Quartzite is a hard, non-foliated metamorphic rock which was originally pure quartz sandstone. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. Pure quartzite is usually white to grey, though quartzites often occur in shades of pink. Other colors, such as yellow, green and orange, are due to other minerals, when sandstone is cemented to quartzite, the individual quartz grains recrystallize along with the former cementing material to form an interlocking mosaic of quartz crystals. Most or all of the texture and sedimentary structures of the sandstone are erased by the metamorphism. The grainy, sandpaper-like surface becomes glassy in appearance, minor amounts of former cementing materials, iron oxide, silica and clay, often migrate during recrystallization and metamorphosis. This causes streaks and lenses to form within the quartzite, orthoquartzite is a very pure quartz sandstone composed of usually well-rounded quartz grains cemented by silica.
Orthoquartzite is often 99% SiO2 with only minor amounts of iron oxide and trace resistant minerals such as zircon, rutile. Although few fossils are present, the original texture and sedimentary structures are preserved. The term is traditionally used for quartz-cemented quartz arenites. Quartzite is very resistant to weathering and often forms ridges. The nearly pure silica content of the rock provides little for soil, because of its hardness and angular shape, crushed quartzite is often used as railway ballast. Quartzite is a stone and may be used to cover walls, as roofing tiles, as flooring. Its use for countertops in kitchens is expanding rapidly and it is harder and more resistant to stains than granite. Crushed quartzite is used in road construction. High purity quartzite is used to produce ferrosilicon, industrial silica sand, during the Paleolithic quartzite was used, in addition to flint and other lithic raw materials, for making stone tools. Quartzite is found in the Morenci Copper Mine in Arizona, the town of Quartzsite in western Arizona derives its name from the quartzites in the nearby mountains in both Arizona and Southeastern California.
A glassy vitreous quartzite has been described from the Belt Supergroup in the Coeur d’Alene district of northern Idaho, in the United Kingdom, a craggy ridge of quartzite called the Stiperstones runs parallel with the Pontesford-Linley fault,6 km north-west of the Long Mynd in south Shropshire
Siamese revolution of 1932
The Siamese revolution of 1932 or the Siamese coup détat of 1932 was a crucial turning point in 20th-century Thai history. The revolution, a coup détat, was a bloodless transition on 24 June 1932. The revolution was brought about by a small group of military and civilians, who formed Siams first political party. It ended 150 years of absolutism under the Chakri Dynasty and almost 800 years of rule of kings over Thai history. It was a product of historical change as well as domestic social and political changes. It resulted in the people of Siam being granted their first constitution, unlike other modern Southeast Asian states, Thailand was never formally colonised by colonial powers. Rama IV opened Siam to European trade and began the process of modernisation and his son, Rama V, consolidated state control over the Thai vassal states and created an absolute monarchy and a centralised state. However, the success of the Chakri monarchs sowed the seeds for the 1932 revolution, modernisation mandated from above had created by the early 20th century a class of Western-educated Thais in the commoner and lower nobility classes.
These were influenced by the ideals of the French and Russian revolutions and staffed the middle and this new elite would eventually form the Peoples Party that provided the nucleus of the 1932 revolution. Recent scholarship has begun raising alternative perspectives to modern Thai history that challenges the conventional perspectives of the 1932 Siamese Revolution, thongchai Winichakuls hypothesis on the emergence of the geo-body of Siam is widely accepted by scholars in Thai and Southeast Asian studies. The East now became increasingly described as barbaric, ignorant, or inferior, the mission to civilise the barbaric Asiatics became the raison dêtre for colonialism and imperialism. Thongchai further argues that the key strategies adopted by the Siamese state were similar to those adopted by Western colonial powers in administering their colonies. Space and power were essentially redefined by the Siamese state and semi-autonomous muangsgs were brought under the direct control of the state by the beginning of the twentieth century.
Cartography was introduced to define the borders, replacing the vague frontiers of the Mandala kingdoms. People were assigned to ethnic groups and these new perspectives created a politically dominant Siamese aristocracy that became increasingly powerful from the modernisation/self-colonisation process it initiated and directed. Thus they could no longer control events and political developments in Siam and were swept aside by activists who advocated democracy, since 1782 the Kingdom of Siam had been ruled by the House of Chakri, founded by King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke. The capital city, was founded by King Rama I. For over a century, the kings of Siam were able to protect the nation from neighbours and other nations, escaping colonialism from European powers such as Britain
Thon Buri was the capital of Siam for a short time during the reign of King Taksin the Great, after the ruin of capital Ayutthaya by the Konbaung. King Rama I relocated the capital to Bangkok on the side of the Chao Phraya River in 1782. Thon Buri stayed an independent town and province, and was merged into Bangkok in 1971, in 1767, after dominating southeast Asia for almost 400 years, the Ayutthaya kingdom was destroyed. The royal palace and the city were burnt to the ground, the territory was occupied by the Burmese army and local leaders declared themselves overlords including the lords of Sakwangburi, Pimai and Nakhon Si Thammarat. Chao Tak, a nobleman of Chinese descent and a military leader, proceeded to make himself a lord by right of conquest. Based at Chanthaburi, Chao Tak raised troops and resources, in the same year, Chao Tak was able to retake Ayutthaya from the Burmese only seven months after the fall of the city. Upon Siamese independence, Hsinbyushin of Burma ordered the ruler of Tavoy to invade Siam, the Burmese armies arrived through Sai Yok and laid siege on the Bang Kung camp – the camp for Taksins Chinese troops – in modern Samut Songkhram Province.
Taksin hurriedly sent one of his generals Boonma to command the fleet to Bang Kung to relieve the siege, Siamese armies encircled the Burmese siege and defeated them. Ayutthaya, the centre of Siamese authority for hundreds of years, was so devastated that it could not be used as a government centre, Tak founded the new city of Thonburi Sri Mahasamut on the west bank of Chao Phraya river. The construction took place for about a year and Tak crowned himself in late 1768 as King Sanpet but he was known to people as King Taksin – a combination of his title, Taksin crowned himself as a King of Ayutthaya to signify the continuation to ancient glories. There were still local warlords competing for Siam, Taksin marched first in 1768 to Pitsanulok to subjugate the Lord of Pitsanulok who ruled over Upper Chao Phraya Basin. Taksin was injured during the campaign and had to retreat, the war readily weakened Pitsanulok and it was in turn subjugated by the Lord of Sakwangburi. The same year Taksin sent Thong Duang and Boonma to tame the Prince Theppipit – the ruler of Phimai to the north of Nakhon Ratchasima on the Khorat Plateau, the prince was a son of Borommakot and was defeated by Thonburi armies.
Theppipit fled to Vientiene but was captured and executed, in 1769, Taksin sent Phraya Chakri south to subjugate the Lord of Nakorn Si Thammarat. The lord fled to Pattani but was returned to Taksin, who reinstalled him back as the ruler of Nakorn Si Thammarat under Taksins governance, Prince Ang Non the Uparaja of Cambodia fled to Thonburi in 1769 after his conflicts with King Narairaja for Siamese supports. Taksin took this opportunity to request tributary from Cambodia, which Narairaja refused, Taksin sent Phraya Abhay Ronnarit and Phraya Anuchit Racha to subjugate Cambodia, taking Siemreap and Battambang. But Taksins absence from the capital shook the stability and the two generals decided to retreat to Thonburi. By this time, the rival to Thonburi authority was the Sakwangburi lordship led by the powerful monk Chao Phra Faang
An artifact or artefact is. something made or given shape by man, such as a tool or a work of art, esp an object of archaeological interest. In archaeology, the word has become a term of particular nuance and is defined as, an object recovered by archaeological endeavor, which may have a cultural interest. However, modern archaeologists take care to distinguish material culture from ethnicity, examples include stone tools, pottery vessels, metal objects such as weapons, and items of personal adornment such as buttons and clothing. Bones that show signs of modification are examples. Natural objects, such as fire cracked rocks from a hearth or plant material used for food, are classified by archeologists as ecofacts rather than as artifacts, natural objects that humans have moved but not changed are called manuports. Examples include seashells moved inland, or rounded pebbles placed away from the action that made them. For instance, a bone removed from a carcass is a biofact. Similarly there can be debate over early stone objects that could be either crude artifacts or naturally occurring and it can be difficult to distinguish the differences between actual man-made lithic artifacts and geofacts – naturally occurring lithics that resemble man-made tools.
It is possible to authenticate artifacts by examining the general attributed to man-made tools. Artifact Collection at the Royal Military College of Canada Museum in Kingston, Ontario
History of Thailand
Thai people, who originally lived in southwestern China, migrated into mainland Southeast Asia over a period of many centuries. Siam may have originated from the Sanskrit śyāma dark, referring to the skin colour of its native people. Chinese, 暹羅, pinyin, Xiānluó was the name for the kingdom centred on Sukhothai and Sawankhalok, but to the Thai themselves. The countrys designation as Siam by Westerners likely came from the Portuguese, Portuguese chronicles noted that the Borommatrailokkanat, king of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, sent an expedition to the Malacca Sultanate at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula in 1455. Following their conquest of Malacca in 1511, the Portuguese sent a mission to Ayutthaya. A century later, on 15 August 1612, The Globe, by the end of the 19th century, Siam had become so enshrined in geographical nomenclature that it was believed that by this name and no other would it continue to be known and styled. Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states of the Malay Peninsula, the Thai established their own states, the Sukhothai Kingdom, the Kingdom of Chiang Mai, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom.
These states fought each other and were under constant threat from the Khmers, after the end of the absolute monarchy in 1932, Thailand endured sixty years of almost permanent military rule before the establishment of a democratically elected-government system. In 2014 there was yet another coup détat, prior to the southwards migration of the Tai peoples from Yunnan in the 10th century, mainland Southeast Asia had been a home to various indigenous communities for thousands of years. The recent discovery of Homo erectus fossils such as Lampang man is an example of archaic hominids, the remains were first discovered during excavations in Lampang Province. The finds have dated from roughly 1,000, 000–500,000 years ago in the Pleistocene. Stone artefacts dating to 40,000 years ago have been recovered from, e. g. Tham Lod rockshelter in Mae Hong Son and Lang Rongrien Rockshelter in Krabi, peninsular Thailand. The archaeological data between 18, 000–3,000 years ago primarily derive from cave and rock shelter sites, there are many sites in Thailand dating to the Bronze and Iron Ages.
The most thoroughly researched of these sites are in the countrys northeast, especially in the Mun, the Mun River in particular is home to many moated sites composed of mounds surrounded by ditches and ramparts. The mounds contain evidence of prehistoric occupation, some trading settlements show evidence of trade with the Roman Empire, a Roman gold coin showing Roman emperor Antoninus Pius has been found in southern Thailand. Prior to the arrival of the Thai people and culture into what is now Thailand, little is known about Thailand before the 13th century, as the literary and concrete sources are scarce and most of the knowledge about this period is gleaned from archaeological evidence. Similar to other regions in Southeast Asia, Thailand was heavily influenced by the culture and religions of India, starting with the Kingdom of Funan around the first century until the Khmer Empire. E. A. Voretzsch believes that Buddhism must have been flowing into Thailand from India at the time of the Indian emperor Ashoka of the Maurya Empire, Thailand was influenced by the south Indian Pallava dynasty and north Indian Gupta Empire
River systems of Thailand
Thailand has 25 river basins with 254 sub-basins. Rainwater is one of the most important sources of water, Thailands water resource per capita is less than that of other countries in the region. The two principal river systems of Thailand are the Chao Phraya and the Mekong, these rivers support the irrigation for Thailands agricultural economy. In addition to two large systems, there are a number of other river systems and individual rivers which drain the lands within Thailands borders into the Gulf of Thailand. One-third of the rivers flow into the Mekong. The Mekong is the river system in Thailand which drains into the South China Sea. The Chao Phraya River system is the river system of Thailand. The Chao Phraya River begins at the confluence of the Ping and it flows from north to south for 372 kilometres from the central plains through Bangkok to the Gulf of Thailand. In the low alluvial plain which begins below the Chai Nat Dam, the khlong are used for the irrigation of the regions rice paddies.
The principal tributaries of the Chao Phraya River are the Pa Sak River, the Sakae Krang River, the Nan River, the Ping River, each of these tributaries is further tributed by additional minor tributaries often referred to as khwae. All of the tributaries, including the lesser khwae, form an extensive tree-like pattern, with branches flowing through every province in central. None of the tributaries of the Chao Phraya extend beyond the nations borders, the Nan and the Yom Rivers flow nearly parallel from Phitsanulok to Chumsaeng in the north of Nakhon Sawan Province. The Wang River enters the Ping River near Sam Ngao District in Tak Province, the Chao Phraya watershed is the largest in Thailand, covering approximately 35 percent of the nations area, and draining an area of 157,924 square kilometres. The following river systems, in addition to the Chao Phraya, are the most significant gulf systems in Thailand, the river originates at the confluence of the Nakhon Nayok River and the Prachinburi River at Pak Nam Yotaka in Amphoe Ban Sang, Prachinburi Province.
It empties into the Gulf of Thailand in the tip of the Bay of Bangkok. The Bang Pakongs principal tributaries are the Nakhon Nayok River and the Prachin Buri River, the watershed of the Bang Pakong is about 17,900 square kilometres. The Phetchaburi River is a river in western Thailand and it originates in Kaeng Krachan National Park, Kaeng Krachan District and flows through Tha Yang, Ban Lat, Mueang Phetchaburi and empties into the Bay of Bangkok in Ban Laem District. It is 210 kilometres long, most of which is in Phetchaburi Province, the Mae Klong River is a river in western Thailand
For the extinct cephalopod genus, see Andesites. Andesite is an igneous, volcanic rock, of intermediate composition. In a general sense, it is the type between basalt and dacite, and ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide as illustrated in TAS diagrams. The mineral assemblage is dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene or hornblende. Magnetite, apatite, ilmenite and garnet are common accessory minerals, alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts. The quartz-feldspar abundances in andesite and other rocks are illustrated in QAPF diagrams. Classification of andesites may be refined according to the most abundant phenocryst, hornblende-phyric andesite, if hornblende is the principal accessory mineral. Andesite can be considered as the equivalent of plutonic diorite. Characteristic of subduction zones, andesite represents the dominant rock type in island arcs, the average composition of the continental crust is andesitic. Along with basalts they are a component of the Martian crust. The name andesite is derived from the Andes mountain range, magmatism in island arc regions comes from the interplay of the subducting plate and the mantle wedge, the wedge-shaped region between the subducting and overriding plates.
During subduction, the oceanic crust is submitted to increasing pressure and temperature. Hydrous minerals such as amphibole, chlorite etc. dehydrate as they change to more stable, anhydrous forms, releasing water, fluxing water into the wedge lowers the solidus of the mantle material and causes partial melting. Due to the density of the partially molten material, it rises through the wedge until it reaches the lower boundary of the overriding plate. Basalt thus formed can contribute to the formation of andesite through fractional crystallization, partial melting of crust, or magma mixing, andesite is typically formed at convergent plate margins but may occur in other tectonic settings. Intermediate volcanic rocks are created via several processes, Fractional crystallization of a mafic parent magma and this removal can take place in a variety of ways, but most commonly this occurs by crystal settling. The first minerals to crystallize and be removed from a parent are olivines and amphiboles.
These mafic minerals settle out of the magma, forming mafic cumulates, there is geophysical evidence from several arcs that large layers of mafic cumulates lie at the base of the crust
Government of Thailand
The Government of Thailand, or formally the Royal Thai Government, is the unitary government of the Kingdom of Thailand. The country emerged as a nation state after the foundation of the Chakri Dynasty. The Revolution of 1932 brought an end to absolute monarchy and replaced it with a constitutional monarchy, from on the country was ruled by a succession of military leaders installed after coups d’etat, the most recent in May 2014, and a few democratic intervals. The 2007 Constitution was annulled by the 2014 coup-makers who run the country as a military dictatorship, Thailand has so far had seventeen Constitutions. Throughout, the structure of government has remained the same. The government of Thailand is composed of three branches, the executive, the legislative, and the judiciary, the system of government is modelled after the Westminster system. All branches of government are concentrated in Bangkok, the city of Thailand. The constitution stipulates that although the sovereignty of the state is vested in the people, under the constitution the king is given very little power, but remains a figurehead and symbol of the Thai nation.
As the head of state, however, he is given some powers and has a role to play in the workings of government, according to the constitution, the king is head of the armed forces. He is required to be Buddhist as well as the defender of all faiths in the country, the king retained some traditional powers such as the power to appoint his heirs, the power to grant pardons, and the royal assent. The king is aided in his duties by the Privy Council of Thailand, the king is head of the House of Chakri, the ruling house of Thailand founded by King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke in 1782. The monarchy and the family continues to command huge respect in Thailand. The previous monarch wielded a great deal of respect and moral authority. The monarchs official home is the Grand Palace, however the present king lives primarily in the Chitralada Palace in Bangkok or the Klai Kangwon Villa, the monarchs household is managed by the Bureau of the Royal Household and his finances by the Crown Property Bureau. The heir presumptive to the throne is Prince Dipangkorn Rasmijoti, although it is up to the discretion whether Prince Dipangkorn will be named Crown Prince in the future.
Succession to the throne is governed by the 1924 Palace Law of Succession, Palace law follows the male agnatic primogeniture, where males only are allowed to succeed and inheritance is passed only from father to son and through the male line only. Since 1932 the head of government of Thailand has been the Prime Minister of Thailand, the prime minister is, in accordance with the constitution, first by an election in the lower house, officially appointed by the King. The prime minister, as head of the branch, is the leader of the Cabinet of Thailand
Tham Lot cave
Tham Lot is a cave system with a length of 1.666 meters near Soppong in Pang Mapha district, Mae Hong Son Province, northern Thailand. The Nam Lang River flows through the cave which is filled with stalactites and stalagmites, the cave is home to large numbers of bats and swifts. In Tham Lot and other caves nearby teakwood coffins have been discovered which are thought to have been carved by the Lawa tribespeople thousands of years ago. Another cave in the area, the second longest known cave in Thailand, is Tham Mae Lana and this was explored by Australian expeditions between 1984 and 1986. Other caves in the area which are over 1 km long include Tham Nam Lang, Tham Bung Hu, Tham Pha Mon, Tham Seua/Tham Lom, Tham Susa, Tham Huai Kun, Tham Pang Kham and Tham Plah. Spirit Well, a large collapse doline and one of the largest known natural holes in Thailand, is south of the H1095 road. It is more than 200m across and 90 to 130m deep and it was first descended, by the Australians, in 1985
The Holocene is the geological epoch that began after the Pleistocene at approximately 11,700 years before present. The term Recent has often used as an exact synonym of Holocene. The Holocene is part of the Quaternary period and its name comes from the Ancient Greek words ὅλος and καινός, meaning entirely recent. It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS1, given these, a new term, Anthropocene, is specifically proposed and used informally only for the very latest part of modern history involving significant human impact. It is accepted by the International Commission on Stratigraphy that the Holocene started approximately 11,700 years ago, the epoch follows the Pleistocene and the last glacial period. The Holocene can be subdivided into five time intervals, or chronozones, based on climatic fluctuations, Boreal, Atlantic and they find a general correspondence across Eurasia and North America, though the method was once thought to be of no interest. The scheme was defined for Northern Europe, but the changes were claimed to occur more widely.
The periods of the include a few of the final pre-Holocene oscillations of the last glacial period. Paleontologists have not defined any faunal stages for the Holocene, if subdivision is necessary, periods of human technological development, such as the Mesolithic and Bronze Age, are usually used. However, the time periods referenced by these terms vary with the emergence of those technologies in different parts of the world, the Holocene may be divided evenly into the Hypsithermal and Neoglacial periods, the boundary coincides with the start of the Bronze Age in Europe. According to some scholars, a division, the Anthropocene, has now begun. Continental motions due to plate tectonics are less than a kilometre over a span of only 10,000 years, ice melt caused world sea levels to rise about 35 m in the early part of the Holocene. The sea level rise and temporary land depression allowed temporary marine incursions into areas that are now far from the sea, Holocene marine fossils are known, for example, from Vermont and Michigan.
Other than higher-latitude temporary marine incursions associated with depression, Holocene fossils are found primarily in lakebed, floodplain. Holocene marine deposits along low-latitude coastlines are rare because the rise in sea levels during the period exceeds any likely tectonic uplift of non-glacial origin, post-glacial rebound in the Scandinavia region resulted in the formation of the Baltic Sea. The region continues to rise, still causing weak earthquakes across Northern Europe, the equivalent event in North America was the rebound of Hudson Bay, as it shrank from its larger, immediate post-glacial Tyrrell Sea phase, to near its present boundaries. Climate has been stable over the Holocene. It appears that this was influenced by the glacial ice remaining in the Northern Hemisphere until the date
Constitution of Thailand
The Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand provides the basis for the rule of law in Thailand. The Rattanakosin Kingdom and the four traditionally counted preceding kingdoms, collectively called Siam, had a constitution until 1932. The transition from monarchy to constitutional democracy began when King Prajadhipok agreed to a codified constitution to resolve the bloodless coup of 1932. The king signed a charter on 27 June 1932 at 17,00. Since 1932, Thailand has had 20 charters or constitutions —an average of one every four years—many adopted following military coups. After each successful coup, military regimes abrogated existing constitutions and promulgated new ones, parliamentary institutions, as defined by Thailands fourteen constitutions between 1932 and 1987, and competition among civilian politicians, have generally been facades for military governments. All of these called for a monarchy, but with widely differing separation of powers between the branches of government. Most of them stipulated parliamentary systems, but several of them called for dictatorships.
Both unicameral and bicameral parliaments have been used, and members of parliament have been elected and appointed. The direct powers of the monarch have varied considerably, the 2007 Constitution of Thailand promulgated in 2007, replacing the 2006 interim constitution promulgated after the army-led September 2006 Thailand coup. The 2007 Constitution was written by a group of drafters appointed by the army-led Council for National Security, prior to the referendum, the military junta passed a law making it illegal to publicly criticize the draft. Controversial features in the constitution included a partly-appointed Senate and amnesty for the leaders of the 2006 coup and it stipulated a bicameral legislature, both houses of which were elected. Many human rights were acknowledged for the first time. Siam has had 20 constitutions and charters since the overthrow of absolute monarchy in 1932, some charters, for instance the 1959 Charter of military dictator Sarit Dhanarajata, were used for years at a time.
The 2006 coup resulted in an interim constitution rather than an interim charter, the great number of charters and constitutions since 1932 is indicative of the degree of political instability in Thailand. The majority of charters and constitutions were the direct or indirect result of military coups and constitutions for much of Thai history can be thought of not as instruments of the people to control the government, but as instruments by which a government controls its people. All of Thailands charters and constitutions have allowed a constitutional monarchy, widely varying, have been the strength of the legislature, the percentage of legislators appointed versus elected, the power of the monarch, and the strength of the executive. These parameters have been influenced by the political and military strength of the regime and the degree of support from the king and the palace