; some Indians thought. Among them was Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist, who assassinated Gandhi on 30 January 1948 by firing three bullets into his chest. Captured along with many of his co-conspirators and collaborators and his co-conspirator Narayan Apte were tried and executed while many of their other accomplices were given prison sentences. Gandhi's birthday, 2 October, is commemorated in India as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, worldwide as the International Day of Nonviolence. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2 October 1869 into a Gujarati Hindu Modh Baniya family in Porbandar, a coastal town on the Kathiawar Peninsula and part of the small princely state of Porbandar in the Kathiawar Agency of the Indian Empire, his father, Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi, served as the diwan of Porbandar state.
Although he only had an elementary education and had been a clerk in the state administration, Karamchand proved a capable chief minister. During his tenure, Karamchand married four times, his first two wives died young, after each had given birth to a daughter, his third marriage was childless. In 1857, Karamchand sought his third wife's permission to remarry. Karamchand and Putlibai had three children over the ensuing decade: Laxmidas. On 2 October 1869, Putlibai gave birth to her last child, Mohandas, in a dark, windowless ground-floor room of the Gandhi family residence in Porbandar city; as a child, Gandhi was described by his sister Raliat as "restless as mercury, either playing or roaming about. One of his favourite pastimes was twisting dogs' ears." The Indian classics the stories of Shravana and king Harishchandra, had a great impact on Gandhi in his childhood. In his autobiography, he admits, he writes: "It haunted me and I must have acted Harishchandra to myself times without number."
Gandhi's early self-identification with truth and love as supreme values is traceable to these epic characters. The family's religious background was eclectic. Gandhi's father Karamchand was Hindu and his mother Putlibai was from a Pranami Vaishnava Hindu family. Gandhi's father was of Modh Baniya caste in the varna of Vaishya, his mother came from the medieval Krishna bhakti-based Pranami tradition, whose religious texts include the Bhagavad Gita, the Bhagavata Purana, a collection of 14 texts with teachings that the tradition believes to include the essence of the Vedas, the Quran and the Bible. Gandhi was influenced by his mother, an pious lady who "would not think of taking her meals without her daily prayers...she would take the hardest vows and keep them without flinching. To keep two or three consecutive fasts was nothing to her."In 1874, Gandhi's father Karamchand left Porbandar for the smaller state of Rajkot, where he became a counsellor to its ruler, the Thakur Sahib.