Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members of the Aboriginal race of Australia. Until the 1980s, the legal and administrative criterion for inclusion in this category was race. In the era of colonial and post-colonial government, access to human rights depended upon your race. If you were a full blooded Aboriginal native, the Constitution of Australia, in its original form as of 1901, referred to Aboriginals twice, but without definition. Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament power to legislate with respect to the people of any throughout the Commonwealth. The purpose of this provision was to give the Commonwealth power to regulate non-white immigrant workers, the only other reference, Section 127, provided simply that aboriginal natives shall not be counted in reckoning the size of the population of the Commonwealth or any part of it. The purpose of section 127 was to prevent the inclusion of Aboriginal people in section 24 determinations of the distribution of House of Representatives seats amongst the states and territories, after both of these references were removed by the 1967 referendum, the Australian Constitution had no references to Aboriginals.
Since that time, there have been a number of proposals to amend the constitution to specifically mention Indigenous Australians, the change to Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament the power to make laws specifically with respect to Aboriginal peoples as a race. The case concerned an application of legislation that would preserve cultural heritage of Aboriginal Tasmanians and it was held that Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, together or separately, and any part of either, could be regarded as a race for this purpose. As to the criteria for identifying a person as a member of such a race, Deane said, It is unnecessary, for the purposes of the present case, to consider the meaning to be given to the phrase people of any race in s.51. Plainly, the words have a wide and non-technical meaning, the phrase is, in my view, apposite to refer to all Australian Aboriginals collectively. Any doubt, which might otherwise exist in regard, is removed by reference to the wording of par.
The phrase is apposite to refer to any identifiable racial sub-group among Australian Aboriginals, while Deanes three-part definition reaches beyond the biological criterion to individuals self-identification, it has been criticised as continuing to accept the biological criterion as primary. It has been difficult to apply, both in each of its parts and as to the relations among the parts, biological descent has been a fall-back criterion. If it is to be used to refer to us as a group of people. This has just really crept up on us and we are very happy with our involvement with indigenous people around the world, on the international forum because theyre our brothers and sisters. But we do object to it being used here in Australia and her lecture offered a new perspective on the terms urban, traditional and of Indigenous descent as used to define and categorise Aboriginal Australians. She said, Not only are these categories inappropriate, they serve to divide us, governments insistence on categorising us with modern words like urban, traditional and of Aboriginal descent are really only replacing old terms half-caste and full-blood – based on our colouring
The Kamilaroi is one of the four largest indigenous nations in Australia. The Kamilaroi language is classified in the Pama–Nyungan family of Australian languages, the Kamilaroi Highway, Sydney Ferries Limiteds vehicular ferry Kamilaroi, and a cultivar of Durum wheat have all been named after the Kamilaroi people. The language is no longer spoken, though parts have bneen reconstructed by late field work. Robert M. W. Dixon and his student Peter Austin recorded some around Moree, while Corinne Williams wrote a thesis on the Yuwaaliyaay dialect spoken at Walgett, the Gamilaroi were hunters and gatherers with a band-level social organization. Important vegetable foods were yams and other roots, as well as a sterculia grain, insect larvae and eggs of several different animals were gathered. Various birds, emus, possums, dingo pups were regarded as a delicacy. Fish were consumed, as were crayfish, men typically hunted and prepared the game for cooking. Women did the cooking, in addition to fishing and gathering.
Individual Kamilaroi did not eat animals that were their totems, the Gamilaroi or Gomilaroi from the word Kamil or Gamil meaning no, are a large nation of Aborigines consisting of many tribes. The Gamilaroi are the second largest Aboriginal nation on the side of Australia. The nation was made up of smaller family groups who had their own parcels of land to sustain them. One of the great Kings of this tribe was Red Chief, the last link with tribal law and custom in Mungindi would be the forebear of the present Cubby family, who was the last known Respected Elder in the tribe. The Kamilaroi were regarded as fierce warriors and there is evidence of intertribal warfare. The Northern Gamilaroi people have a cultural connection with the Bigambul people. Kamilaroi tradition includes Baiame, the ancestor or patron god, the Baiame story tells how Baiame came down from the sky to the land, and created rivers and forests. He gave the people their laws of life, songs and he created the first initiation site.
This is known as a bora, a place where boys were initiated into manhood, when he had finished, he returned to the sky, and people called him the Sky Hero or All Father or Sky Father. He is said to be married to Birrahgnooloo, who is identified as an emu
The indigenous people identify themselves as Guringai. Their taurai is known to extend north to the Macleay River, Fraser came up with the name Kuringgai being a conjunction of the native words Koori/Guri to mean black man and Ngai, meaning black woman, or belonging to. According to Fraser, the Kuringgai were bordered by the Wachigari and the Paikalyung to the north, the Kamalarai to the northwest, the Wiradhari to the west and the Murrinjari to the south. However, Norman Tindale would say in 1974 that the Awabakal are the one of a series of tribes to which the arbitrary term Kuringgai has been applied by Fraser. He divided the area Fraser labelled Kuringgai into several tribes, including the Tharawal, Dharuk, Awabakal, Birpai, the clan groups are the Garigal, Borregegal, Walkeloa with hundreds more. They were hunters and gatherers within their land, the Guringai lives were dictated by the seasons and the seasonal travels throughout their lands, with great ceremony. The Guringai still live in their traditional homelands, the Aborigines of New South Wales.
Sauchie House, West Maitland, University of Newcastle, bibliography of Ku-ring-gai people and language resources, at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
The Gweagal are a clan of the Tharawal tribe of Indigenous Australians, who are traditional custodians of the southern geographic areas of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The Gweagal lived on the shores of Botany Bay. The tribe territory, although not clearly defined, spanned the areas between the Cooks and Georges River, south to the Port Hacking estuary and westwards towards Liverpool and they were the northernmost tribe of the Dharawal nation. Each Gweagal tribe consisted of approximately 20 to 50 people who lived in their own territory amongst social and economic units having strong ties to land and sacred sites. They had no written language and each tribe had its own dialect and they wore resin in their hair that gave it a mop-like appearance and used native animal hide to make fur coats and ceremonial attire. Tool makers chose to grind axes close to pools or streams, the stone that was used was mainly igneous or metamorphic rock, and only one of the ends was ground to a blade. Axe grinding grooves used in for this purpose can be found near a stream between River Road and Salt Pan Creek at Revesby Heights, in 1961 a notice was erected describing the site.
The Gweagal Aborigines were the guardians of the white clay pits in their territory. Members of the tribe walked hundreds of miles to collect the clay and they used it to line the base of their canoes so they could light fires, and as a white body paint. Colour was added to the clay using berries, which produced a brightly coloured paint that was used in ceremonies and it was eaten as a medicine, an antacid. Geebungs and other local berries were mixed in the clay and it was eaten as a supplement with zinc. In the Royal National Park some of the caves were used as burial sites, a rock cave collapse at Port Hacking prior to the landing of James Cook claimed many lives of the Gweagal. This cave was dynamited, showing many skeletons. Caves and shelters are located in places along the Georges River. There is a cave located in Peakhurst with its ceiling blackened from smoke. There are caves located around Evatt Park, Lugarno with oyster shells ground into the cave floor, another cave exists on Mickeys Point, which was named after a local aborigine.
They often decorated their caves and rock shelters with paintings and etchings using white and other colored earth, in winter they shared body heat in the shelter and used fire to keep warm. The territory of the Gweagal had much to offer, the Georges River provided fish and oysters
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
This article is for the Australian Indigenous group. For their language see Aboriginal language, the Gweagal were known as the Fire Clan. They were the people to first make contact with Captain Cook, the Tharawal language is considered the main dialect of the Tharawal people. There is a viewing site of one group of engravings at Jibbon Point, showing a whale. Those engravings are marred by recent European inclusions, the original Jibbon point engravings show a pod of killer whales hunting a seal. The leading whale is shown as a scarified and initiated animal indicating his status as a spirit of high esteem. These Wodi Wodi clansmen are claiming lineage to the Tharawal tribe, the Tharawal people lived mainly by the produce of local plants and vegetables and by fishing and gathering shell fish products. The men hunted land mammals and speared fish, the women collected the vegetable foods and were well known for their fishing and canoeing prowess. Tharawal Local Aboriginal Land Council webpage Tharawal Aboriginal Corporation webpage Norman B, tindales Catalogue of Australian Aboriginal Tribes, South Australian Museum.
Bibliography of Tharawal people and language resources, at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies Heather Goodall, a Dharawal man, Gogi met with Governor Macquarie at the Cowpastures in 1810
The Koori People are Indigenous Australians of New South Wales and Victoria. This is their preferred term, expressing pride in their heritage, the word Koori is from Awabakal language gurri, It is an Indigenous Australian language that was spoken in the area of what is today Newcastle. A Koori Court is a division of the Magistrates court in Victoria, Koori Radio is a community radio station based in Redfern broadcasting to Sydney on a city-wide licence. It is part of the Gadigal Information Service and is the radio station in Sydney providing full-time broadcasting to the Aboriginal. Koori Mail is a national Indigenous newspaper based in Lismore, New South Wales, the NSW Koori Rugby League Knockout is one of the largest gatherings of Indigenous people in Australia. A modern-day corroboree for the Koori people of NSW, it has been held annually over the October long weekend since 1971