The Koori People are Indigenous Australians of New South Wales and Victoria. This is their preferred term, expressing pride in their heritage, the word Koori is from Awabakal language gurri, It is an Indigenous Australian language that was spoken in the area of what is today Newcastle. A Koori Court is a division of the Magistrates court in Victoria, Koori Radio is a community radio station based in Redfern broadcasting to Sydney on a city-wide licence. It is part of the Gadigal Information Service and is the radio station in Sydney providing full-time broadcasting to the Aboriginal. Koori Mail is a national Indigenous newspaper based in Lismore, New South Wales, the NSW Koori Rugby League Knockout is one of the largest gatherings of Indigenous people in Australia. A modern-day corroboree for the Koori people of NSW, it has been held annually over the October long weekend since 1971
A hierarchy is an arrangement of items in which the items are represented as being above, below, or at the same level as one another. A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally, indirect hierarchical links can extend vertically upwards or downwards via multiple links in the same direction, following a path. This is akin to two co-workers or colleagues, each reports to a superior, but they have the same relative amount of authority. Organizational forms exist that are alternative and complementary to hierarchy. A hierarchy is a system or organization in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to status or authority, Hierarchies have their own special vocabulary. Most hierarchies use a more specific vocabulary pertaining to their subject, for example, with data structures, objects are known as nodes, superiors are called parents and subordinates are called children. In a business setting, a superior is a supervisor/boss and a peer is a colleague, degree of branching refers to the number of direct subordinates or children an object has a node has).
Hierarchies can be categorized based on the degree, the highest degree present in the system as a whole. Categorization in this way yields two broad classes and branching, in a linear hierarchy, the maximum degree is 1. In other words, all of the objects can be visualized in a lineup, note that this is referring to the objects and not the levels, every hierarchy has this property with respect to levels, but normally each level can have an infinite number of objects. An example of a hierarchy is the hierarchy of life. In a branching hierarchy, one or more objects has a degree of 2 or more, for many people, the word hierarchy automatically evokes an image of a branching hierarchy. Branching hierarchies are present within numerous systems, including organizations and classification schemes, the broad category of branching hierarchies can be further subdivided based on the degree. A flat hierarchy is a hierarchy in which the maximum degree approaches infinity. Most often, systems intuitively regarded as hierarchical have at most a moderate span, therefore, a flat hierarchy is often not viewed as a hierarchy at all.
For example and graphite are flat hierarchies of numerous carbon atoms which can be decomposed into subatomic particles. An overlapping hierarchy is a hierarchy in which at least one object has two parent objects. Pseudo-Dionysius used the related Greek word both in reference to the hierarchy and the ecclesiastical hierarchy
Camden, New South Wales
Camden is a historic town, south-west of Sydney, New South Wales, located 65 kilometres from the Sydney central business district. Camden is the centre for the local government area of Camden Council and is a part of the Macarthur region. The area now known as Camden was originally at the edge of land belonging to the Gandangara people of the Southern Highlands who called it Benkennie meaning dry land. North of the Nepean River were the Muringong, southernmost of the Darug people while to the east were the Tharawal people. They lived in extended family groups of 20–40 members, hunting kangaroos and eels and gathering yams and other seasonal fruit and they were described as short, stocky and superbly built and generally considered peaceful. However, as British settlers encroached on their land and reduced their food sources, explorers first visited the area in 1795 and named it Cowpastures after a herd of cattle that had disappeared was discovered there. Macarthur named his property Camden Park in honour of his sponsor, as Macarthurs wool industry thrived, local citizens began pushing for the establishment of a town in the area to support the industry.
Surveyor-General Major Thomas Mitchell suggested Macarthur surrender 320 acres of his land for the purpose to which he refused, following his death in 1834, his children decided to subdivide the land and the first lots in the new town of Camden went on sale in 1840. Camden Post Office opened on 1 May 1841, the day after the nearby Elderslie office closed, by 1883, the population had grown to over 300 and a movement began to establish a local council which held its first meeting in 1889. Between 1882 and 1962 Camden was connected to Campbelltown and Sydney by the Camden railway line, Camden is served by Camden Airport, which is mostly used by trainee pilots for flying schools, the Australian Air League, and other forms of general aviation. Camden has a subtropical climate. Camden is the location of facilities for the veterinary and agricultural schools of the University of Sydney. The local government area has three high schools, Camden High School, Elderslie High School and Elizabeth Macarthur High School, as well as eight Catholic.
The Camden Show is an event which combines amusement park attractions with the elements of a state fair. Camden is served by three radio stations, 2MCR, Vintage FM and C91. 3FM. Local newspapers are the Camden Advertiser, the District Reporter and the Macarthur Chronicle, according to the 2011 census, there were 3,244 residents in Camden. In Camden,80. 7% of people were born in Australia, the most common other countries of birth were England 5. 4%, Scotland 1. 1%, New Zealand 0. 9%, Ireland 0. 6% and Germany 0. 5%. 90. 6% of people only spoke English at home, other languages spoken at home included Italian 0. 7%, Spanish 0. 4% and Indonesian 0. 3%
The Georges River, formerly known as Tucoerah River, is an intermediate tide dominated drowned valley estuary, located to the south and west of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The river travels for approximately 96 kilometres in a north and easterly direction to its mouth at Botany Bay, the Georges River is the main tributary of Botany Bay, with the Cooks River being a secondary tributary. The land adjacent to the Georges River was occupied for thousands of years by the Tharawal. They used the river as an important source of food and a place for trade, major tributaries include OHares Creek, Bunbury Curran Creek, Cabramatta Creek, Prospect Creek, Salt Pan Creek and the Woronora River. The Georges River is popular for activities such as water skiing and swimming. The banks of the river along the lower reaches are marked by large inlets and indentations overlooked by steep ridges and scarps. The Georges River features some artificial lakes in the suburb of Chipping Norton and these lakes, known as the Chipping Norton Lakes, are the result of sand mining and quarrying operations in the twentieth century.
The Lakes are now a popular watersports and recreational facility for the residents of the suburbs of Sydney. Liverpool Weir now forms the uppermost tidal limit and presence of water on the Georges River. Georges River National Park adjoins the upper reaches of the Georges River, from Appin to Glenfield, a large corridor has been protected as part of the Georges River Regional Open Space Corridor. Council reserves allow for access to natural sections of the river at Simmos Beach, Ingleburn Reserve, Keith Longhurst Reserve, Botany Bay Community River Health Monitoring Program is a community-based initiative to monitor ecosystem health catchment. Www. georgesriver. org. au Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Georges River was named in honour of King George III, by Governor Arthur Phillip. The river was first explored by Bass and Flinders in 1795 on their first voyage on the Tom Thumb after their arrival in New South Wales, the exploration led to the establishment of Bankstown. A dam was constructed by David Lennox using convict labour at Liverpool in 1836, in February 2007, Liverpool and Campbelltown City Council were awarded a $2 million grant from the NSW Environmental Trust under their Urban Sustainability Initiative.
Bridges over the Georges River include from east to west, Captain Cook Bridge, for cars, Tom Uglys Bridge, for cars and cyclists. Old Como railway bridge, now for pedestrians and cyclists, Como railway bridge on the Illawarra line, connecting Oatley to Como, for trains. Alfords Point Bridge, for cars and cyclists, East Hills rail bridge at East Hills, for trains. Voyager Point footbridge, for pedestrians and cyclists, m5 South Western Motorway Georges River East Bridge Milperra Bridge, for cars and cyclists
Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour, North Harbour and the Lane Cove and Parramatta Rivers, is the ria or natural harbour of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The harbour is an inlet of the Tasman Sea and it is the location of the Sydney Opera House and Sydney Harbour Bridge. The location of the first European settlement in Australia, Port Jackson has continued to play a key role in the history and development of Sydney. Many recreational events are based on or around the harbour itself particularly the Sydney New Years Eve celebrations, the waterways of Port Jackson are managed by the Roads & Maritime Services. Sydney Harbour National Park protects a number of islands and foreshore areas, swimming spots, bushwalking tracks, the land around Port Jackson was occupied at the time of the European arrival and colonisation by the Eora clans, including the Gadigal and Wangal. The Gadigal occupied the land stretching along the side of Port Jackson from what is now South Head.
The Cammeragal lived on the side of the harbour. The area along the banks of the Parramatta River to Rose Hill belonged to the Wangal. The Eora occupied Port Jackson, south to the Georges River, the first recorded European discovery of Sydney Harbour, was by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770 - Cook named the inlet after Sir George Jackson. His ships log notation states at noon we were. about 2 or 3 miles from the land, eighteen years later, on 21 January 1788, after arriving at Botany Bay, Governor Arthur Phillip took a longboat and two cutters up the coast to examine Cooks Port Jackson. Phillip first stayed over night at Camp Cove, moved down the harbour, landing at Sydney Cove, Phillip returned to Sydney Cove in HM Armed Tender Supply on 26 January 1788, where he established the first colony in Australia, to become the city of Sydney. From 1938, seaplanes landed in Sydney Harbour on Rose Bay, in 1942, to protect Sydney Harbour from a submarine attack, the Sydney Harbour anti-submarine boom net was constructed.
It spanned the harbour from Green Point, Watsons Bay to the battery at Georges Head, on the night of 31 May 1942, three Japanese midget submarines entered the harbour, one of which became entangled in the western end of the boom nets central section. Unable to free their submarine, the crew detonated charges, killing themselves in the process, a second midget submarine came to grief in Taylors Bay, the two crew committing suicide. The third submarine fired two torpedoes at USS Chicago before leaving the harbour, in November 2006, this submarine was found off Sydneys Northern Beaches. The anti-submarine boom net was demolished soon after World War II, and all that remains are the foundations of the old boom net winch house, the Australian War Memorial has on display a composite of the two midget submarines salvaged from Sydney Harbour. The conning tower of one of the submarines is on display at the RAN Heritage Centre, Garden Island. Fort Denison is a former site and defensive facility occupying a small island located north-east of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Sydney Harbour
University of Wollongong
As of 2014 the university has an enrolment of over 30,000 students, an alumni base of over 112,000 and over 2,000 academic related staff. As of 2015, Wollongong consistently ranks among the top 2% of universities in the world, in 1951 a division of the New South Wales University of Technology was established at Wollongong for the conduct of diploma courses. In 1961 the Wollongong University College of the University of New South Wales was constituted, in 1975 the University of Wollongong was established as an independent institution. Since its establishment, the university has conferred more than 100,000 degrees and its students, originally predominantly from the local Illawarra region, are now from over 140 countries, with international students accounting for more than 30 percent of total. The University of Wollongong has fundamentally developed into an institution, three of which are in the Illawarra, one in Sydney and one overseas in Dubai. In addition, there are university education centres in Bega, Batemans Bay, Moss Vale, the university offers courses equally based on the Wollongong campus in collaboration with partner institutions in a number of offshore locations including in Singapore and Hong Kong.
The University of Wollongong traces its origins to 1951, the foundation of the university was in 1951 when a division of The New South Wales University of Technology was established in Wollongong. In 1962, the became the Wollongong College of the University of New South Wales. In 1976, Justice Robert Marsden Hope was installed as chancellor of the university, in 1951, a foundation of the University of Wollongong was founded as a division of the New South Wales University of Technology in Wollongong, New South Wales. A decade later, the became the Wollongong College of the University of New South Wales. In 1975, the University of Wollongong gained its autonomy as an independent institution of learning by the New South Wales Parliament. In 1977, the Faculty of Computer Science developed a version of Unix for the Interdata 7/32 called UNSW01, in the late 70s, Tim Berners-Lee sourced TCP/IP software, an integral element of the World Wide Web, from the University of Wollongong. In 1981, Ken McKinnon was appointed chancellor, overseeing the amalgamation of the university with the Wollongong Institute of Education in 1982.
The Wollongong Institute of Education had originated in 1971 as the Teachers College This merger formed the basis of the contemporary university, in 1983, the Faculty of Commerce was established along with the School of Creative Arts, followed by the creation of the Faculty of Education in 1984. In 1993, the University of Wollongong Dubai Campus in Dubai, in 2000, the Shoalhaven Campus was opened at Nowra on the New South Wales south coast. In 2008, the university opened the first building at Wollongong Innovation Campus on a 20-hectare site at Brandon Park in Wollongong, in August, the Faculty of Science dean, Rob Whelan, took up a new role as president of the University of Wollongong in Dubai. In 2009, the chancellor, Mike Codd AC, announced his retirement after three four-year terms and his replacement, effective on 1 October, was Jillian Broadbent AO. She became the third Chancellor after Justice Robert Hope and Mr Michael Codd, in 2010, the New South Wales Health Minister, Carmel Tebbutt, opened the $30 million Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute in July
Indigenous peoples of Australia
For a more complete list of Indigenous peoples of Australia see List of Indigenous Australian group names, for general information, see Indigenous Australians. There are several hundred Indigenous peoples of Australia, many are groupings that existed before the British colonisation of Australia in 1788, within each country, people lived in clan groups, extended families defined by various forms of Australian Aboriginal kinship. Inter-clan contact was common, as was inter-country contact, but there were strict protocols around this contact, the largest language group people today are the Anangu Pitjantjatjara who live in the area around Uluru and south into the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Lands in South Australia. The second largest Aboriginal community are the Arrernte people who live in, the third largest are the Anangu Luritja, who live in the lands between the two largest just mentioned. The Aboriginal languages and dialects with the largest number of speakers today are the Pitjantjatjara, Ngunnawal The Ngunnawal people were the first inhabitants of the area which is now occupied by the city of Canberra and the Australian Capital Territory.
The city of Canberra is named after the Ngunnawal word Kambera, many other place names around Canberra are Ngunnawal names, such as Tuggeranong, Murrumbidgee, the suburb Ngunnawal and many road names. Murrawarri people - see Murrawarri Republic and Murawari language, Alyawarre Alyawarre who live north-east of Alice Springs. In 1980 they lodged a claim, which was handed back to them on 22 October 1992. The size of the land was 2065 km², Anmatjera Anmatjera from an area near Mount Leichhardt and Reynolds Ranges, and northeast to Central Mount Stuart. Artist Clifford Possum is an Anmatjera man, emily Kngwarreye was an Anmatjera woman. Arrernte The Arrernte people speak the Upper Arrernte language, and live in the Arrernte area of Central Australia, the population of Arrernte people living on Arrernte land is estimated at 25,000, making it the second largest of all Central Australian Aboriginal countries, after Pitjantjatjara. In most primary schools in Alice Springs, students are taught Arrernte as a compulsory language, future plans are that it will be included as a university subject.
Approximately 25% of Alice Springs residents speak Arrernte as their first language, Gurindji Gurindji, who from 1966 to 1975 at Wave Hill Cattle Station had a strike known as The Gurindji Strike. In 1975, the Australian Labor Party government of Gough Whitlam finally negotiated with the Vesteys to give the Gurindji back a portion of their land and this was a landmark in the land rights movement in Australia for Australian Aboriginal people to be given rights to their traditional lands. Kunibidji The Kunibidji, or Gunivugi, people live by the Liverpool River in Arnhem Land and they are Aboriginal people and speak the Ndjébbana language. They hunt dugong and fish, Luritja Luritja is a name used to refer to several dialects of the Western Desert Language, and thereby to the people who speak these varieties, and their traditional lands. The Luritja lands include areas to the west and south of Alice Springs, extending around the edge of Arrernte country, the total population of Luritja people is probably in the thousands making them the third largest of the Central Australian Aboriginal populations.
It includes the town of Papunya, Murrinh-Patha The Murrinh-Patha are a small group, living inland from the settlement of Wadeye, between the rivers Moyle and Fitzmaurice
Botany Bay, an open oceanic embayment, is located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia,13 km south of the Sydney central business district. The total catchment area of the bay is approximately 55 km2, despite its relative shallowness, the bay serves as greater metropolitan Sydneys main cargo seaport, located at Port Botany, with facilities managed by Sydney Ports Corporation. Two runways of Sydney Airport extend into the bay, Botany Bay National Park is located on the northern and southern headlands of the bay. The area surrounding the bay is generally managed by Roads and Maritime Services, the land adjacent to Botany Bay was settled for many thousands of years by the Tharawal and Eora Aboriginal peoples and their associated clans. On 29 April 1770, Botany Bay was the site of James Cooks first landing of HMS Endeavour on the mass of Australia. Later the British planned Botany Bay as the site for a penal colony, out of these plans came the first European habitation of Australia at Sydney Cove.
Archaeological evidence from the shores of Botany Bay has yielded evidence of Aboriginal settlement dating back 5,000 years, the Aboriginal people of Sydney were known as the Eora with sub-groups derived from the languages they spoke. The people living between the Cooks River and the Georges River were the Bidjigal clan, on the shores of the bay were the Gweagal clan. An artefact collected on Cooks first voyage in Botany Bay is the bark shield left behind by a member of a local Aboriginal tribe. This very rare object is now in the British Museums collection and was the subject of a programme in the BBC radio series A History of the World in 100 Objects. Lieutenant James Cook first landed at Kurnell, on the banks of Botany Bay, on Sunday 29 April 1770. Cooks landing marked the beginning of Britains interest in Australia and in the colonisation of this new ‘southern continent’. Initially the name Sting Ray Harbour was used by Cook and other journal keepers on his expedition and that name was recorded on an Admiralty chart.
Cooks log for 6 May 1770 records The great quantity of these sort of found in this place occasioned my giving it the name of Stingrays Harbour. Eighteen years later, in 1788, Governor Arthur Phillip sailed the armed tender HMS Supply into the bay on 18 January, two days the remaining ships of the First Fleet arrived to found the planned penal colony. However, the land was ruled unsuitable for settlement as there was insufficient fresh water. Phillip decided instead to move to the excellent natural harbour of Port Jackson to the north, on the morning of 24 January the French exploratory expedition of Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse was seen outside Botany Bay. On 26 January, the Supply left the bay to move up to Port Jackson, on the afternoon of 26 January, the remaining ships of First Fleet arrived at Sydney Cove
Cave paintings are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, to some 40,000 years ago in Eurasia. The exact purpose of the Paleolithic cave paintings is not known, evidence suggests that they were not merely decorations of living areas since the caves in which they have been found do not have signs of ongoing habitation. They are located in areas of caves that are not easily accessible. Some theories hold that cave paintings may have been a way of communicating with others, the paintings are remarkably similar around the world, with animals being common subjects that give the most impressive images. Humans mainly appear as images of hands, mostly hand stencils made by blowing pigment on a hand held to the wall. The earliest known cave paintings/drawings of animals are at least 35,000 years old and are found in Pettakere cave on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia, previously it was believed that the earliest paintings were in Europe. The earliest non-figurative rock art dates back to approximately 40,000 years ago, nearly 340 caves have now been discovered in France and Spain that contain art from prehistoric times.
But subsequent technology has made it possible to date the paintings by sampling the pigment itself, the choice of subject matter can indicate chronology. For instance, the reindeer depicted in the Spanish cave of Cueva de las Monedas places the drawings in the last Ice Age. The oldest date given to a cave painting is now a pig that has a minimum age of 35,400 years old at Pettakere cave in Sulawesi. Indonesian and Australian scientists have dated other non-figurative paintings on the walls to be approximately 40,000 years old, the method they used to confirm this was dating the age of the stalactites that formed over the top of the paintings. The art is similar in style and method to that of the Indonesian caves as there were hand stencils and this date coincides with the earliest known evidence for Homo sapiens in Europe. Because of the cave arts age, some scientists have conjectured that the paintings may have made by Neanderthals. The earliest known European figurative cave paintings are those of Chauvet Cave in France and these paintings date to earlier than 30,000 BCE according to radiocarbon dating.
Some researchers believe the drawings are too advanced for this era, the radiocarbon dates from these samples show that there were two periods of creation in Chauvet,35,000 years ago and 30,000 years ago. In 2009, cavers discovered drawings in Coliboaia Cave in Romania, an initial dating puts the age of an image in the same range as Chauvet, about 32,000 years old. Some caves probably continued to be painted over a period of thousands of years. This was created roughly between 10,000 and 5,500 years ago, and painted in rock shelters under cliffs or shallow caves, though individual figures are less naturalistic, they are grouped in coherent grouped compositions to a much greater degree
The killer whale or orca is a toothed whale belonging to the oceanic dolphin family, of which it is the largest member. Killer whales have a diet, although individual populations often specialize in particular types of prey. Some feed exclusively on fish, while others hunt marine mammals such as seals and they have been known to attack baleen whale calves, and even adult whales. Killer whales are apex predators, as there is no animal that preys on them, Killer whales are considered a cosmopolitan species, and can be found in each of the worlds oceans in a variety of marine environments, from Arctic and Antarctic regions to tropical seas. Killer whales are social, some populations are composed of matrilineal family groups which are the most stable of any animal species. Their sophisticated hunting techniques and vocal behaviours, which are specific to a particular group. Some local populations are considered threatened or endangered due to depletion, habitat loss, capture for marine mammal parks.
In late 2005, the Southern Resident Killer Whales, the population that inhabits British Columbia, Wild killer whales are not considered a threat to humans, but there have been cases of captive orcas killing or injuring their handlers at marine theme parks. Killer whales feature strongly in the mythologies of cultures, with their reputation ranging from being the souls of humans to merciless killers. Orcinus orca is the only recognized extant species in the genus Orcinus, the killer whale is one of 35 species in the oceanic dolphin family, which first appeared about 11 million years ago. The killer whale lineage probably branched off shortly thereafter, english-speaking scientists most often use the term killer whale, although the term orca is increasingly used. Killer whale advocates point out it has a long heritage, the genus name Orcinus means of the kingdom of the dead, or belonging to Orcus. Ancient Romans originally applied orca to these animals, possibly borrowing it from the Greek ὄρυξ, since the 1960s, orca has steadily grown in popularity, both names are now used.
According to some authors, the killer whale is a mistranslation of the 18th century Spanish name asesina-ballenas which means literally whale killer. Basque whalers would have given it such name after observing pods of orcas hunting baleen whales and they are sometimes referred to as blackfish, a name used for other whale species. Grampus is a name for the species, but is now seldom used. This meaning of grampus should not be confused with the genus Grampus, the three to five types of killer whales may be distinct enough to be considered different races, subspecies, or possibly even species. Residents diets consist primarily of fish and sometimes squid, and they live in complex, female residents characteristically have rounded dorsal fin tips that terminate in a sharp corner
The Gweagal are a clan of the Tharawal tribe of Indigenous Australians, who are traditional custodians of the southern geographic areas of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The Gweagal lived on the shores of Botany Bay. The tribe territory, although not clearly defined, spanned the areas between the Cooks and Georges River, south to the Port Hacking estuary and westwards towards Liverpool and they were the northernmost tribe of the Dharawal nation. Each Gweagal tribe consisted of approximately 20 to 50 people who lived in their own territory amongst social and economic units having strong ties to land and sacred sites. They had no written language and each tribe had its own dialect and they wore resin in their hair that gave it a mop-like appearance and used native animal hide to make fur coats and ceremonial attire. Tool makers chose to grind axes close to pools or streams, the stone that was used was mainly igneous or metamorphic rock, and only one of the ends was ground to a blade. Axe grinding grooves used in for this purpose can be found near a stream between River Road and Salt Pan Creek at Revesby Heights, in 1961 a notice was erected describing the site.
The Gweagal Aborigines were the guardians of the white clay pits in their territory. Members of the tribe walked hundreds of miles to collect the clay and they used it to line the base of their canoes so they could light fires, and as a white body paint. Colour was added to the clay using berries, which produced a brightly coloured paint that was used in ceremonies and it was eaten as a medicine, an antacid. Geebungs and other local berries were mixed in the clay and it was eaten as a supplement with zinc. In the Royal National Park some of the caves were used as burial sites, a rock cave collapse at Port Hacking prior to the landing of James Cook claimed many lives of the Gweagal. This cave was dynamited, showing many skeletons. Caves and shelters are located in places along the Georges River. There is a cave located in Peakhurst with its ceiling blackened from smoke. There are caves located around Evatt Park, Lugarno with oyster shells ground into the cave floor, another cave exists on Mickeys Point, which was named after a local aborigine.
They often decorated their caves and rock shelters with paintings and etchings using white and other colored earth, in winter they shared body heat in the shelter and used fire to keep warm. The territory of the Gweagal had much to offer, the Georges River provided fish and oysters