Turkey as food
Turkey meat referred to as just turkey, is the meat from turkeys domesticated turkeys. It is a popular poultry product in North America, where it is traditionally consumed as part of culturally significant events such as Thanksgiving and Christmas, as well as in standard cuisine. Turkeys are sold sliced and ground, as well as "whole" in a manner similar to chicken with the head and feathers removed. Frozen whole turkeys remain popular. Sliced turkey is used as a sandwich meat or served as cold cuts. Ground turkey is sold, marketed as a healthy alternative to ground beef. Without careful preparation, cooked turkey is considered to end up less moist than other poultry meats such as chicken or duck. Wild turkeys, while technically the same species as domesticated turkeys, have a different taste from farm-raised turkeys. All of the meat is "dark" with a more intense flavor; the flavor can vary seasonally with changes in available forage leaving wild turkey meat with a gamier flavor in late summer, due to the greater number of insects in its diet over the preceding months.
Wild turkey that has fed predominantly on grass and grain has a milder flavor. Older heritage breeds differ in flavor. A large amount of turkey meat is processed, it can be smoked, as such, is sometimes sold as turkey ham or turkey bacon, considered to be far healthier than pork bacon. Twisted helices of deep-fried turkey meat, sold as "turkey twizzlers", came to prominence in the UK in 2004 when chef Jamie Oliver campaigned to have them and similar foods removed from school dinners. Unlike chicken eggs, turkey eggs are not sold as food due to the high demand for whole turkeys and lower output of eggs as compared with other fowl; the value of a single turkey egg is estimated to be about $3.50 on the open market more than an entire carton of one dozen chicken eggs. Turkeys are traditionally eaten as the main course of Thanksgiving dinner in the United States and Canada, at Christmas feasts in much of the rest of the world. Turkey meat has been eaten by indigenous peoples from Mexico, Central America, the southern tier of the United States since antiquity.
In the 15th century, Spanish ‘’conquistadores’’ took Aztec turkeys back to Europe. Turkey was eaten as such as early as the 16th century in England. Before the 20th century, pork ribs were the most common food for the North American holidays, as the animals were slaughtered in November. Turkeys were once so abundant in the wild that they were eaten throughout the year, the food considered commonplace, whereas pork ribs were available outside of the Thanksgiving-New Year season. While the tradition of turkey at Christmas spread throughout Britain in the 17th century, among the working classes, it became common to serve goose, which remained the predominant roast until the Victorian era. In the UK in 2009, 7,734,000 turkeys were consumed on Christmas Day. Turkey with mole sauce is regarded as Mexico's "national dish". Both fresh and frozen turkeys are used for cooking. Around holiday seasons, high demand for fresh turkeys makes them difficult to purchase without ordering in advance. For the frozen variety, the large size of the turkeys used for consumption makes defrosting them a major endeavor: a sized turkey will take several days to properly defrost.
Turkeys are baked or roasted in an oven for several hours while the cook prepares the remainder of the meal. Sometimes, a turkey is brined before roasting to enhance moisture content; this is done because the dark meat requires a higher temperature to denature all of the myoglobin pigment than the white meat, so that cooking the dark meat tends to dry out the breast. Brining makes it possible to cook the dark meat without drying the breast meat. Turkeys are sometimes decorated with turkey frills, paper frills or "booties" that are placed on the end of drumsticks or bones of other cutlets. In some areas the American South, they may be deep fried in hot oil for 30 to 45 minutes by using a turkey fryer. Deep frying turkey has become something of a fad, with hazardous consequences for those unprepared to safely handle the large quantities of hot oil required. Turkey contains more protein per ounce than other meats; the white meat of turkey is considered healthier than dark meat because of its lower saturated fat content, but the nutritional differences are small.
Turkey is reputed to cause sleepiness, but holiday dinners are large meals served with carbohydrates and alcohol in a relaxed atmosphere, all of which are bigger contributors to post-meal sleepiness than the tryptophan in turkey. After World War II, cheap imported turkey tail became popular in Samoa; because the cut is so fatty, it has been attributed to the rise in obesity rates in the Pacific. To combat obesity, turkey tails were banned from 2007 to 2013, only allowed back in Samoa to appease the demands of the World Trade Organization. For Thanksgiving in the United States, turkey is served stuffed or with dressing, with cranberry sauce and gravy. Common complementary dishes include mashed potatoes, corn on the cob, green beans and sweet potatoes. Pie is the usual dessert those made from pumpkins, apples, or pecans; when eaten at Christmas in the United Kingdom, turkey is traditionally served with winter vegetables, including roast potatoes, Brussels sprouts, p
Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island is a province of Canada consisting of the Atlantic island of the same name along with several much smaller islands nearby. PEI is one of the three Maritime Provinces, it is the smallest province of Canada in both land area and population, but it is the most densely populated. Part of the traditional lands of the Mi'kmaq, it became a British colony in the 1700s and was federated into Canada as a province in 1873, its capital is Charlottetown. According to the 2016 census, the province of PEI has 142,907 residents; the backbone of the economy is farming. The island has several informal names: "Garden of the Gulf", referring to the pastoral scenery and lush agricultural lands throughout the province. PEI is one of Canada's older settlements and demographically still reflects older immigration to the country, with Scottish, Irish and French surnames being dominant to this day. PEI is located about 200 kilometres north of Halifax, Nova Scotia, 600 kilometres east of Quebec City.
It consists of 231 minor islands. Altogether, the entire province has a land area of 5,686.03 km2. The main island is 5,620 km2 in size larger than the U. S. state of Delaware. It is the 104th-largest island in Canada's 23rd-largest island. In 1798, the British named the island colony for Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III and the father of Queen Victoria. Prince Edward has been called "Father of the Canadian Crown"; the following island landmarks are named after the Duke of Kent: Prince Edward Battery, Victoria Park, Charlottetown Kent College, Charlottetown Kent Street, Charlottetown West Kent Elementary School Kent Street, GeorgetownIn French, the island is today called Île-du-Prince-Édouard, but its former French name, as part of Acadia, was Île Saint-Jean. The island is known in Scottish Gaelic as Eilean a' Phrionnsa or Eilean Eòin for some Gaelic speakers in Nova Scotia though not on PEI; the island is known in the Mi'kmaq language as Abegweit or Epekwitk translated as "land cradled in the waves".
Prince Edward Island is located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, west of Cape Breton Island, north of the Nova Scotia peninsula, east of New Brunswick, its southern shore bounds the Northumberland Strait. The island has two urban areas; the larger surrounds Charlottetown Harbour, situated centrally on the island's southern shore, consists of the capital city Charlottetown, suburban towns Cornwall and Stratford and a developing urban fringe. A much smaller urban area surrounds Summerside Harbour, situated on the southern shore 40 km west of Charlottetown Harbour, consists of the city of Summerside; as with all natural harbours on the island and Summerside harbours are created by rias. The island's landscape is pastoral. Rolling hills, reddish white sand beaches, ocean coves and the famous red soil have given Prince Edward Island a reputation as a province of outstanding natural beauty; the provincial government has enacted laws to preserve the landscape through regulation, although there is a lack of consistent enforcement, an absence of province-wide zoning and land-use planning.
Under the Planning Act of the province, municipalities have the option to assume responsibility for land-use planning through the development and adoption of official plans and land use bylaws. Thirty-one municipalities have taken responsibility for planning. In areas where municipalities have not assumed responsibility for planning, the Province remains responsible for development control; the island's lush landscape has a strong bearing on its culture. The author Lucy Maud Montgomery drew inspiration from the land during the late Victorian Era for the setting of her classic novel Anne of Green Gables. Today, many of the same qualities that Montgomery and others found in the island are enjoyed by tourists who visit year-round, they enjoy a variety of leisure activities, including beaches, various golf courses, eco-tourism adventures, touring the countryside, enjoying cultural events in local communities around the island. The smaller, rural communities as well as the towns and villages throughout the province, retain a slower-paced, old-world flavour.
Prince Edward Island has become popular as a tourist destination for relaxation. The economy of most rural communities on the island is based on small-scale agriculture. Industrial farming has increased as businesses consolidate older farm properties; the coastline has a combination of long beaches, red sandstone cliffs, salt water marshes, numerous bays and harbours. The beaches and sandstone cliffs consist of sedimentary rock and other material with a high iron concentration, which oxidises upon exposure to the air; the geological properties of a white silica sand found at Basin Head are unique in the province. Large dune fields on the north shore can be found on barrier islands at the entrances to various bays and harbours
Pumpkin pie is a dessert pie with a spiced, pumpkin-based custard filling. The pumpkin is a symbol of harvest time, pumpkin pie is eaten during the fall and early winter. In the United States and Canada, it is prepared for Thanksgiving, other occasions when pumpkin is in season; the pie filling ranges in color from orange to brown, is baked in a single pie shell with a top crust. The pie is flavored with cinnamon, powdered ginger and cloves. Allspice is commonly used and can replace the clove and nutmeg, as its flavor is similar to both combined. Cardamom and vanilla are sometimes used as batter spices; the spice mixture is called pumpkin pie spice. The pie is made from canned pumpkin or packaged pumpkin pie filling from varieties of Cucurbita moschata.' Pies made from pumpkins use pie pumpkins. They are smaller than jack o'lanterns; the first step for getting the edible part out of the pumpkin is to slice it in half and remove the seeds. The two halves are heated until soft, in an oven, over an open fire, on a stove top, or in a microwave oven.
Sometimes the pumpkin halves are brined to soften the pulp instead of being cooked. At this point the pulp puréed; the pulp is mixed with eggs, evaporated and/or sweetened condensed milk, a spice mixture called pumpkin pie spice, which includes nutmeg and other spices baked in a pie shell. Similar pies are made with butternut squash or sweet potato fillings; the pumpkin is native to the continent of North America. The pumpkin was an early export to France. During the seventeenth century, pumpkin pie recipes could be found in English cookbooks, such as Hannah Woolley's The Gentlewoman's Companion. Pumpkin "pies" made by early American colonists were more to be a savory soup made and served in a pumpkin than a sweet custard in a crust, it was not until the early nineteenth century that the recipes appeared in American cookbooks or pumpkin pie became a common addition to the Thanksgiving dinner. The Pilgrims brought the pumpkin pie back to New England, while the English method of cooking the pumpkin took a different course.
In the 19th century, the English pumpkin pie was prepared by stuffing the pumpkin with apples and sugar and baking it whole. In the United States after the Civil War, the pumpkin pie was resisted in southern states as a symbol of Yankee culture imposed on the south, where there was no tradition of eating pumpkin pie. Many southern cooks instead made sweet potato pie, or added bourbon and pecans to give a southern touch. Today, throughout much of the United States, it is traditional to serve pumpkin pie after Thanksgiving dinner. Additionally, many modern companies produce seasonal pumpkin pie-flavored products such as candy, coffee, ice cream, french toast and pancakes, many breweries produce a seasonal pumpkin ale or beer. Commercially made pumpkin pie mix is made from Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita moschata. Pumpkin pies were discouraged from Thanksgiving dinners in 1947 as part of a rationing campaign because of the eggs in the recipe. Lydia Maria Child's Thanksgiving poem "Over the River and Through the Wood" references pumpkin pie in one of its verses: "Hurrah for the fun!
Is the pudding done? / Hurrah for the pumpkin pie!" John Greenleaf Whittier wrote in his poem "The Pumpkin":Ah! on Thanksday, when from East and from West,From North and from South comes the pilgrim and guest. Oscar Ferdinand Telgmann and George Frederick Cameron wrote the song "Farewell O Fragrant Pumpkin Pie" in the opera Leo, the Royal Cadet: Farewell, O fragrant pumpkin pie! Dyspeptic pork, adieu! Though to the college halls I hie. On field of battle though I die, my latest sob, my latest sigh shall wafted be to you! And thou, O doughnut rare and rich and fried divinely brown! Thy form shall fill a noble niche in memory's chamber whilst I pitch my tent beside the river which rolls on through Kingston town, and my Love—my little Nell, the apple of my eye to thee how can I say farewell? I love thee more; the Christmas-themed song "There's No Place Like Home for the Holidays" makes a reference to homemade pumpkin pie being looked forward to by a man returning to his family's home in Pennsylvania.
"Rockin' Around the Christmas Tree" contains the lyric, "Later we'll have some pumpkin pie / And we'll do some caroling". "Sleigh Ride", another popular Christmas song mentions sitting around a fire after being out in the snow and eating pumpkin pie. The world's largest pumpkin pie was made in Ohio, at the New Bremen Pumpkinfest, it was created on September 25, 2010. The pie consisted of 1,212 pounds of canned pumpkin, 109 gallons of evaporated milk, 2,796 eggs, 7 pounds of salt, 14.5 pounds of cinnamon, 525 pounds of sugar. The final pie measured 20 feet in diameter. Bundevara List of pies List of squash and pumpkin dishes Sweet potato pie
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Sweet corn is a cereal with a high sugar content. Sweet corn is the result of a occurring recessive mutation in the genes which control conversion of sugar to starch inside the ENO of the corn kernel. Unlike field corn varieties, which are harvested when the kernels are dry and mature, sweet corn is picked when immature and prepared and eaten as a vegetable, rather than a grain. Since the process of maturation involves converting sugar to starch, sweet corn stores poorly and must be eaten fresh, canned, or frozen, before the kernels become tough and starchy, it is one of the six major types of corn, the others being dent corn, flint corn, pod corn and flour corn. Sweet corn occurs as a spontaneous mutation in field corn and was grown by several Native American tribes; the Iroquois gave the first recorded sweet corn to European settlers in 1779. It soon became a popular food in the central regions of the United States. Open pollinated cultivars of white sweet corn started to become available in the United States in the 19th century.
Two of the most enduring cultivars, still available today, are'Country Gentleman' and'Stowell's Evergreen'. Sweet corn production in the 20th century was influenced by the following key developments: hybridization allowed for more uniform maturity, improved quality and disease resistance In 1933'Golden Cross Bantam' was released, it is significant for being the first successful single-cross hybrid and the first developed for disease resistance. Identification of the separate gene mutations responsible for sweetness in corn and the ability to breed cultivars based on these characteristics: su se sh2 There are hundreds of cultivars, with more being developed; the fruit of the sweet corn plant is the corn kernel, a type of fruit called a caryopsis. The ear is a collection of kernels on the cob; because corn is a monocot, there is always an number of rows of kernels. The ear is covered by wrapped leaves called the husk. Silk is the name for the pistillate flowers; the husk and silk are removed by hand, before boiling but not before roasting, in a process called husking or shucking.
In most of Latin America, sweet corn is traditionally eaten with beans. In Brazil, sweet corn cut off from the cobs is eaten with peas. In Malaysia, there's a variety unique to the region of Cameron highlands named "pearl corn"; the kernels are glossy white resembling pearls and can be eaten raw of the cob but boiled in water and salt. Sweet corn in Indonesia is traditionally ground or soaked with milk, which makes available the B vitamin niacin in the corn, the absence of which would otherwise lead to pellagra; the kernels are steamed. In Europe, Korea and India, they are used as a pizza topping, or in salads. Corn on the cob is a sweet corn cob, boiled, steamed, or grilled whole. Creamed corn is sweet corn served in a cream sauce. Sweet corn can be eaten as baby corn. In the United States, sweet corn is eaten as a steamed vegetable, or on the cob served with butter and salt, it can be found in Tex-Mex cooking in chili and salads. When corn is mixed with lima beans it is called succotash. Sweet corn is one of the most popular vegetables in the United States.
Fresh and frozen sweet corn rank among the top ten vegetables in value and per capita consumption. Frozen cut corn is exceeded only by frozen potato products while frozen corn on the cob is 4th following peas. If left to dry on the plant, kernels may be taken off the cob and cooked in oil where, unlike popcorn, they expand to about double the original kernel size and are called corn nuts. A soup may be made from the plant, called sweet corn soup. Cooking sweet corn increases levels of ferulic acid, which has anti-cancer properties. Open pollinated corn has been replaced in the commercial market by sweeter, earlier hybrids, which have the advantage of maintaining their sweet flavor longer. Su cultivars are best. Despite their short storage life, many open-pollinated cultivars such as'Golden Bantam' remain popular for home gardeners and specialty markets or are marketed as heirloom seeds. Although less sweet, they are described as more tender and flavorful than hybrids. Early cultivars, including those used by Native Americans, were the result of the mutant su allele.
They contain about 5–10% sugar by weight. Supersweet corn are cultivars of sweet corn which produce higher than normal levels of sugar developed by University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign professor John Laughnan, he was investigating two specific genes in sweet corn, one of which, the sh2 gene, caused the corn to shrivel when dry. After further investigation, Laughnan discovere
Thanksgiving (United States)
Thanksgiving is a national holiday in the United States, celebrated on the fourth Thursday of November. It originated as a harvest festival. Thanksgiving has been celebrated nationally on and off since 1789, with a proclamation by George Washington after a request by Congress. Thomas Jefferson chose not to observe the holiday, its celebration was intermittent until the presidency of Abraham Lincoln, when Thanksgiving became a federal holiday in 1863, during the American Civil War. Lincoln proclaimed a national day of "Thanksgiving and Praise to our beneficent Father who dwelleth in the Heavens," to be celebrated on the last Thursday in November. Under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the date was changed to the fourth Thursday in November, an innovation that endures to this day. Together with Christmas and the New Year, Thanksgiving is a part of the broader fall–winter holiday season in the U. S; the event that Americans call the "First Thanksgiving" was celebrated by the Pilgrims after their first harvest in the New World in October 1621.
This feast lasted three days, and—as accounted by attendee Edward Winslow—it was attended by 90 Native Americans and 53 Pilgrims. The New England colonists were accustomed to celebrating "thanksgivings"—days of prayer thanking God for blessings such as military victory or the end of a drought. Setting aside time to give thanks for one's blessings, along with holding feasts to celebrate a harvest, are both practices that long predate the European settlement of North America; the first documented thanksgiving services in territory belonging to the United States were conducted by Spaniards and the French in the 16th century. Wisdom practices such as expressing gratitude and giving away, are integral to many indigenous cultures and communities.. Thanksgiving services were routine in what became the Commonwealth of Virginia as early as 1607, with the first permanent settlement of Jamestown, Virginia holding a thanksgiving in 1610. In 1619, 38 English settlers arrived at Berkeley Hundred in Virginia.
The group's London Company charter required "that the day of our ships arrival at the place assigned... in the land of Virginia shall be yearly and perpetually kept holy as a day of thanksgiving to Almighty God." Three years after the Indian massacre of 1622, the Berkeley Hundred site and other outlying locations were abandoned and colonists moved their celebration to Jamestown and other more secure spots. The most prominent historic thanksgiving event in American popular culture is the 1621 celebration at the Plymouth Plantation, where the settlers held a harvest feast after a successful growing season. Autumn or early winter feasts continued sporadically in years, first as an impromptu religious observance and as a civil tradition; the Plymouth settlers, known as Pilgrims, had settled in land abandoned when all but one of the Patuxet Indians died in a plague. After a harsh winter killed half of the Plymouth settlers, the last surviving Patuxet, came in at the request of Samoset, the first native American to encounter the Pilgrims.
Squanto taught the Pilgrims how to catch eel and grow corn and served as an interpreter for them until he too succumbed to plague a year later. The Wampanoag leader Massasoit gave food to the colonists during the first winter when supplies brought from England were insufficient; the Pilgrims celebrated at Plymouth for three days after their first harvest in 1621. The exact time is unknown, but James Baker, the Plimoth Plantation vice president of research, stated in 1996, "The event occurred between Sept. 21 and Nov. 11, 1621, with the most time being around Michaelmas, the traditional time." Seventeenth-century accounts do not identify this as a Thanksgiving observance, rather it followed the harvest. It included 50 people who were on 90 Native Americans; the feast was cooked by the four adult Pilgrim women who survived their first winter in the New World, along with young daughters and male and female servants. Two colonists gave personal accounts of the 1621 feast in Plymouth; the Pilgrims, most of whom were Separatists, are not to be confused with Puritans, who established their own Massachusetts Bay Colony on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630.
Both groups were strict Calvinists. Puritans wished to remain in the Anglican Church and reform it, while the Pilgrims wanted complete separation from the church. William Bradford, in Of Plymouth Plantation wrote: They began now to gather in the small harvest they had, to fit up their houses and dwellings against winter, being all well recovered in health and strength and had all things in good plenty. For as some were thus employed in affairs abroad, others were exercised in fishing, about cod and bass and other fish, of which they took good store, of which every family had their portion. All the summer there was no want, and besides waterfowl there was great store of wild turkeys, of which they took many, besides venison, etc. Besides, they had about a peck a meal a week to a person, or now since harvest, Indian corn to the proportion. Which made many afterwards write so of their plenty here to their friends in England, which were not feigned but true reports. Edward Winslow, in Mourt's Relation wrote: Our harvest being gotten in, our governor sent four men on fowling, that so we might after a specia
A harvest festival is an annual celebration that occurs around the time of the main harvest of a given region. Given the differences in climate and crops around the world, harvest festivals can be found at various times at different places. Harvest festivals feature feasting, both family and public, with foods that are drawn from crops that come to maturity around the time of the festival. Ample food and freedom from the necessity to work in the fields are two central features of harvest festivals: eating, contests and romance are common features of harvest festivals around the world. In North America and the US each have their own Thanksgiving celebrations in October and November. In Britain, thanks have been given for successful harvests since pagan times. Harvest festival is traditionally held on the Sunday of the Harvest Moon; this is the full Moon. The celebrations on this day include singing hymns and decorating churches with baskets of fruit and food in the festival known as Harvest Festival, Harvest Home, Harvest Thanksgiving or Harvest Festival of Thanksgiving.
In British and English-Caribbean churches and schools, some Canadian churches, people bring in produce from the garden, the allotment or farm. The food is distributed among the poor and senior citizens of the local community, or used to raise funds for the church, or charity. Harvest festivals in Asia include the Chinese Mid-Autumn Festival, one of the most spread harvest festivals in the world. In Iran Mehrgan was celebrated in an extravagant style at Persepolis. Not only was it the time for harvest, but it was the time when the taxes were collected. Visitors from different parts of the Persian Empire brought gifts for the king, all contributing to a lively festival. In India, Makar Sankranti, Thai Pongal, Uttarayana and Magh Bihu or Bhogali Bihu in January, Holi in February–March, Vaisakhi in April and Onam in August–September are a few important harvest festivals. Jews celebrate the week-long harvest festival of Sukkot in the autumn. Observant Jews build a temporary hut or shack called a sukkah, spend the week living, eating and praying inside of it.
A sukkah has a semi-open roof to allow the elements to enter. It is reminiscent of the structures Israelite farmers would live in during the harvest, at the end of which they would bring a portion to the Temple in Jerusalem. An early harvest festival used to be celebrated at the beginning of the harvest season on 1 August and was called Lammas, meaning'loaf Mass'; the Latin prayer to hallow the bread is given in the Durham Ritual. Farmers made loaves of bread from the fresh wheat crop; these were given to the local church as the Communion bread during a special service thanking God for the harvest. By the sixteenth century a number of customs seem to have been established around the gathering of the final harvest, they include the reapers accompanying a laden cart. A play by Thomas Nashe, Summer's Last Will and Testament, contains a scene which demonstrates several of these features. There is a character personifying harvest; the scene is inspired by contemporary harvest celebrations, singing and drinking feature largely.
The stage instruction reads: The song which follows may be an actual harvest song, or a creation of the author's intended to represent a typical harvest song of the time: The shout of "hooky, hooky" appears to be one traditionally associated with the harvest celebration. The last verse is repeated in full after the character Harvest remarks to the audience "Is your throat cleare to helpe us sing hooky, hooky?" and a stage direction adds, "Heere they all sing after him". In 1555 in Archbishop Parker's translation of Psalm 126 occur the lines: In some parts of England "Hoakey" or "Horkey" became the accepted name of the actual festival itself: Another widespread tradition was the distribution of a special cake to the celebrating farmworkers. A prose work of 1613 refers to the practice as predating the Reformation. Describing the character of a typical farmer, it says: Early English settlers took the idea of harvest thanksgiving to North America; the most famous one is the harvest Thanksgiving held by the Pilgrims in 1621.
Nowadays the festival is held at the end of harvest. Sometimes neighbouring churches will set the Harvest Festival on different Sundays so that people can attend each other's thanksgivings; until the 20th century most farmers celebrated the end of the harvest with a big meal called the harvest supper, to which all who had helped in the harvest were invited. It was sometimes known as a "Mell-supper", after the last patch of corn or wheat standing in the fields, known as the "Mell" or "Neck". Cutting it signified the end of the work of harvest and the beginning of the feast. There seems to have been a feeling that it was bad luck to be the person to cut the last stand of corn; the farmer and his workers would race against the harvesters on other farms to be first to complete the harvest, shouting to announce they had finished. In some counties the last stand of corn would be cut by the workers throwing their sickles at it until it was all down, in others the reapers would take it