Colonel and Brevet Brigadier General Sylvanus Thayer known as "the Father of West Point" was an early superintendent of the United States Military Academy at West Point and an early advocate of engineering education in the United States. Sylvanus Thayer was born in Braintree, the son of farmer Nathaniel Thayer and his wife Dorcas Faxon. In 1793, at the age of 8, Thayer was sent to live with his uncle Azariah Faxon and attend school in Washington, New Hampshire. There he met General Benjamin Pierce, like Faxon, was a veteran of the Revolutionary War. In 1803 Thayer matriculated at Dartmouth College. Thayer, never gave the valedictory address at Dartmouth, having been granted an appointment to West Point by President Thomas Jefferson at the behest of General Pierce. Thayer graduated from the United States Military Academy after a single year, received his commission as a second lieutenant in 1808, his first assignment was supervising the construction of Fort Warren in Boston Harbor, foreshadowing the bulk of his career.
During the War of 1812, Thayer directed the fortification and defense of Norfolk and was promoted to major. In 1815, Thayer was provided $5,000 to travel to Europe, where he studied for two years at the French École Polytechnique. While traveling in Europe he amassed a collection of science and mathematics texts that now form a valuable collection for historians of mathematics. In 1817, President James Monroe ordered Thayer to West Point to become superintendent of the Military Academy following the resignation of Captain Alden Partridge. Under his stewardship, the Academy became the nation's first college of engineering. While at West Point Thayer established numerous traditions and policies which are still in use at West Point; these include the values of honor and responsibility, strict mental and physical discipline, the demerit system, summer encampment, high academic standards and the requirement that cadets maintain outstanding military bearing and appearance at all times. Many of the cadets who attended West Point during Thayer's tenure, held key leadership positions during the Mexican War and American Civil War.
Colonel Thayer's time at West Point ended with his resignation in 1833, after a disagreement with President Andrew Jackson. He was elected an Associate Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1834. Thayer returned to duty with the Army Corps of Engineers. Thayer spent the great majority of the next 30 years as the chief engineer for the Boston area. During this time he oversaw the construction of both Fort Warren and Fort Independence to defend Boston Harbor. Thayer's great engineering ability can be observed in both of the above-mentioned forts. In August 1861, Fort Thayer, an earthwork fort part of the Civil War Defenses of Washington, DC is built and named in his honor. Thayer retired from the Army on June 1863 with the rank of colonel in the Corps of Engineers; as a result of Thayer's enduring legacy at the United States Military Academy, in 1869 a meeting took place in Braintree between Thayer and the West Point graduate and Civil War hero Brigadier General Robert Anderson.
An outcome of Anderson's 1869 meeting with Thayer was the establishment of the Military Academy's Association of Graduates. In 1867, Thayer donated $40,000 to the trustees of Dartmouth College to create the Thayer School of Engineering. Thayer located and recommended USMA graduate Lieutenant Robert Fletcher to Dartmouth president Asa Dodge Smith. Fletcher became the school's first -- only -- dean; the Thayer School admitted its first three students to a graduate program in 1871. In 1871 at the bequest of his will Thayer Academy in Braintree, Massachusetts was conceived, it opened September 12, 1877. Thayer died on September 1872 at his home in Braintree, he was reinterred at West Point Cemetery in 1877. Thayer's obituary appeared in the New York Times on September 8, 1872. Thayer's papers and manuscripts are divided between the U. S. Military Academy Library, West Point, New York, the Dartmouth College Library, New Hampshire. In 1852 herpetologists Spencer Fullerton Baird and Charles Frédéric Girard of the Smithsonian Institution named a species of lizard in honor of Thayer, Sceloporus thayeri, placed in the synonymy of Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus.
On April 21, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln nominated Thayer for the award of the honorary grade of brevet brigadier general, United States Army, to rank from May 31, 1863, the day before he retired, for long and faithful service. The U. S. Senate confirmed the award on April 27, 1864. To honor his achievements, in 1958, the Sylvanus Thayer Award was created by the United States Military Academy, he has been honored by the United States Postal Service with a 9¢ Great Americans series postage stamp. Thayer Street, in the Inwood, Manhattan section of New York City, is named after him. Stephen E. Ambrose, Honor, Country: A History of West Point Thomas J. Fleming, West Point: The Men and Times of the United States Military Academy James L. Morrison, Jr. "The Best School in the World": West Point, the Pre-Civil War Years, 1833-1866 George S. Pappas, To the Point: The United States Military Academy, 1802-1902. Thayer family Gen. Sylvanus Thayer House Thayer Academy Thayer Public Library Eiche, John H. and Eicher, David J. Civil War High Commands.
Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. Hunt, Roger D. and Brown, Jack R. Brevet Brigadier Generals in Blue. Gaithersburg, MD: Olde Soldier Books, Inc. 1990. ISBN 1-56013-002-4. Kershner, James William, Sylvanus Thayer – A Biogra
Mixed-sex education known as mixed-gender education, co-education or coeducation, is a system of education where males and females are educated together. Whereas single-sex education was more common up to the 19th century, mixed-sex education has since become standard in many cultures in Western countries. Single-sex education, remains prevalent in many Muslim countries; the relative merits of both systems have been the subject of debate. The world's oldest co-educational day and boarding school is Dollar Academy, a junior and senior school for males and females from ages 5 to 18 in Scotland, United Kingdom. From its opening in 1818 the school admitted both boys and girls of the parish of Dollar and the surrounding area; the school continues in existence to the present day with around 1,250 pupils. The first co-educational college to be founded was Oberlin Collegiate Institute in Ohio, it opened on December 3, 1833, including 29 men and 15 women. Equal status for women did not arrive until 1837, the first three women to graduate with bachelor's degrees did so in 1840.
By the late 20th century, many institutions of higher learning, for people of one sex had become coeducational. In early civilizations, people were educated informally: within the household; as time progressed, education became more formal. Women had few rights when education started to become a more important aspect of civilization. Efforts of the ancient Greek and Chinese societies focused on the education of males. In ancient Rome, the availability of education was extended to women, but they were taught separately from men; the early Christians and medieval Europeans continued this trend, single-sex schools for the privileged classes prevailed through the Reformation period. In the 16th century, at the Council of Trent, the Roman Catholic church reinforced the establishment of free elementary schools for children of all classes; the concept of universal elementary education, regardless of sex, had been created. After the Reformation, coeducation was introduced in western Europe, when certain Protestant groups urged that boys and girls should be taught to read the Bible.
The practice became popular in northern England and colonial New England, where young children, both male and female, attended dame schools. In the late 18th century, girls were admitted to town schools; the Society of Friends in England, as well as in the United States, pioneered coeducation as they did universal education, in Quaker settlements in the British colonies and girls attended school together. The new free public elementary, or common schools, which after the American Revolution supplanted church institutions, were always coeducational, by 1900 most public high schools were coeducational as well. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, coeducation grew much more accepted. In Great Britain and the Soviet Union, the education of girls and boys in the same classes became an approved practice. In Australia there is a trend towards increased coeducational schooling with new coeducational schools opening, few new single sex schools opening and existing single sex schools combining or opening their doors to the opposite gender.
The first mixed-sex institution of higher learning in China was the Nanjing Higher Normal Institute, renamed National Central University and Nanjing University. For millennia in China, public schools public higher learning schools, were for men. Only schools established by zongzu were for both male and female students; some schools such as Li Zhi's school in Ming Dynasty and Yuan Mei's school in Qing Dynasty enrolled both male and female students. In the 1910s women's universities were established such as Ginling Women's University and Peking Girls' Higher Normal School, but there were no coeducation in higher learning schools. Tao Xingzhi, the Chinese advocator of mixed-sex education, proposed The Audit Law for Women Students at the meeting of Nanjing Higher Normal School held on December seventh, 1919, he proposed that the university recruit female students. The idea was supported by the president Guo Bingwen, academic director Liu Boming, such famous professors as Lu Zhiwei and Yang Xingfo, but opposed by many famous men of the time.
The meeting decided to recruit women students next year. Nanjing Higher Normal School enrolled eight Chinese female students in 1920. In the same year Peking University began to allow women students to audit classes. One of the most notable female students of that time was Jianxiong Wu. In 1949, the People's Republic of China was founded; the Chinese government has provided more equal opportunities for education since and all schools and universities have become mixed-sex. In recent years, many female and/or single-sex schools have again emerged for special vocational training needs but equal rights for education still apply to all citizens. In China Muslim Hui and Muslim Salars are against coeducation, due to Islam, Uyghurs are the only Muslims in China that do not mind coeducation and practice it. Admission to the Sorbonne was opened to girls in 1860; the baccalaureat became gender-blind in 1924, giving equal chances to all girls in applying to any universities. Mixed-sex education became mandatory for primary schools in 1957 and for all universities in 1975.
St. Paul's Co-educational College was the first mixed-sex secondary school in Hong Kong, it was founded in 1915 as St. Paul's Girls' College. At the end of World War II it was temporarily merged with St. Paul's College, a boys' school; when classes at the campus of St. Paul'
Gordon R. Sullivan
Gordon Russell Sullivan is a retired United States Army general, who served as the 32nd Chief of Staff of the Army and as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Sullivan served as acting Secretary of the Army. After retiring from the army, Sullivan served as the president and chief executive of the Association of the United States Army for 18 years, from 1998 through June 30, 2016, he served as the chairman of the board of trustees of Norwich University until 2016, serves as chairman of the boards of The Army Historical Foundation and the Marshall Legacy Project. Sullivan was born September 25, 1937, in Boston and grew up in nearby Quincy, he was commissioned a second lieutenant of Armor and awarded a Bachelor of Arts degree in history from Norwich University in 1959. Sullivan holds a Master of Arts degree in political science from the University of New Hampshire, his professional military education includes the United States Army Armor School Basic and Advanced Courses, the Command and General Staff College, the Army War College.
During his army career, Sullivan served as: Assistant Commandant, United States Army Armor School at Fort Knox, Kentucky from November 1983 to July 1985. His overseas assignments included two in Vietnam and one in Korea. Sullivan culminated his service in uniform as the 32nd Chief of Staff of the United States Army—the senior general officer in the army—and a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; as the Chief of Staff of the Army, Sullivan created the vision and led the team that transitioned the army from its Cold War posture. In August 1993, President Bill Clinton assigned the duties and responsibility of acting Secretary of the Army to Sullivan who continued to serve as Chief of Staff. Sullivan retired from the United States Army on July 31, 1995 after more than 36 years of active service; the military march "Architect of Victory" was dedicated to him on the occasion of his retirement. Sullivan is the co-author, with Michael V. Harper, of Hope Is Not a Method, which chronicles the enormous challenges encountered in transforming the post-Cold War army through the lens of proven leadership principles and a commitment to shared values.
Sullivan serves as the chairman of the board of trustees of Norwich University, the Army Historical Foundation, the Marshall Legacy Institute, as well as a member of the MITRE Army Advisory Board, the MIT Lincoln Laboratory Advisory Board, a Life Trustee of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. He was the President and Chief Executive Officer of the Association of the United States Army, headquartered in Arlington, Virginia from February 1998 through June 2016. Sullivan is an Advisory Board Member of Spirit of America, a 501 organization that supports the safety and success of Americans serving abroad and the local people and partners they seek to help. For his work with AUSA, Sullivan was awarded the prestigious Sylvanus Thayer Award by the United States Military Academy in 2003, the AUSA General George Catlett Marshall Medal, the Association's highest honor, in October 2016, he married Lori Boyle Sullivan in November 2017. He lives in Falmouth, MA, he has three grandchildren. He is historian.
Sullivan appears in the Lee Child book The Enemy, set in January 1990, in which protagonist Jack Reacher believes that the Army Chief of Staff is at the heart of a conspiracy that has left three people dead. Reacher goes to the Pentagon to confront the Chief of Staff, it is revealed that the Chief of Staff has been helping Reacher's investigation into the murders by making key personnel changes in army installations in the United States and elsewhere. Sullivan is mentioned by title only, but the Chief of Staff is described in the books as having come up in the army from the Armored Division; the Chief of Staff discusses the challenges posed by the end of the Cold War and the resulting restructuring of the army. The Sullivan File at the Wayback Machine, NU webpage. TESTIMONY BEFORE THE U. S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, COMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND COMMERCE, SUBCOMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. Established in 1769 by Eleazar Wheelock, it is the ninth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Although founded as a school to educate Native Americans in Christian theology and the English way of life, Dartmouth trained Congregationalist ministers throughout its early history; the university secularized, by the turn of the 20th century it had risen from relative obscurity into national prominence as one of the top centers of higher education. Following a liberal arts curriculum, the university provides undergraduate instruction in 40 academic departments and interdisciplinary programs including 57 majors in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, enables students to design specialized concentrations or engage in dual degree programs. Dartmouth comprises five constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Geisel School of Medicine, the Thayer School of Engineering, the Tuck School of Business, the Guarini School of Graduate and Advanced Studies.
The university has affiliations with the Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center, the Rockefeller Institute for Public Policy, the Hopkins Center for the Arts. With a student enrollment of about 6,400, Dartmouth is the smallest university in the Ivy League. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.9% for the Class of 2023. Situated on a terrace above the Connecticut River, Dartmouth's 269-acre main campus is in the rural Upper Valley region of New England; the university functions on a quarter system, operating year-round on four ten-week academic terms. Dartmouth is known for its undergraduate focus, strong Greek culture, wide array of enduring campus traditions, its 34 varsity sports teams compete intercollegiately in the Ivy League conference of the NCAA Division I. Dartmouth is included among the highest-ranked universities in the United States by several institutional rankings, has been cited as a leading university for undergraduate teaching and research by U. S. News & World Report.
In 2018, the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education listed Dartmouth as the only "majority-undergraduate," "arts-and-sciences focused," "doctoral university" in the country that has "some graduate coexistence" and "very high research activity." In a New York Times corporate study, Dartmouth graduates ranked 41st in terms of the most sought-after and valued in the world. The university has produced many prominent alumni, including 170 members of the U. S. Senate and the U. S. House of Representatives, 24 U. S. governors, 10 billionaire alumni, 10 U. S. Cabinet secretaries, 3 Nobel Prize laureates, 2 U. S. Supreme Court justices, a U. S. vice president. Other notable alumni include 79 Rhodes Scholars, 26 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 13 Pulitzer Prize winners, numerous MacArthur Genius fellows, Fulbright Scholars, CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 corporations, high-ranking U. S. diplomats, scholars in academia and media figures, professional athletes, Olympic medalists. Dartmouth was founded by Eleazar Wheelock, a Congregational minister from Columbia, who had sought to establish a school to train Native Americans as Christian missionaries.
Wheelock's ostensible inspiration for such an establishment resulted from his relationship with Mohegan Indian Samson Occom. Occom became an ordained minister after studying under Wheelock from 1743 to 1747, moved to Long Island to preach to the Montauks. Wheelock founded Moor's Indian Charity School in 1755; the Charity School proved somewhat successful, but additional funding was necessary to continue school's operations, Wheelock sought the help of friends to raise money. The first major donation to the school was given by Dr. John Phillips in 1762, who would go on to found Phillips Exeter Academy. Occom, accompanied by the Reverend Nathaniel Whitaker, traveled to England in 1766 to raise money from churches. With these funds, they established a trust to help Wheelock; the head of the trust was a Methodist named William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth. Although the fund provided Wheelock ample financial support for the Charity School, Wheelock had trouble recruiting Indians to the institution because its location was far from tribal territories.
In seeking to expand the school into a college, Wheelock relocated it to Hanover, in the Province of New Hampshire. The move from Connecticut followed a lengthy and sometimes frustrating effort to find resources and secure a charter; the Royal Governor of New Hampshire, John Wentworth, provided the land upon which Dartmouth would be built and on December 13, 1769, issued a royal charter in the name of King George III establishing the College. That charter created a college "for the education and instruction of Youth of the Indian Tribes in this Land in reading, writing & all parts of Learning which shall appear necessary and expedient for civilizing & christianizing Children of Pagans as well as in all liberal Arts and Sciences and of English Youth and any others." The reference to educating Native American youth was included to connect Dartmouth to the Charity School and enable use of the Charity School's unspent trust funds. Named for William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth—an important supporter of Eleazar Wheelock's earlier efforts but who, in fact, opposed creation of the College and never donated to it—Dartmouth is the nation's ninth oldest college and the last institution of higher learning established under Colonial rule.
The College granted its first degrees in 1771. Given the limited success of the Charity School, Wheelock intended his ne
Richard Brooks "Batya" Orpik is an American professional ice hockey defenseman and alternate captain for the Washington Capitals of the National Hockey League. He has played for the Pittsburgh Penguins, with whom he won the Stanley Cup in 2009, won his second Stanley Cup with Washington nearly a decade in 2018; as the oldest player on the team, his Russian teammates fondly refer to him as "Batya" and is one of the most respected players on the team. Orpik was born in San Francisco, California, a few months after the U. S. "Miracle on Ice" win over the Soviet Union in Lake Placid, New York, in 1980. Due to this, he was named after Team USA Olympic Head Coach Herb Brooks. Orpik, his brother Andrew, grew up in Amherst, New York. Orpik attended the Nichols School in Thayer Academy in Braintree, Massachusetts, he has two daughters. Orpik played three seasons for Boston College, winning the Hockey East post-season championship in 1999 and 2001, as well as the NCAA Men's Ice Hockey Championship in 2001.
His younger brother Andrew was a hockey player, playing for Boston College and having a brief minor league career. Orpik was drafted in the first round, 18th overall, of the 2000 NHL Entry Draft by the Pittsburgh Penguins, he began his professional career with the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins of the American Hockey League during the 2001–02 season. He made his NHL debut during the 2002 -- 03 season, recording no points. After earning a permanent roster spot on the team the next year, Orpik played in 79 games, registering one goal, nine assists and 127 penalty minutes. Orpik signed a six-year, $22.5 million contract extension in the summer of 2008 with the Penguins. In October 2008, he was named an alternate captain of the Penguins, along with Evgeni Malkin, behind captain Sidney Crosby. On March 4, 2006, Orpik boarded Carolina Hurricanes forward Erik Cole, fracturing a vertebra in Cole's neck Orpik was suspended for three games for the illegal hit. Cole did not return until Game 6 of the Stanley Cup Finals.
On June 12, 2009, Orpik and the Penguins became Stanley Cup champions by defeating the Detroit Red Wings in Game 7 of the 2009 Stanley Cup Finals. He was the first native of California to win the Stanley Cup. On December 17, 2011, Orpik recorded his 100th career point by earning an assist on Evgeni Malkin's goal on Ryan Miller at Consol Energy Center in Pittsburgh. On May 11, 2013, Orpik scored the game-winning goal in overtime of Game 6 to eliminate the New York Islanders and advance Pittsburgh to the second round of the 2013 Stanley Cup playoffs. On December 7, 2013, Orpik hit Boston Bruins forward Loui Eriksson, resulting in a concussion to the latter. While Orpik lay on the ice due to a confrontation with a Bruins player, Shawn Thornton delivered a punch, resulting in a concussion for Orpik. Thornton was suspended for 15 games for the incident. On July 1, 2014, the Washington Capitals signed Orpik to a five-year, $27.5 million contract as an unrestricted free agent. In Game 2 of Washington's 2016 playoff series against the Pittsburgh Penguins, Orpik delivered an illegal and late hit to Pittsburgh defenseman Olli Määttä, making contact with Määttä's head.
Orpik was suspended three games for the late hit and Määttä returned a few games to finish, help win, the series. During his fourth year with the Capitals, in the 2017–18 season, Orpik was Washington's nomination for the King Clancy Memorial Trophy as a player who best exemplifies leadership qualities and gives back to his community on April 23, 2018. In the 2018 playoffs, on May 30, 2018, Orpik scored the game-winning goal in Game 2 of the 2018 Stanley Cup Finals against the Vegas Golden Knights, it was the first time Orpik had scored a goal since February 20, 2016. On June 7, 2018, Orpik and the Capitals went on to win the Stanley Cup against the Golden Knights in five games; this was the second finals victory for Orpik. On June 22, 2018, less than three weeks after winning the Stanley Cup for the second time, due to salary cap considerations, Orpik was traded by the Capitals to the Colorado Avalanche in exchange for Colorado's second-round pick in the 2018 NHL Entry Draft, he was informed by Avalanche general manager Joe Sakic that he would be moved to a preferred destination or bought-out from the remaining year of his original five-year contract with the Capitals.
He was placed on unconditional waivers the following day and on June 24, 2018, he was released to free agency by the Avalanche. On July 24, the Capitals signed him to a one-year, $1 million contract, allowing him to return to the team he had just won the Stanley Cup with, after being bought-out by Colorado. In 1999, Orpik competed for the United States in the World Junior Ice Hockey Championships in Stockholm. In 2009, Orpik was invited to the USA Hockey orientation camp, from August 17 to 19, in preparation for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. Orpik was selected to Team USA for the Olympic squad, which finished with a silver medal finish behind Canada. Biographical information and career statistics from NHL.com, or Eliteprospects.com, or Hockey-Reference.com, or Legends of Hockey, or The Internet Hockey Database
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority
The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority is the public agency responsible for operating most public transportation services in Greater Boston, Massachusetts. Earlier modes of public transportation in Boston were independently operated; the MTA was replaced in 1964 with the present-day MBTA, established as an individual department within the Commonwealth of Massachusetts before becoming a division of the Massachusetts Department of Transportation in 2009. The MBTA and Philadelphia's Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority are the only U. S. transit agencies that operate all five major types of terrestrial mass transit vehicles: light rail vehicles. In 2016, the system averaged 1,277,200 passengers per weekday, of which heavy rail averaged 552,500 and the light-rail lines 226,500, making it the fourth-busiest subway system and the busiest light rail system in the United States; the MBTA is the largest consumer of electricity in Massachusetts, the second-largest land owner. In 2007, its CNG bus fleet was the largest consumer of alternative fuels in the state.
The MBTA operates an independent law enforcement agency, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Police. Mass transportation in Boston was provided by private companies granted charters by the state legislature for limited monopolies, with powers of eminent domain to establish a right-of-way, until the creation of the MTA in 1947. Development of mass transportation both shaped economic and population patterns. Shortly after the steam locomotive became practical for mass transportation, the private Boston and Lowell Railroad was chartered in 1830, connecting Boston to Lowell, a major northerly mill town in northeast Massachusetts' Merrimack Valley, via one of the oldest railroads in North America; this marked the beginning of the development of American intercity railroads, which in Massachusetts would become the MBTA Commuter Rail system and the Green Line "D" Branch. Starting with the opening of the Cambridge Railroad on March 26, 1856, a profusion of streetcar lines appeared in Boston under chartered companies.
Despite the change of companies, Boston is the city with the oldest continuously working streetcar system in the world. Many of these companies consolidated, animal-drawn vehicles were converted to electric propulsion. Streetcar congestion in downtown Boston led to the subways in 1897 and elevated rail in 1901; the Tremont Street subway was the first rapid transit tunnel in the United States. Grade-separation avoided delays caused by cross streets; the first elevated railway and the first rapid transit line in Boston were built three years before the first underground line of the New York City Subway, but 34 years after the first London Underground lines, long after the first elevated railway in New York City, its Ninth Avenue El started operations on July 1, 1868 in Manhattan as an elevated cable car line. Various extensions and branches were added at both ends; as grade-separated lines were extended, street-running lines were cut back for faster downtown service. The last elevated heavy rail or "El" segments in Boston were at the extremities of the Orange Line: its northern end was relocated in 1975 from Everett to Malden, MA, its southern end was relocated into the Southwest Corridor in 1987.
However, the Green Line's Causeway Street Elevated remained in service until 2004, when it was relocated into a tunnel with an incline to reconnect to the Lechmere Viaduct. The Lechmere Viaduct and a short section of steel-framed elevated at its northern end remain in service, though the elevated section will be cut back and connected to a northwards viaduct extension in 2017 as part of the Green Line Extension; the old elevated railways proved to be an eyesore and required several sharp curves in Boston's twisty streets. The Atlantic Avenue Elevated was closed in 1938 amidst declining ridership and was demolished in 1942; as rail passenger service became unprofitable due to rising automobile ownership, government takeover prevented abandonment and dismantlement. The MTA purchased and took over subway, elevated and bus operations from the Boston Elevated Railway in 1947. In the 1950s, the MTA ran new subway extensions, while the last two streetcar lines running into the Pleasant Street Portal of the Tremont Street Subway were substituted with buses in 1953 and 1962.
In 1958 the MTA purchased the Highland Branch from the Boston and Albany Railroad, reopening a year as rapid transit line. While the operations of the MTA were stable by the early 1960s, the operated commuter rail lines were in freefall; the New Haven Railroad, New York Central Railroad, Boston and Maine Railroad were all financially struggling. The 1945 Coolidge Commission plan assumed that most of the commuter rail lines would be replaced by shorter rapid transit extensions, or feed into them at reduced service levels. Passenger service on the entire Old Colony Railroad system serving the southeastern part of the state was abandoned by the New Haven Railroad in 1959, triggering calls for state intervention. Between January 1963 and March 1964, the Mass Transportation Commission tested differe
Andrew Hill Card Jr. is an American politician, White House Chief of Staff under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006, as well as head of Bush's White House Iraq Group. Card served as United States Secretary of Transportation under President George H. W. Bush from 1992 to 1993. Card announced his resignation as Chief of Staff on March 28, 2006, effective April 14, 2006. Card was the Acting Dean of The Bush School of Government and Public Service, at Texas A&M University while Ryan Crocker fulfilled his U. S. Ambassador to Afghanistan responsibilities before stepping down in July 2013. In 2014, he became the president of Franklin Pierce University in Rindge, New Hampshire, serving until he retired from that post in the summer of 2016. Card was born on May 10, 1947 in Brockton, the son of Joyce and Andrew Hill Card Sr, he earned the rank of Life Scout. He graduated from the University of South Carolina with a Bachelor of Science in Civil engineering attended the United States Merchant Marine Academy for a year.
He is a graduate of the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. Card got his start in politics serving in the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1975 to 1983, he ran unsuccessfully for the Republican nomination for Governor of Massachusetts in 1982. From 1993 to 1998, Card was President and chief executive officer of the American Automobile Manufacturers Association, the trade association whose members were Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company and General Motors Corporation; the AAMA dissolved in December 1998. From 1999 until his selection as President Bush's Chief of Staff, Card was General Motors' Vice President of Government Relations. Card directed the company's international, national and local government affairs activities and represented GM on matters of public policy before Congress and the Administration, he serves on the board of directors of Union Pacific Railroad. The railroad announced on July 27, 2006 that Card was elected to the board, increasing the board's size to 10 members.
He is a senior counselor at public relations firm Fleishman-Hillard. Card first served in the West Wing under President Ronald Reagan, as Special Assistant to the President for Intergovernmental Affairs and subsequently as Deputy Assistant to the President, Director of Intergovernmental Affairs, where he was liaison to governors, statewide elected officials, state legislators and other elected officials. From 1989 to 1992, Card served in President George H. W. Bush's administration as Assistant to the President and Deputy Chief of Staff. From 1992 until 1993, Card served as the 11th U. S. Secretary of Transportation under President Bush. In August 1992, at the request of President Bush, Secretary Card coordinated the administration's disaster relief efforts in the wake of Hurricane Andrew; that year, Secretary Card directed President Bush's transition office during the transition from the Bush Administration to the Clinton Administration. In 2000, Card was asked by Texas Governor George W. Bush to run the Republican National Convention in Philadelphia.
On November 26, 2000, Card was appointed to be chief of staff for President-elect George W. Bush upon Bush's January 20, 2001 inauguration. On September 11, 2001, Card approached Bush as he was visiting Emma E. Booker Elementary School in Sarasota and whispered in his ear the news that a second plane had hit the World Trade Center, confirming that a terrorist attack was underway. Card recounted his story, saying that he whispered "A second plane has hit the second tower. America is under attack."On March 28, 2006, the White House announced that Card would resign as Chief of Staff and be replaced by United States Office of Management and Budget director Joshua B. Bolten. Card's resignation was effective April 14, 2006. Card received an honorary degree from the University of Massachusetts Amherst on May 25, 2007. While accepting the degree, Card was booed loudly by students and faculty who disapproved of him receiving the honor. Card considered running in the 2010 special election to fill the United States Senate seat held by Ted Kennedy, who had died in office.
State Senator Scott Brown, who considered entering the race, promised to drop out if Card decided to run. Card announced on September 11, 2009 that he would not enter the race and that he was throwing his support to Brown, who went on to win the election. On July 5, 2011, Card was named acting dean of The Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M University, it was announced on November 25, 2014 that Card had been selected as the fifth president of Franklin Pierce University in Rindge, New Hampshire. He began his tenure in December 2014, resigned in summer of 2016. Appearances on C-SPAN