Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Larissa is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly region, the fourth-most populous in Greece according to the population results of municipal units of 2011 census and capital of the Larissa regional unit. It is a principal agricultural centre and a national transport hub, linked by road and rail with the port of Volos, the cities of Thessaloniki and Athens. Larissa, within its municipality, has 162,591 inhabitants, while the regional unit of Larissa reached a population of 284,325; the urban area of the city, although contained within the Larissa municipality includes the communities of Giannouli, Nikaia and several other suburban settlements, bringing the wider urban area population of the city to about 174,012 inhabitants and extends over an area of 572.3 km2. Legend has it. Hippocrates, the "Father of Medicine", died here. Today, Larissa is an important commercial and industrial centre of Greece. There are a number of highways including E75 and the main railway from Athens to Thessaloniki crossing through Thessaly.
The region is directly linked to the rest of Europe through the International Airport of Central Greece located in Nea Anchialos a short distance from Larissa. Larissa lies on the river Pineios; the municipality Larissa has an area of 335.98 km2, the municipal unit Larissa has an area of 122.586 km2, the community Larissa has an area of 88.167 km2. The Larissa Chasma, a deep gash in the surface of Dione, a natural satellite of Saturn, was named after Larissa; the climate of Larissa is semi-arid in the cool version but it is close to a hot summer Mediterranean climate. The winter is mild, some snowstorms may occur; the summer is hot, temperatures of 40 °C may occur. Thunderstorms or heavy rain may cause agricultural damage. Larissa receives 413 mm of rain per year. According to Greek mythology it is said that the city was founded by Acrisius, killed accidentally by his grandson, Perseus. There lived Peleus, the hero beloved by the gods, his son Achilles. In mythology, the nymph Larissa was a daughter of the primordial man Pelasgus.
The city of Larissa is mentioned in Book II of Iliad by Homer: Hippothous led the tribes of Pelasgian spearsmen, who dwelt in fertile Larissa- Hippothous, Pylaeus of the race of Mars, two sons of the Pelasgian Lethus, son of Teutamus. In this paragraph, Homer shows that the Pelasgians, Trojan allies, used to live in the city of Larissa, it is that this city of Larissa was different to the city, the birthplace of Achilles. The Larissa that features as a Trojan ally in the Iliad was to be located in the Troad, on the other side of the Aegean Sea. Traces of Paleolithic human settlement have been recovered from the area, but it was peripheral to areas of advanced culture; the area around Larissa was fruitful. The name Larissa is in origin a Pelasgian word for "fortress". There were many ancient Greek cities with this name; the name of Thessalian Larissa is first recorded in connection with the aristocratic Aleuadai family. It was a polis. Larissa was a polis during the Classical Era. Larissa is thought to be where the famous Greek physician Hippocrates and the famous philosopher Gorgias of Leontini died.
When Larissa ceased minting the federal coins it shared with other Thessalian towns and adopted its own coinage in the late 5th century BC, it chose local types for its coins. The obverse depicted the nymph of the local spring, for whom the town was named; the reverse depicted a horse in various poses. The horse was an appropriate symbol of Thessaly, a land of plains, well known for its horses. There is a male figure. Larissa, sometimes written Larisa on ancient coins and inscriptions, is near the site of the Homeric Argissa, it appears in early times, when Thessaly was governed by a few aristocratic families, as an important city under the rule of the Aleuadae, whose authority extended over the whole district of Pelasgiotis. This powerful family possessed for many generations before 369 BC the privilege of furnishing the tagus, the local term for the strategos of the combined Thessalian forces; the principal rivals of the Aleuadae were the Scopadae of Crannon, the remains of which are about 14 miles south west.
Larissa was the birthplace of Meno, who thus became, along with Xenophon and a few others, one of the generals leading several thousands Greeks from various places, in the ill-fated expedition of 401 meant to help Cyrus the Younger, son of Darius II, king of Persia, overthrow his elder brother Artaxerxes II and take over the throne of Persia. The constitution of the town was democratic, which explains why it sided with Athens in the Peloponnesian War. In the neighbourhood of Larissa was celebrated a festival which recalled the Roman Sa
Sokratis Malamas is a Greek singer and songwriter. Sokratis Malamas was born on September 1957 in Sykia in Chalkidiki, Greece, his family moved to Stuttgart, Germany for a few years, he moved to Thessaloniki. There, he sang bouzouki songs and he learned from his father about his music. At age thirteen, he bought his first guitar and practiced for his presentations at schoolworks and when he was seventeen, he followed his guitar studies at the Macedonian Conservatory of Thessaloniki, he returned to Germany after he finished school and went to the Stuttgart Odeon. In one difficult period of his life, he came back to Greece and attended studies at the National Conservatory of Athens, he was taught by Notis Mavroudis. At 23, he began his professional career, worked as a guitar teacher and a singer in some public shops. Before he continued into his personal way, he was a guitarist at the orchestra of Nikos Papazoglou, he continued to play music in public shops, he put his songs on programs. Not until the time that Nikos Papazoglou made him enter the studio and began his first album Aspromavres Istories in 1989.
Sokratis Malamas made his performance in the odeon. His direction of his works was better loved his charts, he performed with famous musicians including Manolis Rasoulis, composers including Nikos Xydakis, singer Melina Kana, singer-songwriter Thanasis Papakonstantinou and cooperated with other lyricists and musicians including Giannis Tsatsopoulos, Giorgos Athanassopoulos, Alkis Alkaiou, Fotini Lambridis, Thodoros Gonis, Michalis Gkanas and Odysseas Ioannou. He participated in works of other musicians including Dionyssis Tsaknis, Maria Thoidou, B. D. Foxmoor and Sadahzinia, Eleftheria Arvanitaki, Thanos Mikroutsikos, Michalis Siganidis, Takis Vouis, Maria Papanikolaou Alkinoos Ioannidis, Haris Alexiou and others. Malamas wrote songs and featured them in movies including To Kynigi To Lagou and interpreted a song called To Chrono na Lavoso in a short-length film Ypsoma 33, Aspromavres Istories - Ασπρόμαυρες Ιστορίες Paramithia - Παραμύθια Tis Meras kai tis Nixtas - Της Μέρας και της Νύχτας Kyklos - Κύκλος Lavyrinthos - Λαβύρινθος 13.000 Meres - 13.000 Μέρες O Fylakas kai o Vasilias - Ο Φύλακας και ο Βασιλιάς Ena - Ένα Adeio Domatio - Άδειο Dromi - Δρόμοι Ekso - Έξω Perasma - Πέρασμα Hartis - Χάρτης 1994 - To Fantasma Apo to Parelthon 1995 - Stin Andromeda Kai Stin Gi 1997 - I Gynaika Kai To Milo 1997 - Pyli Tis Ammou 1997 - San Petalouda Virgin 1999 - Me tin Plati ston Ticho 1999 - Mikres Angelies 2006 - Plano Eksodou Official artist page.
Http://perso.wanadoo.fr/ilios/musique/malamas.htm - French
Singer-songwriters are musicians who write and perform their own musical material, including lyrics and melodies. The genre began with the folk-acoustic tradition. Singer-songwriters provide the sole accompaniment to an entire composition or song using a guitar or piano. "Singer-songwriter" is used to define popular music artists who write and perform their own material, self-accompanied on acoustic guitar or piano. Such an artist performs the roles of composer, vocalist, sometimes instrumentalist, self-manager. According to AllMusic, singer-songwriters' lyrics are personal but veiled by elaborate metaphors and vague imagery, their creative concern is to place emphasis on the song rather than their performance of it. Most records by such artists have a straightforward and spare sound that placed emphasis on the song itself; the term has been used to describe songwriters in the rock, folk and pop music genres including Henry Russell, Aristide Bruant, Hank Williams, Buddy Holly. It came into popular usage in the 1960s onwards to describe songwriters who followed particular stylistic and thematic conventions lyrical introspection, confessional songwriting, mild musical arrangements, an understated performing style.
According to writer Larry David Smith, because it merged the roles of composer and singer, the popularity of the singer-songwriter reintroduced the Medieval troubadour tradition of "songs with public personalities" after the Tin Pan Alley era in American popular music. Song topics include political protest, as in the case of the Almanac Singers, Pete Seeger and Woody Guthrie; the concept of a singer-songwriter can be traced to ancient bardic oral tradition, which has existed in various forms throughout the world. Poems would be performed as chant or song, sometimes accompanied by a harp or other similar instrument. After the invention of printing, songs would be performed by ballad sellers; these would be versions of existing tunes and lyrics, which were evolving. This developed into the singer-songwriting traditions of folk culture. Traveling performers existed throughout Europe. Thus, the folklorist Anatole Le Braz gives a detailed account of one ballad singer, Yann Ar Minouz, who wrote and performed songs traveling through Brittany in the late nineteenth century and selling printed versions.
In large towns it was possible to make a living performing in public venues, with the invention of phonographic recording, early singer-songwriters like Théodore Botrel, George M. Cohan and Hank Williams became celebrities. During the period from the 1940s through the 1960s, sparked by the American folk music revival, young performers inspired by traditional folk music and groups like the Almanac Singers and the Weavers began writing and performing their own original material and creating their own musical arrangements; the term "singer-songwriter" in North America can be traced back to singers who developed works in the blues and folk music style. Early to mid-20th century American singer-songwriters include Lead Belly, Jimmie Rodgers, Blind Lemon Jefferson, T-Bone Walker, Blind Willie McTell, Lightnin' Hopkins, Son House, Robert Johnson. In the 1940s and 1950s country singer-songwriters like Hank Williams became well known, as well as Woody Guthrie, Pete Seeger, along with Ronnie Gilbert and Lee Hays and other members of the Weavers who performed their topical works to an ever-growing wider audience.
These proto-singer-songwriters were less concerned than today's singer-songwriters with the unadulterated originality of their music and lyrics, would lift parts from other songs and play covers without hesitation. The tradition of writing topical songs was established by this group of musicians. Singers like Seeger and Guthrie would attend rallies for labor unions, so wrote many songs concerning the life of the working classes, social protest; this focus on social issues has influenced the singer-songwriter genre. Additionally in the 1930s through the 1950s several jazz and blues singer-songwriters emerged like Hoagy Carmichael, Billie Holiday, Ray Charles, Harry Gibson, Nina Simone, as well as in the rock n' roll genre from which emerged influential singer-songwriters Jerry Lee Lewis, Buddy Holly, Chuck Berry, Roy Orbison, Sam Cooke, Ritchie Valens, Paul Anka. In the country music field, singer-songwriters like Hank Williams, Patsy Cline, Tammy Wynette, Loretta Lynn, George Jones, Merle Haggard, Roger Miller, Billy Edd Wheeler, others emerged from the 1940s through the 1960s writing compelling songs about love relationships and other subjects.
The first popular recognition of the singer-songwriter in English-speaking North America and the United Kingdom occurred in the 1960s and early 1970s when a series of blues and country-influenced musicians rose to prominence and popularity. These singer-songwriters included Bob Dylan, Neil Young, John Lennon, Van Morrison, Willie Nelson, Paul Simon, Leonard Cohen, Joni Mitchell. Artists, songwriters, notably Carole King, Townes Van Zandt, Neil Diamond began releasing work as performers. In contrast to the storytelling approach of most prior country and folk music, these performers wrote songs from a personal, introspective point of
The laouto is a long-neck fretted instrument of the lute family, found in Greece and Cyprus, similar in appearance to the oud. The name comes from the lute, it is played in most respects like the oud. This instrument is known in Albania as "Llahuta" and in Romania as "lăuta". Unlike the oud and other short-necked lutes, the laouto has a higher string tension due to its longer neck and hence is brighter in tone than the oud; the laouto tends to have only one sound hole whereas the oud family tend to have three. In this respect and because the use of movable frets, the laouto more resembles the lute, while sounding more like the oud; the soundboard is made of spruce or cedar wood, while the body is made of a harder wood such as maple or walnut. This is a practice consonant with the construction of other lutes; the 11 frets of the neck are made of nylon. Up to 9 wooden frets, mounted on the soundboard, are fixed; the intervals of the frets may be more frequent than that of a guitar to permit the playing of maqams as found in the music of Byzantium.
The strings of the laouto were traditionally of gut, although the modern laouto has steel strings similar to those of the bouzouki. The laouto's eight strings are paired; the interval from one pair to the next is tuned in fifths. The Laouto has a re-entrant tuning, Gg tuned a fourth lower than Cc; the two primary contemporary variants of the laouto, one somewhat smaller than the other, are to be found on mainland Greece and on the island of Crete. The larger sized instrument is played on the island of Crete and tends to be tuned differently, the re-entrant tuning is still a characteristic of the Cretan laouto, because Dd is a fourth lower than Gg. In Cyprus, Cypriot laouto is tuned C - G - D - A; the role of the laouto in Greek traditional music is that of accompaniment. The laouto is played in a duo with the Cretan lyra or with the violin. Lavta http://www.we-love-crete.com/cretan-music.html Atlas of plucked musical instruments Solo Cretan laouto video
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, engineering mathematics, materials science principles to design, analyze and maintain mechanical systems. It is one of the broadest of the engineering disciplines; the mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, product life cycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery and cooling systems, transport systems, watercraft, medical devices and others, it is the branch of engineering that involves the design and operation of machinery. Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century. In the 19th century, developments in physics led to the development of mechanical engineering science.
The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements. It overlaps with aerospace engineering, metallurgical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing engineering, chemical engineering, industrial engineering, other engineering disciplines to varying amounts. Mechanical engineers may work in the field of biomedical engineering with biomechanics, transport phenomena, bionanotechnology, modelling of biological systems; the application of mechanical engineering can be seen in the archives of various ancient and medieval societies. In ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes influenced mechanics in the Western tradition and Heron of Alexandria created the first steam engine. In China, Zhang Heng improved a water clock and invented a seismometer, Ma Jun invented a chariot with differential gears; the medieval Chinese horologist and engineer Su Song incorporated an escapement mechanism into his astronomical clock tower two centuries before escapement devices were found in medieval European clocks.
He invented the world's first known endless power-transmitting chain drive. During the Islamic Golden Age, Muslim inventors made remarkable contributions in the field of mechanical technology. Al-Jazari, one of them, wrote his famous Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206 and presented many mechanical designs. Al-Jazari is the first known person to create devices such as the crankshaft and camshaft, which now form the basics of many mechanisms. During the 17th century, important breakthroughs in the foundations of mechanical engineering occurred in England. Sir Isaac Newton formulated Newton's Laws of Motion and developed Calculus, the mathematical basis of physics. Newton was reluctant to publish his works for years, but he was persuaded to do so by his colleagues, such as Sir Edmond Halley, much to the benefit of all mankind. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is credited with creating Calculus during this time period. During the early 19th century industrial revolution, machine tools were developed in England and Scotland.
This allowed mechanical engineering to develop as a separate field within engineering. They brought with them manufacturing machines and the engines to power them; the first British professional society of mechanical engineers was formed in 1847 Institution of Mechanical Engineers, thirty years after the civil engineers formed the first such professional society Institution of Civil Engineers. On the European continent, Johann von Zimmermann founded the first factory for grinding machines in Chemnitz, Germany in 1848. In the United States, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers was formed in 1880, becoming the third such professional engineering society, after the American Society of Civil Engineers and the American Institute of Mining Engineers; the first schools in the United States to offer an engineering education were the United States Military Academy in 1817, an institution now known as Norwich University in 1819, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1825. Education in mechanical engineering has been based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science.
Degrees in mechanical engineering are offered at various universities worldwide. Mechanical engineering programs take four to five years of study and result in a Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Science Engineering, Bachelor of Technology, Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering, or Bachelor of Applied Science degree, in or with emphasis in mechanical engineering. In Spain and most of South America, where neither B. Sc. nor B. Tech. Programs have been adopted, the formal name for the degree is "Mechanical Engineer", the course work is based on five or six years of training. In Italy the course work is based on five years of education, training, but in order to qualify as an Engineer one has to pass a state exam at the end of the course. In Greece, the coursework is based on a five-year curriculum and the requirement of a'Diploma' Thesis, which upon completion a'Diploma' is awarded rather than a B. Sc. In the United States, most undergraduate mechanical engineering programs are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology to ensure similar course requirements and standards a