Staple Inn is a Tudor building on the south side of High Holborn street in the City of London, England. Located near Chancery Lane tube station, it is used as the London venue for meetings of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries, is the last surviving Inn of Chancery, it was designated a grade I listed building in 1974. It was attached to Gray's Inn, one of the four Inns of Court; the Inns of Chancery fell into decay in the 19th century. All of them were dissolved, most were demolished. Staple Inn is the only one which survives intact, it was an extra-parochial area until 1858 and a civil parish. It became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Holborn in 1900 and was abolished in 1930. On 1 April 1994 boundary changes meant that the Inn was transferred from the London Borough of Camden to the City of London, it was the model for the fictitious Inn of Court "Bacon's Inn" in Arthur Moore's 1904 novel'Archers of the Long Bow'. The ancient switch-tailed double pump referred to was replaced in 1937 by a mock single pump, to mark the site.
Staple Inn dates from 1585. The building was once the wool staple, where wool was taxed, it survived the Great Fire of London, was extensively damaged by a Nazi German Luftwaffe aerial bomb in 1944 but was subsequently restored. It has cruck roof and an internal courtyard; the historic interiors include a great hall, used by the Faculty of Actuaries. The ground floor street frontage is let to shops and restaurants, required to use plainer signage than they do on less sensitive buildings; this building will be familiar with those that smoke "Old Holborn" tobacco, as it featured on tins and pouches of this product. List of buildings that survived the Great Fire of London History of Staple Inn from the Institute of Actuaries Barristers Chambers in Staple Inn Tour UK - Staple Inn
Clifford's Inn is a former Inn of Chancery in London. It was located between Fetter Lane, Clifford's Inn Passage, leading off Fleet Street and Chancery Lane in the City of London; the Inn was founded in 1344 and refounded 15 June 1668. It was dissolved in 1903, most of its original structure was demolished in 1934, it was both the first Inn of Chancery to be the last to be demolished. Through the ages, Clifford's Inn was engaged in educating students in jurisprudence, Edward Coke and John Selden being two of its best known alumni, it accommodated graduates preparing for ordination, such as the novelist Samuel Butler and those studying for other professions. In 1903, the members of Clifford's Inn reached the view that the establishment had outlived its purpose in education, unanimously voted to dissolve its incorporation, its remaining funds were donated to the Attorney General for Wales. Since Clifford's Inn has housed offices, such as The Senior Courts Costs Office. In apartments above, Virginia Woolf, Sir John Stuttard and Sir Ernest Ryder have been residents.
The Inns of Chancery appear to have evolved in tandem with the Inns of Court. During the 12th and 13th centuries the Law was taught in the City of London by the clergy. However, during the 13th century two events happened which diminished this form of legal education: firstly, a decree by Henry III of England stating that no institutes of legal education could exist in the City of London; the system of legal education dispersed, with lawyers instead settling on the outskirts of the City of London but as close as possible to Westminster Hall, where the signing of the Magna Carta led to the establishment of a permanent court. The neighbourhood of what had been the small village of Holborn evolved into habitations, i.e. "hostels" or "inns", which over time became known by the name of their respective landlords. Inns of Chancery developed around the Inns of Court, establishing their name and ultimate purpose from the Chancery Clerks, who used these buildings not only as accommodation, but as offices from where to draft their writs.
Since the Middle Ages, education at one of these Inns has been considered the customary step to becoming a barrister. Therefore, a student or pupil entered one of the Inns of Chancery, where he would be taught in the latest form of moots and rote learning; the land on which Clifford's Inn remains situated was granted to Lord de Clifford on 24 February 1310, it is from his family that the Inn derives its name. Upon Lord de Clifford's death in 1314 his estates passed via his brother, Roger, to his nephew, Robert de Clifford, 3rd Baron de Clifford after whose death in 1344, his widow granted use of the land to students of the law for £10 annually, it was the first recorded Inn of Chancery. The Society of Clifford's Inn concluded purchase of the freehold of the property on 29 March 1618 from its owner, Francis Clifford, 4th Earl of Cumberland, for the sum of £600, with the proviso that it should pay him £4 per year rent thereafter for use of the land and to keep a set of chambers available for those barristers of his choosing.
On the death of the 5th Earl, the earldom of Cumberland became extinct and the barony of Clifford passed to his daughter and sole heiress, Lady Elizabeth Boyle, Countess of Thanet. After protracted family legal wranglings the rights and privileges to Clifford's Inn devolved upon his cousin, Lady Anne Clifford, which estates remained with her descendants until the early 19th century. By 1903 it was apparent that the Inn was superfluous to requirements of legal education, so its members unanimously agreed to dissolve the society, selling the buildings and giving its residue to the Attorney General for England and Wales, the nominal head of the Bar, to do with it as it so wished; the auction of the assets took place on 14 May of that year, the Inn was sold "at a ridiculously low price", in the sum of £100,000. The buildings of the Inn were demolished in 1934, save its gatehouse, which survives to this day; this gatehouse is believed to have been designed by Decimus Burton, a student of the Inn 1830-34.
Clifford's Inn was ruled by its Council, led by a Principal. As well as the Principal, the Council consisted of twelve barristers, all elected by the Inn members and who enjoyed certain rights; the Principal was elected by the entire Inn's membership and was tasked with overseeing its day-to-day running and supervision of the Inn's servants. Principals were elected for life, but subsequent to a council order dated 15 June 1668 they were subject to re-election every three years. However, between 1668 and the last election in 1890, only 21 men served as Principal of Clifford's Inn, since "once elected, always elected" unless infirm became customary practice; the Clifford family's protracted title dispute caused confusion in Clifford's Inn governance for some time, during this period usage of a differenced coat of arms is recorded: "Chequée Or and Azure, a Fess Gules, a Bordure bezantée of the Third". Clifford's Inn resumed its usage of the ancient Clifford arms, namely: "Chequée Or and Azure, a Fess Gules".
Noted students in the law at Clifford's Inn include John Selden. Although considered to be
The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple known as Middle Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court entitled to call their members to the English Bar as barristers, the others being the Inner Temple, Gray's Inn and Lincoln's Inn. It is located in the wider Temple area of London, near the Royal Courts of Justice, within the City of London. During the 12th and early 13th centuries the law was taught in the City of London by the clergy, but a papal bull in 1218 prohibited the clergy from practising in the secular courts. As a result, law began to be taught by laymen instead of by clerics. To protect their schools from competition, first Henry II and Henry III issued proclamations prohibiting the teaching of the civil law within the City of London; as a result, the common law lawyers moved to premises outside the City, which in time became the inns of court. The Middle Temple is the western part of "The Temple", the headquarters of the Knights Templar until they were dissolved in 1312. There have been lawyers in the Temple since 1320, when they were the tenants of the Earl of Lancaster, who had held the Temple since 1315.
The Temple belonged to the Knights Hospitallers. In 1346 the knights again leased the premises to the lawyers – the eastern part to lawyers from Thavie's Inn, an Inn of Chancery in Holborn, the western part to lawyers from St George's Inn; the Cross of St George is still part of the arms of Middle Temple today. After Henry VIII seized the Temple from the Knights Hospitallers in 1540, each Inn continued to hold its share of the Temple as tenants of the Crown for £10 a year, until it was granted to them jointly in 1608 by James I, to be held in perpetuity so long as they continue to provide education and accommodation to lawyers and students and maintain the Temple Church and its Master; the Temple Church, consecrated in 1185, still stands as a "Royal Peculiar" church of the Inner and Middle Temples. Much of the Middle Temple was destroyed in a fire in 1678, which caused more damage to the Inn than the Great Fire of 1666; the Thames being frozen over, beer from the Temple cellars was used to fight the fire, only contained by blowing up some buildings with gunpowder.
The Lord Mayor of London tried to exploit the occasion to assert his own jurisdiction over the Temple –, independent of the City – and on being thwarted in this endeavour, he turned back a fire engine, on its way to the fire from the City. The Inns served as colleges for the education of lawyers until they stopped being responsible for legal education in 1852, although they continue to provide training in areas such as advocacy and ethics for students, pupil barristers and newly qualified barristers. Most of the Inn is occupied by barristers' offices, known as chambers. One of the Middle Temple's main functions now is to provide education and support to new members of the profession; this is done through advocacy training, the provision of scholarships, subsidised accommodation both in the Temple and in Clapham, by providing events where junior members may meet senior colleagues for help and advice. In 2008 the 400th anniversary of the charter of James I was celebrated by Elizabeth II issuing new letters patent confirming the original grant.
The Middle Temple owns 43 buildings. The ones in the Temple itself are still held under the 1608 letters patent of James I, but some others just outside the Temple were bought subsequently; some buildings are modern, replacing ones which were destroyed in The Blitz, but others date back to the 16th century. The Inn is jointly responsible, with Inner Temple, for Temple Church and the Master's House next to the church, a Georgian townhouse built in 1764. Construction of Middle Temple Hall began in 1562 and was completed in 1572, although it was opened in 1576, by Queen Elizabeth I, its hammerbeam roof has been said to be the best in London. One of the tables at the end of the hall is made from the timbers of the Golden Hinde, the ship used by Sir Francis Drake to circumnavigate the world. Above the table is a massive painting of King Charles I by Anthony van Dyck, portraits of Charles II, James II, William III, Elizabeth I, Queen Anne and George I. On the walls are panels bearing the coats of arms of Readers dating back to 1597.
The first recorded performance of Shakespeare's play Twelfth Night occurred in the hall on 2 February 1602. Shakespeare himself was present; the hall survived the Great Fire of London in 1666, but was damaged by bombing in the Second World War. Middle Temple Hall is at the heart of the Inn, the Inn's student members are required to attend a minimum of 12 qualifying sessions there. Qualifying sessions known as "dinners", combine collegiate and educational elements and will combine a dinner or reception with lectures, mooting, or musical performances. Middle Temple Hall is a popular venue for banqueting, weddings and parties. In recent years, it has become a much-used film location—the cobbled streets, historic buildings and gas lighting give it a unique atmosphere. Nothing is known about the original library, just a room in a barristers' chambers. All the books were stolen prior to the reign of Henry VIII. In 1625 a new library was established at the site of what is now Garden Court, in 1641 it was enlarged when a member of the Inn, Robert Ashley and left his collection of books and £300 to the Inn.
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The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple known as Inner Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court in London. To be called to the Bar and practise as a barrister in England and Wales, an individual must belong to one of these Inns, it is located in the wider Temple area of the capital, near the Royal Courts of Justice, within the City of London. The Inn is a professional body that provides legal training and regulation for members, it is ruled by a governing council called "Parliament", made up of the Masters of the Bench, led by the Treasurer, elected to serve a one-year term. The Temple takes its name from the Knights Templar, who leased the land to the Temple's inhabitants until their abolition in 1312; the Inner Temple was a distinct society from at least 1388, although as with all the Inns of Court its precise date of founding is not known. After a disruptive early period it flourished, becoming the second-largest Inn during the Elizabethan period; the Inner Temple expanded during the reigns of James I and Charles I, with 1,700 students admitted between 1600 and 1640.
The First English Civil War's outbreak led to a complete suspension of legal education, with the Inns close to being shut down for four years. Following the English Restoration the Inner Templars welcomed Charles II back to London with a lavish banquet. After a period of slow decline in the 18th century, the following 100 years saw a restoration of the Temple's fortunes, with buildings constructed or restored, such as the Hall and the Library. Much of this work was destroyed during The Blitz, when the Hall, Temple Church, many sets of chambers were devastated. Rebuilding was completed in 1959, today the Temple is a flourishing and active Inn of Court, with over 8,000 members; the Inner Temple is one of the four Inns of Court, along with Gray's Inn, Lincoln's Inn, the Middle Temple. The Inns are responsible for training and selecting barristers within England and Wales, are the only bodies allowed to call a barrister to the Bar and allow him or her to practice; the Temple is an independent, unincorporated organisation, works as a trust.
It has 8,000 members and around 450 apply to join per year. Although the Inn was a disciplinary and teaching body, these functions are now shared between the four Inns, with the Bar Standards Board acting as a disciplinary body and the Inns of Court and Bar Educational Trust providing education; the history of the Inner Temple begins in the early years of the reign of Henry II, when the contingent of Knights Templar in London moved from the Old Temple in Holborn to a new location on the banks of the River Thames, stretching from Fleet Street to what is now Essex House. The original Temple covered much of what is now the northern part of Chancery Lane, which the Knights created to provide access to their new buildings; the old Temple became the London palace of the Bishop of Lincoln. After the Reformation it became the home of the Earl of Southampton, the location is now named Southampton Buildings; the first group of lawyers came to live here during the 13th century, although as legal advisers to the Knights rather than as a society.
The Knights fell out of favour, the order was dissolved in 1312, with the land seized by the king and granted to the Knights Hospitaller. The Hospitallers did not live on the property, but rather used it as a source of revenue through rent. During the 12th and 13th centuries, the law was taught in the City of London by the clergy. During the 13th century, two events happened; as a result, the Church ceased to have a role in legal education in London. The secular, common law lawyers migrated to the hamlet of Holborn, as it was easy to get to the law courts at Westminster Hall and was just outside the City. Two groups occupied the Hospitaller land, became known as the "inner inn" and the "middle inn"; these became the Inner Temple and the Middle Temple, were distinct societies by 1388, when they are mentioned in a year book. The Hospitallers leased the land to the Inner Temple for £10 a year, with students coming from Thavie's Inn to study there. There are few records of the Inner Temple from the 14th and 15th centuries—indeed, from all the societies, although Lincoln's Inn's records stretch back to 1422.
The Temple was sacked by Wat Tyler and his rebels during the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, with buildings pulled down and records destroyed. John Stow wrote that, after breaking into Fleet Prison the rebels: went to the Temple to destroy it, plucked down the houses, tooke off the tyles of the other buildings left; this house they spoyled for wrathe they bare to the prior of St. John's, unto whom it belonged, after a number of them had sacked this Temple, what with labour and what with wine being overcome, they lay down under the walls and housing, were slain like swyne, one of them killing another for old grudge and hatred, a
Holborn Circus is a junction of five highways in the City of London, on the boundary between Holborn, Hatton Garden and Smithfield. It was designed by the engineer William Haywood and opened in 1867; the term circus describes the way the frontages of the buildings surrounding the junction curve round in a concave chamfer. Holborn Circus was described in Charles Dickens' Dictionary of London as "perhaps... the finest piece of street architecture in the City". High Holborn links Holborn Circus to the West End. To the east, Holborn Viaduct leads into the City of London financial district. Charterhouse Street and London's jewellery trade district of Hatton Garden exit Holborn Circus to the north; the district of Clerkenwell is to the north-east. New Fetter Lane and Shoe Lane exit to the south. Holborn Circus is notorious for being an accident blackspot, topping a list of the worst accident locations in 2012. In May 2012 funding was secured for a £4.4 million improvement project to the junction to reduce its high accident rate.
Works included the relocation of the statue from the centre of the junction where it obstructed drivers' sight lines to a nearby position on High Holborn. The number of roads feeding into the junction was reduced from six to five, with St Andrew Street now accessed from New Fetter Lane. On one side lies the church of St Andrew, Holborn, an ancient guild church that survived the Great Fire of London. However, the parochial authority decided to commission Christopher Wren to rebuild it. Although the nave was destroyed in the Blitz, the reconstruction was faithful to Wren's original. Many other buildings surrounding Holborn Circus were damaged during the Blitz. After the Second World War, many were demolished. From 1961 to 1994 the modernist headquarters of the Daily Mirror, designed by Sir Owen Williams and Anderson and Wilcox, were a prominent landmark overlooking the junction; the site is now occupied by the headquarters of the supermarket Sainsbury's. To the west of Holborn Circus there is an equestrian statue of Prince Albert by Charles Bacon, the City of London's official monument to him.
This statue was sited in the middle of the circus and was moved in 2014 as part of improvement works to the junction. The statue features the prince consort in a field marshal's uniform raising his hat; the sculpture sits on an oblong plinth displaying plaques of Britannia and bronze figures representing commerce and peace. It was presented by Charles Oppenheim, of the diamond trading company De Beers, whose headquarters is on nearby Charterhouse Street. Ely Place Google Maps Holborn Circus highway work 2013/14
Serjeant's Inn was one of the two inns of the Serjeants-at-Law in London. The Fleet Street inn dated from 1443 and the Chancery Lane inn dated from 1416. Both buildings were destroyed in the 1941 bombing raids during World War II. By 1500 there were two Serjeants' Inns, they accommodated two societies of Serjeants-at-law. In 1730, the Fleet Street lease was not renewed and the two societies merged; the last Serjeants' Inn, the one in Chancery Lane, was sold in 1877, the assets were distributed amongst the surviving members, although the society was not formally dissolved. The last member, Lord Lindley, died in 1921. Serjeant Sullivan, who died in 1959, was appointed to the equivalent Irish office decades after the distribution of assets, when the English society had dissolved; the lease of the site of the former Serjeants' Inn on Fleet Street was taken on in 1737 by the Amicable Society for a Perpetual Assurance Office, the first life insurance company in the world, who raised a new building on the site in 1792–93, designed by Robert Adam.
The site was redeveloped after the destruction of this building in the Second World War, but retained its name and a physical connection with the Inns of Court, since the modern buildings, although commercially occupied, stand around a small courtyard used for parking which connects to the Inner Temple through an archway which allows pedestrian access. That site is now, therefore part of the precincts of the Inner Temple and the wider legal area of the Temple. Moreover, in 2001 the Inner Temple acquired the freehold from its former commercial occupiers; the Inner Temple announced its intention to use the space for barristers' chambers, like those in the Inner Temple itself. However, in March 2008 it informed its members that both refurbishment and rebuilding for this purpose had proved to be financially nonviable, that it had therefore granted a long lease for hotel premises at 1–2 Serjeants' Inn to recover its acquisition costs; the Apex Temple Court Hotel opened in March 2012. No. 3 Serjeant's Inn has been a barristers' chambers, occupying commercial premises, since 1986.
Mitre Court, which connects the Inner Temple area, Serjeants' Inn and Fleet Street, has recently become home to barristers' chambers. List of demolished buildings and structures in London
Faculty of Advocates
The Faculty of Advocates is an independent body of lawyers who have been admitted to practise as advocates before the courts of Scotland the Court of Session and the High Court of Justiciary. The Faculty of Advocates is based in Edinburgh. Advocates are privileged to plead in any cause before any of the courts of Scotland, including the Sheriff Courts and District Courts, where counsel are not excluded by statute; the Faculty has existed since 1532 when the College of Justice was set up by Act of the Parliament of Scotland, but its origins are believed to predate that event. For a long period the Faculty resisted reorganisation, until changes in admissions were introduced in 1960; the first female to be admitted to the faculty was Margaret Kidd in July 1923, who remained Scotland's only female advocate until 1948. Kidd served as Keeper of the Advocates' Library 1956–1969. In 2004 the first female vice-dean of the faculty was elected; the Faculty is led by the Dean of Faculty, elected by the whole membership.
The post is held by Gordon Jackson, who took over in 2016 from James Wolffe. He is supported by the Vice-Dean, Clerk, Keeper of the Library and Chairman of Faculty Services Ltd, all of whom are elected. There is no standing council as with the Bar association of Wales; the Faculty is self-regulating, the Court of Session delegates to it the task of preparing Intrants for admission as advocates. This task involves a process of examination and practical instruction known as devilling, during which intrants benefit from intensive structured training in the special skills of advocacy. No-one can be presented to the court as suitable to be a practising advocate without satisfying these training requirements; the Faculty provides for its members an ongoing programme of talks and conferences covering a wide range of topics. Many Advocates and trainee advocates carry out work for the Free Legal Services Unit; this is part of the Faculty's long standing commitment to providing access to justice for everyone in society.
The FLSU enables qualified persons to provide advice and representation to clients of accredited advice agencies across Scotland. The Faculty includes non-practising members; the current practising Bar includes an increasing proportion of women. Women make up one quarter practising membership. Total numbers now stand at just over 460, of whom one fifth are Queen's Counsel; the taking of Silk, as assumption of the title of Queen's Counsel is known, depends upon the prerogative of Her Majesty. This is exercised through the First Minister of Scotland upon the recommendation of the Lord Justice General; the Dean of Faculty is consulted in the course of this process. As a general rule, silk is awarded to experienced Counsel, who are considered to have achieved distinction in full-time practice; the process of awarding silk has been the subject of some criticism. For more than 300 years, the Faculty has maintained within Parliament House the Advocates Library regarded as the finest working law library in the United Kingdom.
A comprehensive range of materials has been built up over the last three hundred years, a modern library management system utilising the latest technology, ensure that the Advocates Library is able to meet the complex needs of members of the Faculty of Advocates. In addition, the library's stock is made available to others via the National Library of Scotland; the Library was formally inaugurated in 1689. From the start the collection was a general one. In 1709 the status of the collection was confirmed when Queen Anne's Copyright Act gave the Keeper of the Library the right to claim a copy of every book published in the British Isles; the collection was enhanced by purchase and donation of continental imprints and of manuscripts. The Advocates Library came to be recognised as the natural depository for literary materials of national importance. By the 1850s the Library had become in effect Scotland's national library. In 1925 the National Library of Scotland was established when the Faculty gifted to the nation its whole non-law collections comprising 750,000 books, manuscripts and sheet music.
The Advocates Library has retained the copyright privilege for law publications. In recent years the Advocates Library has expanded to take account of the increase in membership of the Faculty. Advances in technology have been embraced with the installation of a new library management system, incorporating an on-line catalogue, which further enhances the services the library offers; the Dean of Faculty is the leader of the Faculty of Advocates. The Dean elected by the whole membership. Since 2000, the following have served as Dean: 1997 to 2001: Nigel Emslie 2001 to 2004: Colin Campbell 2004 to 2007: Robert Logan "Roy" Martin 2007 to 2014: Richard Keen 2014 to 2016: James Wolffe 2016 to present: Gordon Jackson Inns of Court, a equivalent body for England and Wales King's Inns, a equivalent body for the Republic of Ireland References Official website