In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Wrap Her Up
"Wrap Her Up" is a song by English rock performer Elton John, featured on his 1985 album, Ice on Fire. George Michael is featured on the song. Released as a single, it reached number 12 in the UK Singles Chart, number 26 in Canada on the RPM Top Singles chart and number 20 on the US Billboard Hot 100. George Michael was quoted at the time in Smash Hits magazine that "it sounded like I had my willy in a garotte" because of the falsetto he sings throughout the song; the song is notable for the number of famous women's names dropped towards the end of the song, including Kiki Dee, who had duetted with Elton on the hit song "Don't Go Breaking My Heart" in 1976, provided background vocals for "Wrap Her Up". Other notable mentions include Marlene Dietrich, Rita Hayworth, Marilyn Monroe, Katharine Hepburn, Dusty Springfield, Billie Jean King, Vanessa Williams, Nancy Reagan, Julie Andrews, Annie Lennox, Shirley Temple, Tallulah Bankhead, Princess Caroline of Monaco, Little Eva, Mata Hari, Joan Collins, Brigitte Bardot, Doris Day, Samantha Fox, Priscilla Presley.
A music video was recorded for the song, directed by Russell Mulcahy, featured John and George Michael, as well as Kiki Dee and John's backing band. The video was featured in the video compilation version of The Very Best of Elton John in 1990, but the song was not included on any formats of the audio release edition of the compilation; the music video version of the song is abridged, with a running time of 4 minutes 11 seconds two minutes shorter than the album version. Elton John – vocals George Michael – vocals Davey Johnstone – electric guitar, backing vocals Paul Westwood – bass guitar Fred Mandel – keyboards, sequencers Charlie Morgan – drums David Bitelli – tenor and baritone saxophones Paul Spong – trumpets Raul D'oleivera – trumpets Rick Taylor – trombone Phil Todd – alto saxophone James Newton Howard – string arrangements Kiki Dee – backing vocals Katie Kissoon – backing vocals Pete Wingfield – backing vocals Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
A phonograph record is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were made from shellac. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or vinyl; the phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, are used by disc jockeys and released by artists in dance music genres, listened to by a growing niche market of audiophiles; the phonograph record has made a notable niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.
S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. In the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014; as of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Only two producers of lacquers remain: Apollo Masters in California, MDC in Japan. Phonograph records are described by their diameter in inches, the rotational speed in revolutions per minute at which they are played, their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled or broken, a vinyl record has the potential to last for centuries; the large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression when it comes to the long play vinyl LP. The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back.
In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately; the Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but not reproducing sound. Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade Edison developed a improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet; this proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson improved it. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" tradem
A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin
Marie Dionne Warwick is an American singer and television show host who became a United Nations Global Ambassador for the Food and Agriculture Organization and a United States Ambassador of Health. Warwick ranks among the 41 biggest hit makers of the entire rock era, based on the Billboard Hot 100 Pop Singles Charts, she is second only to Aretha Franklin as the most-charted female vocalist of all time, with 56 of her singles making the Billboard Hot 100 between 1962 and 1998, 80 singles making all Billboard charts combined. Marie Dionne Warrick Warwick, was born on December 12, 1940, in Orange, New Jersey, to Mancel Warrick and Lee Drinkard, her mother was manager of the Drinkard Singers, her father was a Pullman porter, record promoter and CPA. Dionne was named after her aunt on her mother's side, she had a sister, who died in 2008, a brother, Mancel Jr., killed in an accident in 1968 at age 21. Her parents were both African American, she has Native American and Dutch ancestry, she was raised in East Orange, New Jersey, was a Girl Scout for a period of time.
After finishing East Orange High School in 1959, Warwick pursued her passion at the Hartt College of Music in Hartford, Connecticut. She landed some work with her group singing backing vocals for recording sessions in New York City. During one session, Warwick met Burt Bacharach, who hired her to record demos featuring songs written by him and lyricist Hal David, she landed her own record deal. Many of Warwick's family were members of the Drinkard Singers, a renowned family gospel group and RCA recording artists who performed throughout the New York metropolitan area; the original group consisted of Cissy, Anne and Nicky, included Warwick's grandparents and Delia Drinkard, their children: William and Hansom. Marie instructed the group, they were managed by Lee; as they became more successful and Marie began performing with the group, they were augmented by pop/R&B singer Judy Clay, whom Lee had unofficially adopted. Elvis Presley expressed an interest in having them join his touring entourage.
Dionne began singing gospel as a child at the New Hope Baptist Church in New Jersey. Other singers joined the Gospelaires from time to time, including Judy Clay, Cissy Houston and Doris "Rikii" Troy, whose chart selection "Just One Look," when she recorded it in 1963, featured backing vocals from the Gospelaires. After personnel changes, the Gospelaires became the recording group the Sweet Inspirations, who had some chart success, but were much sought-after as studio background singers; the Gospelaires and the Sweet Inspirations performed on many records cut in New York City for artists such as Garnet Mimms, the Drifters, Jerry Butler, Solomon Burke and Warwick's recordings, Aretha Franklin and Elvis Presley. Warwick recalled, in her 2002 A&E Biography, that "a man came running frantically backstage at the Apollo and said he needed background singers for a session for Sam "the Man" Taylor and old big-mouth here spoke up and said'We'll do it!' and we left and did the session. I wish I remembered the gentleman's name because he was responsible for the beginning of my professional career."The backstage encounter led to the group being asked to sing background sessions at recording studios in New York.
Soon, the group were in demand in New York music circles for their background work for such artists as the Drifters, Ben E. King, Chuck Jackson, Dinah Washington, Ronnie "the Hawk" Hawkins, Solomon Burke, among many others. Warwick remembered, in her A&E Biography, that after school, they would catch a bus from East Orange to the Port Authority Terminal take the subway to recording studios in Manhattan, perform their background gigs and be back at home in East Orange in time to do their school homework, her background vocal work would continue. While she was performing background on the Drifters' recording of "Mexican Divorce," Warwick's voice and star presence were noticed by the song's composer, Burt Bacharach, a Brill Building songwriter, writing songs with many other songwriters, including lyricist Hal David. According to a July 14, 1967 article on Warwick in Time, Bacharach stated, "She has a tremendous strong side and a delicacy when singing — like miniature ships in bottles." Musically, she was "no play-safe girl.
What emotion I could get away with!" And what complexity, compared with the usual run of pop songs. During the session, Bacharach asked Warwick if she would be interested in recording demonstration recordings of his compositions to pitch the tunes to record labels. One such demo, "It's Love That Really Counts" — destined to be recorded by Scepter-signed act the Shirelles — caught the attention of the President of Scepter Records, Florence Greenberg, according to Current Biography, told Bacharach, "Forget the song, get the girl!"Warwick was signed to Bacharach's and David's production company, according to Warwick, which in turn was signed to Scepter Records in 1962 by Greenberg. The partnership would provide Bacharach with the freedom to produce Warwick without the control of recording company executives and company A&R men. Warwick's musical ability and education would allow Bacharach to compose more challenging tunes; the demo version of "It's Love That Really Counts", along with her original demo of "Make It Easy on Yourself", would surface on Warwick's debut Scepter album, Presenting Dionne Warwick, released in early 1963.
In November 1962, Scepter Records released her first solo single, "
Kevin Savigar is an English session keyboardist, record producer and composer based in Los Angeles, CA. Most recognised for his longtime collaboration with Rod Stewart, Savigar has contributed to a wide range of recordings for artists such as Bob Dylan, George Harrison, John Mellencamp, Pat Benatar, Marilyn Manson, Willie Nelson, Randy Newman, Sinead O'Connor, Peter Frampton among others. Savigar was born in London, England in 1956. Savigar started to play the piano at age five and went on to study classical piano at the prestigious Trinity College of Music. By the age of 17, Savigar had begun his career as a session musician in the studios of London. Savigar joined Rod Stewart's touring and recording band in 1978. Savigar worked in collaboration with Stewart, Phil Chen, Jim Cregan and Gary Grainger on Stewart's studio album Foolish Behaviour, which sold more than 5 million albums worldwide. Savigar co-produced Stewart's 2013 studio album Time, including 6 tracks from the album. Kevin has contributed to the following works listed below: In total, Savigar has won 6 ASCAP awards, 16 RIAA awards, 10 Brit Awards aka BPI awards, 2 SOCAN awards and a Nashville Songwriters Association International No. 1 award.
1980 Brit Awards for Foolish Behaviour by Rod Stewart 1980 RIAA award for Foolish Behaviour by Rod Stewart 1981 Brit Awards for Tonight I'm Yours by Rod Stewart 1982 RIAA award for Tonight I'm Yours by Rod Stewart 1983 Brit Awards for Body Wishes by Rod Stewart 1984 Brit Awards for Camouflage by Rod Stewart 1984 RIAA award for Camouflage by Rod Stewart 1986 Brit Awards for Every Beat of My Heart by Rod Stewart 1988 RIAA award for Out of Order by Rod Stewart 1988 Brit Awards for Out of Order by Rod Stewart 1990 ASCAP Pop award for writer Forever Young 1990 RIAA award for Storyteller – The Complete Anthology: 1964–1990 by Rod Stewart 1990 RIAA award for Downtown Train by Rod Stewart 1990 ASCAP Pop award for publisher Forever Young 1990 SOCAN award for writer Forever Young 1990 SOCAN Pop award for publisher Forever Young 1991 RIAA award for Vagabond Heart by Rod Stewart 1991 Brit Awards for Vagabond Heart by Rod Stewart 1992 RIAA award for'’Patty Smyth'’ by Patty Smyth 1993 RIAA award for Unplugged...and Seated by Rod Stewart 1995 RIAA award for A Spanner in the Works by Rod Stewart 1995 Brit Awards for The Best of Rod Stewart by Rod Stewart 1996 RIAA award for If We Fall in Love Tonight by Rod Stewart 1996 Brit Awards for If We Fall in Love Tonight by Rod Stewart 1996 ASCAP Pop award for writer "Hold On" by Jamie Walters 1996 ASCAP Pop award for publisher "Hold On" by Jamie Walters 2001 Nashville Songwriters Association International award for Nothin' To Lose by Josh Gracin 2003 RIAA award for co-writer The Cheetah Girls by The Cheetah Girls 2004 RIAA award for The Story So Far: The Very Best of Rod Stewart by Rod Stewart 2005 ASCAP Country music award for writer Nothin' To Lose by Josh Gracin 2005 ASCAP Country Music award for publisher Nothin' To Lose by Josh Gracin 2012 RIAA award for Merry Christmas, Baby by Rod Stewart
AmfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research
AmfAR, the Foundation for AIDS Research – known as the American Foundation for AIDS Research, the origin of "amfAR" – is an international nonprofit organization dedicated to the support of AIDS research, HIV prevention, treatment education, the advocacy of AIDS-related public policy. AmfAR is a tax-exempt corporation under Internal Revenue Code section 501 and operates as an independent nonprofit with worldwide initiatives. AmfAR was formed in New York City in September 1985 by Dr. Mathilde Krim, along with physician Dr. Joseph Sonnabend and activist Michael Callen; the organization began in April 1983 as the Krim-founded AIDS Medical Foundation, which sought to lessen the stigma surrounding HIV/AIDS diagnoses, as well as to increase funding to the cause. The name change came as a result of the AMF's merge with the California-based National AIDS Research Foundation, which sought to engage in HIV-related drug development. What resulted was a foundation that prioritized both research and development as well as policy influence.
This foundation was one of the first of its kind to embody both aspects of healthcare. AmfAR has three headquarters, located in New York City. C.. AmfAR spurs research and development through providing grants and fellowships to organizations, such as the Family Institute of Health, individuals through the Mathilde Krim Fellowships in Basic Biomedical Research. AmfAR has provided over 3,300 grants to research teams across the world and has invested over $400 million to research aiming to treat HIV and AIDS related illness. AmfAR's funds have gone to funding research, as a result have helped pioneer community-based clinical research trials in the 1980s, as well as the involvement of AIDS patients in the drug approval process. Changes in leadership have marked changes in focus, resulting in shifts from public health outreach to public education to international research and outreach. AmfAR has embarked on various national and international campaigns to spur AIDS/HIV research, create a dialogue and decrease stigma surrounding the disease.
Through TREAT Asia and GMT, amfAR took international roots and began funding research and outreach on all inhabited continents. National initiatives have included the Countdown to a Cure for AIDS; the Institute for HIV Cures Research and amfAR Research Consortium on HIV Eradication were both created to aid this countdown, both to help fund research as well as provide a facility at which those researcher can work. To supplement the funding of these initiatives, amfAR is funded through sources like stock donations and their annual galas, which represent the majority of their source of funding. After Kenneth Cole stepped down as chairman, he was replaced by William H. Roedy; the current CEO Kevin Robert Frost joined amfAR in 1994 and became CEO in 2004. Together they lead 9 members of the Management Team, 25 Board of Trustees members and over 100 advisors to both their scientific and political platforms. Charity Watch rates Foundation for AIDS Research a "A-" grade. Charity Navigator rates amfAR a four-star charity.
In the early 1980s, a group of researchers and scientists including Mathilde Krim, Ph. D. a researcher at New York's Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, formed an informal study group to investigate the condition that came to be known as AIDS. In 1983, Dr. Krim, Dr. Joseph Sonnabend, Michael Callen, several others launched the New York-based AIDS Medical Foundation. In Los Angeles, Dr. Michael S. Gottlieb and amfAR Founding National Chairman Dame Elizabeth Taylor spearheaded the creation of the National AIDS Research Foundation; the two organizations merged in September 1985 to become "American Foundation for AIDS Research". The merged organization was launched with a $250,000 contribution from Rock Hudson shortly before his AIDS-related death in October 1985. Krim's achievements during her time as the head of amfAR involved increased public education and direct political action. Krim spearheaded the publishing of amfAR's first HIV/AIDS Treatment Directory, which provides medical professionals updated information on the treatment of HIV/AIDS, as well as clinical trials that People with AIDS can participate in.
The publishing of this directory continued for 11 volumes until the year 2001. Following the increased involvement of AIDS activists and patients with the drug approval process, Krim testified before the National Institute of Health and Congress on the importance of clinical trials within community settings; these testimonies and lobbying efforts by Krim led to the first Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group, which allowed people with AIDS and HIV to take part in the testing needed to approve AIDS drugs. Krim further shaped the structure of amfAR's fellowships, as she impelled the first grant of money to Peter Piot for his landmark study on female-to-male AIDS transmission in Kenya.“They felt that this was a disease that resulted from a sleazy lifestyle, drugs or kinky sex — that certain people had learned their lesson and it served them right,” Dr. Krim told The New York Times Magazine in 1988. “That was the attitude on the part of respectable foundations that are supposed to be concerned about human welfare.”One of Krim's final projects was her push for needle exchange programs in the face of mass stigma toward IV-drug users.
Amid the 1980s "War on Drugs," Krim's thoughts on sterile needle exchange is reflected in a quote, saying, "It was a brilliant idea. It would work—the drug users would use the clean needles—and it would be inexpensive.” Krim worked with the Outside In needle exchange program in Portland, Oregon in 1989, a