Singapore the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%; the country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, it gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with other former British territories, but separated two years over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global hub for education, finance, human capital, logistics, technology, tourism and transport; the city ranks in numerous international rankings, has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation, top International-meetings city, city with "best investment potential", world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013, it is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".
Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed in key social indicators: education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy"; the city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, its cultural diversity is reflected in major festivals. Pew Research has found. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, continues to shape national policies in education, politics, among others. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government; the People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events.
It is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations. The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, in turn derived from Sanskrit, hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols. However, it is unlikely that lions lived on the island. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is established; the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE "island at the end" in Malay. Singapore is referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence, the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot. Singapore is referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century, the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung.
This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity
Telangana is a state in India situated on the centre-south stretch of the Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau. It is the twelfth largest state and the twelfth-most populated state in India with a geographical area of 112,077 km2 and 35,193,978 residents as per 2011 census. On 2 June 2014, the area was separated from the northwestern part of Andhra Pradesh as the newly formed 29th state with Hyderabad as its historic permanent capital, its other major cities include Warangal, Nizamabad and Karimnagar. Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Karnataka to the west, Andhra Pradesh to the east and south; the terrain of Telangana region consists of hills, mountain ranges, thick dense forests distribution of 27,292 sq. km. As of 2019, the state of Telangana is divided into 33 districts. Throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages, the region now known as Telangana was ruled by multiple major Indian powers such as the Cholas, Satavahanas, Kakatiyas, Delhi Sultanate, Bahmani Sultanate, Golconda Sultanate.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, the region was ruled by the Mughals. The region is known for its Ganga-Jamuni Tehzeeb. During the 18th century and the British Raj, Telangana was ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad. In 1823, the Nizams lost control over Northern Circars and Ceded Districts, which were handed over to the East India Company; the annexation by the British of the Northern Circars deprived Hyderabad State, the Nizam's dominion, of the considerable coastline it had, to that of a landlocked princely state with territories in Central Deccan, bounded on all sides by British India. Thereafter, the Northern Circars were governed as part of Madras Presidency until India's independence in 1947, after which the presidency became India's Madras state; the Hyderabad state joined the Union of India in 1948 after an Indian military invasion. In 1956, the Hyderabad State was dissolved as part of the linguistic reorganisation of states and Telangana was merged with the Telugu-speaking Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.
A peasant-driven movement began to advocate for separation from Andhra Pradesh starting in the early 1950s, continued until Telangana was awarded separate statehood on 2 June 2014. The economy of Telangana is the eighth-largest state economy in India with ₹8.43 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹181,000. The state has emerged as a major focus for robust IT software and services sector; the state is the main administrative centre to a large number of Indian defence aero-space and research labs like Bharat Dynamics Limited, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organisation and Defence Research and Development Laboratory. The cultural hearts of Telangana and Warangal, are noted for their wealth and renowned historical structures – Charminar, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Paigah Tombs, Falaknuma Palace, Chowmahalla Palace, Warangal Fort, Kakatiya Kala Thoranam, Thousand Pillar Temple and the Bhongir Fort in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district; the historic city Golconda during the Kakatiya reign was once known for the mines that have produced some of the world's most famous gems, including the Koh-i-Noor, Hope Diamond, Daria-i-Noor, Regent Diamond, Nassak Diamond and Noor-ul-Ain.
Religious edifices like the Lakshmi Narasimha Temple in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district, Makkah Masjid in Hyderabad, Medak Cathedral are several of its most famous places of worship. A popular etymology derives the word "Telangana" from Trilinga desa, a region so called because three important Shaivite shrines were located here: Kaleshwaram and Draksharama. According to Jayadhir Thirumala Rao, a former director of Andhra Pradesh Oriental Manuscripts Library and Research Centre, the name Telangana is of Gondi origin. Rao asserts that it is derived from "Telangadh", which according to him, means "south" in Gondi and has been referred to in "Gond script dating back to about 2000 years". One of the earliest uses of a word similar to Telangana can be seen in a name of Malik Maqbul, called the Tilangani, which implies that he was from Tilangana, he was the commander of the Warangal Fort. A 16th-century travel writer, recorded in his book: During the just reign of Ibrahim Kootb Shah, like Egypt, became the mart of the whole world.
Merchants from Toorkistan and Persia resorted to it. The greatest luxuries from foreign parts daily abounded at the king's hospitable board; the word "Telinga" changed over time to "Telangana" and the name "Telangana" was designated to distinguish the predominantly Telugu-speaking region of the erstwhile Hyderabad State from its predominantly Marathi-speaking one, Marathwada. After Asaf Jahis ceded the Seemandhra region to the British, the rest of the Telugu region retained the name Telingana and the other parts were called Madras Presidency's Circars and Ceded. Telangana was governed by many rulers, including the Maurya Empire, Satavahana dynasty, Vakataka dynasty, Chalukya dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, the Kakatiya Dynasty, the Musunuri Nayaks the Delhi Sultanate, the Bahmani Sultanate, Vijayanagara Empire, Qutb Shahi dynasty, Mughal Empire and Asaf Jahi Dynasty; the Satavahana dynasty became the dominant power in this region. It originated from the lands between the Godavari
Indian Americans or Indo-Americans are Americans whose ancestry belongs to any of the many ethnic groups of the Republic of India. The U. S. Census Bureau uses the term Asian Indian to avoid confusion with the indigenous peoples of the Americas referred to as American Indians. In the Americas the term "Indian" has been most used to refer to the indigenous people of the continents after European colonization in the 15th century. Qualifying terms such as "American Indian" and "East Indian" were and are used to avoid ambiguity; the U. S. government has since coined the term "Native American" to refer to the indigenous peoples of the United States, but terms such as "American Indian" remain popular among both indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Since the 1980s, Indian Americans have been categorized as "Asian Indian" by the United States Census Bureau. While "East Indian" remains in use, the term "South Asian" is chosen instead for academic and governmental purposes. Indian Americans are a subgroup of South Asian Americans, a census group that includes Bangladeshi Americans, Bhutanese Americans, Nepalese Americans, Pakistani Americans, Burmese Americans, Sri Lankan Americans, etc.
Beginning in the 1600's the East India Company begins bringing indentured Indian servants to American colonies. In 1680, due to anti-miscegenation laws, a mixed-race girl born to an Indian father and an Irish mother is classified as'mulatto' and sold into slavery; the Naturalization Act of 1790 made Asians ineligible for citizenship, with citizenship limited to whites only. First significant wave of Indian immigrants enter America, with more than two thousand Indian Sikhs living in the United States in California, by the end of the century, they find work on farms and on lumber mills in the states of California and Washington. Many Punjabi Sikhs settle in California, around the Yuba City area, forming close ties with Mexican Americans; the presence of Indian-Americans helped develop interest in Eastern religions in the US and would result in its influence on American philosophies such as Transcendentalism. Swami Vivekananda arriving in Chicago at the World's Fair led to the establishment of the Vedanta Society.
Bhicaji Balsara became the first known Indian-born person to gain naturalized U. S. citizenship. As a Parsi, he was considered a'pure member of the Persian sect' and therefore a free white person; the judge Emile Henry Lacombe, of the Southern District of New York, only gave Balsara citizenship on the hope that the United States attorney would indeed challenge his decision and appeal it to create “an authoritative interpretation” of the law. The U. S. attorney adhered to Lacombe’s wishes and took the matter to the Circuit Court of Appeals in 1910. The Circuit Court of Appeal agreed that Parsees belong to the white race and were "as distinct from Hindus as are the English who dwell in India”. Prior to 1965, Indian immigration to the U. S. was isolated, with fewer than fifty thousand Indian immigrants in the country. The Bellingham riots in Bellingham, Washington on September 5, 1907 epitomized the low tolerance in the U. S. for Indians and Sikhs who were called hindoos by locals. While anti-Asian racism was embedded in U.
S. politics and culture in the early 20th century, Indians were racialized for their anticolonialism, with U. S. officials, casting them as a "Hindu" menace, pushing for Western imperial expansion abroad. Although labeled Hindu, the majority of Indians were Sikh. In the 1923 case, United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind, the Supreme Court ruled that Punjabis were not "white persons" and were therefore racially ineligible for naturalized citizenship; the Court argued that the racial difference between Indians and whites was so great that the "great body of our people" would reject assimilation with Indians. After the Luce–Celler Act of 1946 a quota of 100 Indians per year were permitted to immigrate to the U. S. and become citizens. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 opened entry to the U. S. to immigrants other than traditional Northern European groups, which would alter the demographic mix in the U. S. Not all Indian Americans came directly from India. S. via Indian communities in other countries, including the United Kingdom, the Asia-Pacific region, the Caribbean.
According to the 2010 United States Census, the Asian Indian population in the United States grew from 1,678,765 in 2000 to 2,843,391 in 2010, a growth rate of 69.37%, one of the fastest growing ethnic groups in the United States. The New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area, consisting of New York City, Long Island, adjacent areas within New York, as well as nearby areas within the states of New Jersey and including Pike County, was home to an estimated 711,174 uniracial Indian Americans as of the 2017 American Community Survey by the U. S. Census Bureau, comprising by far the largest Indian American population of any metropolitan area in the United States. Monroe Township, Middlesex County, in central New Jersey, the geographic heart of the Northeast megalopolis, has displayed one of the fastest growth rates of its Indian population in the Western Hemisphere, increasing from 25
Malaysian Indians or Indian Malaysians, consist of people of Indian descent—particularly Tamil Indians from Tamil Nadu—who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia. Most are descendants of those. There is a possibility that the first wave of migration from South Asia towards Southeast Asia happened during Asoka's invasion towards Kalinga and Samudragupta's expedition towards the South. Today, they form the third largest group in Malaysia after the Malays and the Chinese. Malaysian Indians form the 5th largest community of Overseas Indians in the world. Within Malaysia, they represent the third largest group, after Chinese, they are simply referred to as "Indian" in Malaysia, Orang India or Hindu in Malay, "Yin du ren" in Chinese. Malaysia's Indian population is notable for its class stratification, with large elite and lower income groups and diverse racial differences within its fold. Malaysian Indians make up a disproportionately large percentage of professionals per capita - constituting 15.5% of Malaysia's professionals in 1999.
As of a census taken in 1984, up to 38% of the nation's medical professional workforce consists of Malaysian Indians. In 1970, the per capita income of Malaysian Indians was 76% higher than that of the Malay majority. Despite somewhat fruitful attempts by the Malaysian government to redistribute wealth since the 1970s, Malaysian Indians still earn a 27% higher per capita income than that of the dominant Malay community as seen in data released in 2005. A substantial number of Malaysian Indians however remain among the poorest in the country. Ancient India exerted a profound influence over Southeast Asia through trade, religious missions and other forms of contact. Pre-colonial Malaysia was part of'Indianised Kingdoms' such as Srivijaya and the Majapahit, which formed part of a cultural region known as Greater India; the Arab and Indian traders had travelled this region including the southern tip of South East Asia the peninsula with maritime trade, the Sailendra kings of Java originating from Kalinga were able to take control of the Peninsular and part of southern Siam.
The kings welcomed Buddhist missionaries from India, accepting their teaching of the Mahayana sect, which spread through their territories. However and northeastern Thailand continued to adhere to the Hinayana teachings of the Theravada sect, introduced by missionaries sent by the emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BC. Another theory of the introduction of Buddhism after Indian arrived in the peninsula is that after Kalinga conquered lower Burma in the 8th century their influence spread down the peninsula; the ancient Indian Kalinga was located in southeastern India occupying modern day Orissa and northern Andhra Pradesh. In the 7th century an Indonesian kingdom was named Kalingga after the aforementioned Kalinga in India. Chinese sources mention this kingdom as a center for Buddhist scholars around 604 before it was overshadowed by the Sanjaya or Mataram Kingdom; the most famous Kalingga ruler is Ratu Sima. There is evidence of the existence of Indianised kingdoms such as Gangga Negara, Old Kedah, Srivijaya since 1700 years ago.
Early contact between the kingdoms of Tamilakkam and the Malay peninsula had been close during the reigns of the Pallava dynasty and Chola dynasty. The trade relations the Tamil merchants had with the ports of Malaya led to the emergence of Indianised kingdoms like Kadaram and Langkasugam. Furthermore, Chola king Rajendra Chola I sent an expedition to Kadaram during the 11th century conquering that country on behalf of one of its rulers who sought his protection and to have established him on the throne; the Cholas had the Bay of Bengal. Three kinds of craft are distinguished by the author of the Periplus – light coasting boats for local traffic, larger vessels of a more complicated structure and greater carrying capacity, lastly the big ocean-going vessels that made the voyages to Malaya and the Ganges. In Malacca Sultanate, the Chitty people, played a huge role in Malacca's administration of the local ports such as Raja Mudaliar, Syahbandar of Malacca and Bendahara Tun Mutahir, a famous Bendahara of the Malaccan Sultanate.
Following the Portuguese colonisation of Malacca in 1511, the Portuguese government encouraged their explorers to bring their married Indian women who were converted to Roman Catholic Christianity, under a policy set by Afonso de Albuquerque Viceroy of India. These people were East Indians. Kuparis who were of mixed Samvedic Brahmin and Portuguese descent arrived, their children intermarried with Malay population, losing their ethnic identities. British acquisition of Penang and Singapore - the Straits Settlements from 1786 to 1824 started a steady inflow of Indian labour; this consisted of traders, plantation labourers and colonial soldiers. Apart from this there was substantial migration of Indians to work in the British colonial government, due to their general good command of the English language; the establishment of the plantations and the need for cheap labour led to an influx of Indian migrants working under the indenture Kangani system in the 19th and early 20th century. Some, after the Kangani system ended in the early 20th century paid for their own passage to Malaya.
These migrant workers were Tamils, with some Telugus, Malay
The Punjab spelled Panjab, is a geopolitical and historical region in South Asia in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. The boundaries of the region focus on historical accounts; until the Partition of Punjab in 1947, the British Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states and union territories of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi. It bordered the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, Rajasthan and Sindh to the south; the people of the Punjab today are called Panjabis, their principal language is Punjabi. The main religions of the Indian Punjab region are Hinduism; the main religions of the Pakistani Punjab region is Islam. Other religious groups are Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Ravidassia; the Punjab region has been inhabited by the Indus Valley Civilisation, Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-Scythians, has seen numerous invasions by the Persians, Kushans, Timurids, Pashtuns and others.
Historic foreign invasions targeted the most productive central region of the Punjab known as the Majha region, the bedrock of Punjabi culture and traditions. The Punjab region is referred to as the breadbasket in both India and Pakistan; the region was called Sapta Sindhu, the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean. The origin of the word Punjab can be traced to the Sanskrit "pancha-nada", which means "five rivers", is used as the name of a region in the Mahabharata; the name of the region, Punjab, is a compound of two Persian words, Panj and āb, introduced to the region by the Turko-Persian conquerors of India, more formally popularised during the Mughal Empire. Punjab thus means "The Land of Five Waters", referring to the rivers Jhelum, Ravi and Beas. All are tributaries of the Sutlej being the largest; the Greeks referred to the region as Pentapotamia. There are two main definitions of the Punjab region: the 1947 definition and the older 1846–1849 definition. A third definition incorporates both the 1947 and the older definitions but includes northern Rajasthan on a linguistic basis and ancient river movements.
The 1947 definition defines the Punjab region with reference to the dissolution of British India whereby the British Punjab Province was partitioned between India and Pakistan. In Pakistan, the region now includes Islamabad Capital Territory. In India, it includes the Punjab state, Chandigarh and Himachal Pradesh. Using the 1947 definition, the Punjab borders the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, Rajasthan and Sindh to the south. Accordingly, the Punjab region is diverse and stretches from the hills of the Kangra Valley to the plains and to the Cholistan Desert. Using the 1947 definition of the Punjab region, some of the major cities of the area include Lahore and Ludhiana; the older definition of the Punjab region focuses on the collapse of the Sikh Empire and the creation of the British Punjab province between 1846 and 1849. According to this definition, the Punjab region incorporates, in Pakistan, Azad Kashmir including Bhimber and Mirpur and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
In India the wider definition includes parts of Jammu Division. Using the older definition of the Punjab region, the Punjab region covers a large territory and can be divided into five natural areas: the eastern mountainous region including Jammu Division and Azad Kashmir; the formation of the Himalayan Range of mountains to the east and north-east of the Punjab is the result of a collision between the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The plates are still moving together, the Himalayas are rising by about 5 millimetres per year; the upper regions are snow-covered the whole year. Lower ranges of hills run parallel to the mountains; the Lower Himalayan Range runs from north of Rawalpindi through Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and further south. The mountains are young, are eroding rapidly; the Indus and the five rivers of the Punjab have their sources in the mountain range and carry loam and silt down to the rich alluvial plains, which are fertile. According to the older definition, some of the major cities include Jammu and parts of Delhi.
The third definition of the Punjab region adds to the definitions cited above and includes parts of Rajasthan on linguistic lines and takes into consideration the location of the Punjab rivers in ancient times. In particular, the Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh districts are included in the Punjab region; the climate is a factor contributing to the economy of the Punjab. It is not uniform over the whole region, with the sections adjacent to the Himalayas receiving heavier rainfall than those at a distance. There are two transitional periods. During the hot season from mid-April to the end of June, the temperature may reach 49 °C; the monsoon season, from July to September, is a period of heavy rainfall, providing
Steaming is a method of cooking using steam. This is done with a food steamer, a kitchen appliance made to cook food with steam, but food can be steamed in a wok. In the American southwest, steam pits used for cooking have been found dating back about 5,000 years. Steaming is considered a healthy cooking technique; some of the world's earliest examples of steam cooking were found in Gunma Prefecture, created during the Stone Age. Some of the second earliest examples of steam cooking have been found in Italy and Sardinia, created during the Bronze Age, in Cochise County, where steam pits were used for cooking about 10,000 years ago. In China's Yellow River Valley, early steam cookers made of stoneware have been found dating back as far as 5,000 BCE. From the eighth century CE, thin cypress strips were used to make steamers; the classic steamer has a chimney in the center. Steaming works by boiling water continuously; the food is kept separate from the boiling water but has direct contact with the steam, resulting in a moist texture to the food.
This differs from double boiling, in which food is not directly exposed to steam, or pressure cooking, which uses a sealed vessel. Such cooking is most done by placing the food into a food steamer a circular container made of metal or wood and bamboo; the steamer has a lid, placed on the top of the container during cooking to allow the steam to cook through the food. When a steamer is unavailable, food can be steamed inside a wok, supported over boiling water in the bottom of the wok by a metal frame; some modern home microwave ovens include a structure to cook food by steam vapor produced in a separate water container, providing a similar result to being cooked on stove. There are specialized steam ovens available. In Japan, glutinous rice is steamed to prepare mochi rice cakes. Traditional Japanese sweets or wagashi making involves steaming rice or wheat dough for making mochigashi and manju. In Western cooking, steaming is most used to cook vegetables—it is used to cook meats. However, steamed clams are prepared by steaming.
With Chinese cuisine, vegetables are stir fried or blanched and steamed. Seafood and meat dishes are steamed. For example: steamed whole fish, steamed crab, steamed pork spare ribs, steamed ground pork or beef, steamed chicken and steamed goose. Rice can be steamed too, although in Chinese cooking this is referred to as "cooking" rather than "steaming". In Thailand steaming is the definition of minimalist cooking. Wheat foods are steamed as well. Examples include Chinese steamed cakes. Steamed meat dishes are less common in Chinese restaurants than in traditional home cooking, because meats require longer cooking times to steam than to stir fry. Commercially sold frozen foods had instructions to reheat by steaming, until the rise in popularity of home microwave ovens, which have shorter cooking times. Staple foods Mantou, steamed bread Wotou, Chinese cornbreadChinese steamed eggs similar to custard with local variety of ingredients and vessels. Dim sum Rice Steamed rice with crab, Fujian cuisine called 蠘飯.
Steamed Pork with rice: pork steamed with crushed rice called 粉蒸肉. Seafood Fish: Chinese perch, Japanese black porgy. Crab: Chinese mitten crab, Shanghai cuisine for the autumn. Soup Steamed Pork Rib Soup: a Jiangxi cuisine called zh:煨汤. Buddha Jumps Over the Wall: a Fujian cuisine. Winter Melon Soup: use a hollowed out and sculpted gourd as a vessel. Qi Guoji Steamed Chicken Soup: soup of chicken cooked with double steamer, a Yunnan cuisine called zh:汽锅鸡. Sweets Milk Pudding: called Daliang Milk Pudding as said to be made in the 1850s in Daliang in Foshan, Guangdong. Guilinggao: known as Turtle Jelly, a jelly-like Chinese medicine sold as a dessert. Bread Chawanmushi: beaten egg, dashi soup and ingredients into a bowl with a lid. Odamaki-mushi: udon in a cup of chawan-mushi. Osaka specialty. Glutinous rice. Instead of boiling, glutinous rice is steamed to eat. *Okowa おこわ as it is called, receipts with ingredients and vessel chestnuts or wild herbs are popular. 赤飯: served at festive occasions with azuki bean and color agent added to enhance red color.
Mochi: prepared with steamed rice and kneaded. There are receipts where sauce is added to the main ingredients, aiming to control smell or aroma, or keep moisture to the ingredients. Awayukimushi: egg meringue over fish or seafood and keep moisture as well as retain aroma. Kaburamushi: grated or shredded turnip covers crabs and fish to keep moisture. Sakamushi: add sake to steam sea bream and clams which will reduce fishy smell. Receipts named after the container. Dobin-mushi: matsutake and fish in a pot together with dashi soup. Yugama: yuzu citrus is hollowed out into a cup to hold and add zest to the food. Sea bream milt steamed in yugamaSweets: steaming is an important process in Japanese sweets making such as manjū, yōkan, uirō, karukan or suama. Gyeran-jjim, a custardy dish Overcooking or burning food is avoided when steaming it. Individuals preferring to avoid additional fat intake may prefer steaming to methods which require cooking oil. A 2007 USDA comparison between steaming and boiling vegetables shows the most affected nutrients are folic acid and vitamin C.
When compared to raw consumption, steaming reduces folic acid by 15%, and
Thai Pongal is a harvest festival dedicated to the Sun God. It is a four-day festival which according to the Tamil calendar is celebrated from January 14 to January 17. Thai Pongal corresponds to Makara Sankranthi, the harvest festival celebrated throughout India. Thai Pongal is one of the most important festivals celebrated by Tamil people in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union Territory of Puducherry, the country of Sri Lanka, as well as Tamils worldwide, including those in Malaysia, South Africa, United States, Canada and UK; the day marks the start of the sun's six-month-long journey northwards. This corresponds to the Indic solstice when the sun purportedly enters the 10th house of the Indian zodiac Makara or Capricorn. Thai Pongal is celebrated to convey appreciation to the Sun God for a successful harvest. Part of the celebration is the boiling of the first rice of the season consecrated to the Sun - the Surya Maangalyam; the origins of the Thai Pongal festival may date to more than 1000 years ago.
Epigraphic evidence suggests the celebration of the Puthiyeedu during the Medieval Chola empire days. Puthiyeedu is believed to represent the first harvest of the year. Tamil people refer to Pongal as "Tamizhar Thirunaal," the festival of Tamizhs. Thai Pongal referred to as Makara Sankranti, is referred to in the classic work of Hindu astrology, the Surya Siddhanta. Thai refers to the name of the tenth month in Thai. Pongal means festivity or celebration. Pongal is the name of a sweetened dish of rice boiled with lentils, ritually consumed on this day. Symbolically, pongal signifies the gradual heating of the earth as the Sun travels northward toward the equinox; this day coincides with Makara Sankranthi, celebrated throughout India and Bangladesh. Besides rice and milk the ingredients of this sweet dish include cardamom, Green gram, cashew nuts. Cooking is done in sunlight in a porch or courtyard, as the dish is dedicated to the Sun god, Surya; the cooking is done in a clay pot, decorated with coloured patterns called kolam.
Pongal has one sweet and one savoury. The dish is served on banana leaves. Cooking pongal is a traditional practice at Hindu temples during any part of the Temple Festival in Tamil Nadu; the day preceding Pongal is called Bhogi. On this day people celebrate new possessions; the disposal of worn-out items is similar to the traditions of Holika in North India. The people assemble at dawn in Tamil Nadu to light a bonfire. Houses are cleaned and decorated to give a festive look; the horns of oxen and buffaloes are painted in villages. In Tamil Nadu farmers keep medicinal herb in northeast corner of each fields, to prevent crops from diseases and pests. Bhogi is observed on the same day in Andhra Pradesh. In the ceremony called Bhogi Pallu, fruits of the harvest such as regi pallu and sugar cane are collected along with flowers of the season. Money is placed into a mixture of treats and is poured over children; the children separate and collect the money and sweet fruits. This day is celebrated in Punjab in Assam as Magh Bihu / Bhogali Bihu.
The main event known as Thai Pongal, takes place on the second of the four days. This day coincides with Makara Sankranthi, a winter harvest festival celebrated throughout India; the day marks the start of the Uttarayana, the day of the Indic solstice when the sun purportedly enters the 10th house of the Indian zodiac i.e. Makara or Capricorn. In the Tamil language the word Pongal means "overflowing," signifying prosperity. During the festival, milk is cooked in a vessel; when it starts to bubble and overflows out of the vessel, freshly harvested rice grains are added to the pot. At the same time other participants blow a conch called the sanggu and shout "Pongalo Pongal!" They recite "Thai Pirandhal Vazhi Pirakkum". This is repeated during the Pongal festival; the Pongal is served to everyone in the house along with savories and sweets such as vadai, paayasam. Tamilians decorate their homes with banana and mango leaves and embellish the floor with decorative patterns drawn using rice flour. Kolams/rangolis are drawn on doorsteps.
Family elders present gifts to the young. The Sun stands for "Pratyaksha Brahman" - the manifest God, who symbolizes the one, non-dual, self-effulgent, glorious divinity blessing one and all tirelessly; the Sun is the one who transcends time and the one who rotates the proverbial wheel of time. Maatu Pongal is celebrated the day after Thai Pongal. Tamils regard cattle as sources of wealth for providing dairy products and labor for plowing and transportation. On Maatu Pongal, cattle are afforded affectionately. Features of the day include games such as taming bull. Kanu Pidi is a tradition for young girls. During Kanu Pidi women feed birds and pray for their brothers' well being; as part of the "Kaka pidi, Kanu pidi" feast women and girls place a feast of colored rice, cooked vegetables and sweet pongal on ginger or turmeric leaves for crows to share and enjoy. During this time women offer prayers in the hope that brother-sister ties remain forever strong as they do in a crow family. On this day celebrants decorate their cattle with garlands.
Cows are decorated with oil. Shikakai apply kungumam to their foreheads, paint their horns, feed them a mixture of venn po