7th arrondissement of Paris
The 7th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as septième; the arrondissement, called Palais-Bourbon, includes some of the major and well-known tourist attractions of Paris, such as the Eiffel Tower, the Hôtel des Invalides, the Chapel of Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal, a concentration of such world-famous museums as the Musée d'Orsay, Musée Rodin, the Musée du quai Branly. Situated on the Rive Gauche—the "Left" bank of the River Seine—this central arrondissement, which includes the historical aristocratic neighbourhood of Faubourg Saint-Germain, contains a number of French national institutions, among them the French National Assembly and numerous government ministries, it is home to many foreign diplomatic embassies, some of them occupying outstanding Hôtels particuliers. The arrondissement has been home to the French upper class since the 17th century, when it became the new residence of French highest nobility.
The district has been so fashionable within the French aristocracy that the phrase le Faubourg—referring to the ancient name of the current 7th arrondissement—has been used to describe French nobility since. The 7th arrondissement of Paris and Neuilly-sur-Seine form the most affluent and prestigious residential area in France. During the 17th century, French high nobility started to move from the central Marais, the then-aristocratic district of Paris where nobles used to build their urban mansions, to the clearer, less populated and less polluted Faubourg Saint-Germain; the district became so fashionable within the French aristocracy that the phrase le Faubourg has been used to describe French nobility since. The oldest and most prestigious families of the French nobility built outstanding residences in the area, such as the Hôtel Matignon, the Hôtel de Salm, the Hôtel Biron. After the Revolution many of these mansions, offering magnificent inner spaces, many reception rooms and exquisite decoration, were confiscated and turned into national institutions.
The French expression "les ors de la Republique", referring to the luxurious environment of the national palaces, comes from that time. During the Restauration, the Faubourg recovered its past glory as the most exclusive high nobility district of Paris and was the political heart of the country, home to the Ultra Party. After the Fall of Charles X, the district lost most of its political influence but remained the center of the French upper class' social life. During the 19th century, the arrondissement hosted no fewer than five Universal Exhibitions that have immensely impacted its cityscape; the Eiffel Tower and the Orsay building were built for these Exhibitions. The land area of the arrondissement is 4.088 km². The 7th arrondissement attained its peak population in 1926; because it is the location of so many French government bodies, this arrondissement has never been as densely populated as some of the others. In 1999, the population was 56,985. Important places include: French National Assembly Eiffel Tower Hôtel Matignon Hôtel de Boisgelin, historic building, home to the Italian embassy in Paris.
Champ de Mars Musée d'Orsay École Militaire Hôtel des Invalides Musée du quai Branly Musée national de la Légion d'Honneur et des Ordres de Chevalerie Musée Maillol Musée de l'Ordre de la Libération Musée Rodin Musée Valentin Haüy Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris Musée du quai Branly Musée national de la Légion d'Honneur et des Ordres de Chevalerie Musée Maillol Musée de l'Ordre de la Libération Musée Rodin Musée Valentin Haüy National Horticultural Society of France Air Liquide, Alcatel-Lucent, Valode & Pistre have their head offices in this arrondissement. Public and private high schools: Lycée Victor-Duruy Établissement La Rochefoucauld Institut de l'Alma Lycée-collège Paul-Claudel Lycée d'Hulst Lycée Sainte-Jeanne Elisabeth Lycée Saint-Thomas-d'Aquin Lycée Thérèse-ChappuisIstituto Statale Italiano Leonardo Da Vinci, an Italian international school, maintains two campuses in the arrondissement; the American University of Paris, a private liberal arts university, maintains several buildings near the Quai d'Orsay.
The Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of National Education have their head offices in the arrondissement. The arrondissement hosted the equestrian events for the 1900 Summer Olympics. 7th arrondissement travel guide from Wikivoyage
Champ de Mars
The Champ de Mars is a large public greenspace in Paris, located in the seventh arrondissement, between the Eiffel Tower to the northwest and the École Militaire to the southeast. The park is named after the Campus Martius in Rome, a tribute to the Latin name of the Roman God of war; the name alludes to the fact that the lawns here were used as drilling and marching grounds by the French military. The nearest Métro stations are La Motte-Picquet–Grenelle, École Militaire, Champ de Mars-Tour Eiffel, an RER suburban-commuter-railway station. A disused station, Champ de Mars is nearby; the Champ de Mars was part of a large flat open area called Grenelle, reserved for market gardening. Citizens would claim small plots and exploit them by growing fruits and flowers for the local market. However, the plain of Grenelle was not an fertile place for farming; the construction, in 1765, of the École Militaire designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel, was the first step toward the Champ de Mars in its present form.
Grounds for military drills were planned for an area south of the school, the current location of the place de Fontenoy. The choice to build an esplanade to the north of the school led to the erection of the noble facade which today encloses the Champ de Mars; the planners leveled the ground, surrounded it with a large ditch and a long avenue of elms, and, as a final touch, the esplanade was enclosed by a fine grille-work fence. The Isle of Swans a riverine islet at the location of the northeastern foot of the Eiffel Tower, for the sake of symmetry and pleasing perspectives, attached to the shore. Jacques Charles and the Robert brothers launched the world's first hydrogen-filled balloon from the Champ-de-Mars on 27 August 1783; this place witnessed the spectacle and pageantry of some of the best-remembered festivals of the French Revolution. On 14 July 1790 the first "Federation Day" celebration, now known as Bastille Day, was held on the Champ de Mars one year after the storming of the prison.
The following year, on 17 July 1791, the massacre on the Champ de Mars took place. Jean Sylvain Bailly, the first mayor of Paris, became a victim of his own revolution and was guillotined there on 12 November 1793; the Champ de Mars was the site of the Festival of the Supreme Being on 8 June 1794. With a design by the painter Jacques-Louis David, a massive "Altar of the Nation" was built atop an artificial mountain and surmounted by a tree of liberty; the festival is regarded as the most successful of its type in the Revolution. The Champ de Mars was the site of Expositions Universelles in 1867, 1878, 1889, 1900, 1937. In 2012 the United Buddy Bears exhibit was held on the Champ de Mars, an international art exhibition with more than 140 two-meter-tall bears representing individual countries, they promote peace, love and international understanding and are displayed across the planet. They stand at Champ de Mars in Paris. Champ de Mars was used as a filming location in the 1985 James Bond film A View to a Kill, in which Bond drove a Renault 11 taxi which he had hijacked at the Eiffel Tower in pursuit of a mysterious assassin revealed to be May Day.
The Champ de Mars will be the site of Beach Volleyball at the 2024 Summer Olympics and of five-a-side football at the 2024 Summer Paralympics. List of world's fairs Champ de Mars Massacre Fête de la Concorde
Jeanne Moreau was a French actress, singer and director. She won the Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Actress for Seven Days... Seven Nights, the BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actress for Viva Maria!, the César Award for Best Actress for The Old Lady Who Walked in the Sea. She was the recipient of several lifetime awards, including a BAFTA Fellowship in 1996, Cannes Golden Palm in 2003 and César Award in 2008. Moreau made her theatrical debut in 1947, established herself as one of the leading actresses of the Comédie-Française, she began playing small roles in films in 1949, with impressive performances in the Fernandel vehicle Meurtres? and alongside Jean Gabin as a showgirl/gangster's moll in the film Touchez pas au grisbi. She achieved prominence as the star of Elevator to the Gallows, directed by Louis Malle, Jules et Jim, directed by François Truffaut. Most prolific during the 1960s, Moreau continued to appear in films into her 80s. Moreau was born in Paris, the daughter of Katherine, a dancer who performed at the Folies Bergère, Anatole-Désiré Moreau, a restaurateur.
Moreau's father was French. Moreau's father was Catholic and her mother a Protestant, converted to Catholicism upon marriage; when a young girl, "the family moved south to Vichy, spending vacations at the paternal ancestral village of Mazirat, a town of 30 houses in a valley in the Allier. "It was wonderful there", Moreau said. "Every tombstone in the cemetery was for a Moreau". During the World War II, the family was split, Moreau lived with her mother in Paris. Moreau lost interest in school at age 16, after attending a performance of Jean Anouilh's Antigone, found her calling as an actor, she studied at the Conservatoire de Paris. Her parents separated permanently while Moreau was at the conservatory and her mother, "after 24 difficult years in France, returned to England with Jeanne's sister, Michelle." In 1947, Moreau made her theatrical debut at the Avignon Festival. She debuted at the Comédie-Française in Ivan Turgenev's A Month in the Country and, by her 20s, was one of leading actresses in the theatre's troupe.
After 1949, she began appearing in films with small parts but continued active in the theatre for several years — a year at the Théâtre National Populaire opposite among others Gérard Philipe and Robert Hirsch a breakout two years in dual roles in The Dazzling Hour by Anna Bonacci Jean Cocteau's La Machine Infernale and others before another two-year run, this time in Shaw's Pygmalion. From the late 1950s, after appearing in several successful films, she began to work with the emerging generation of French film-makers. Elevator to the Gallows with first-time director Louis Malle was followed by Malle's The Lovers. Moreau went on to work with many of avant-garde directors. François Truffaut's New Wave film Jules et Jim, her biggest success internationally, is centerd on her magnetic starring role, she worked with a number of other notable directors such as Michelangelo Antonioni, Orson Welles, Luis Buñuel, Elia Kazan, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Wim Wenders, Carl Foreman, Manoel de Oliveira. In 1983, she was head of the jury at the 33rd Berlin International Film Festival.
In 2005, she was awarded with the Stanislavsky Award at the 27th Moscow International Film Festival. Moreau was a vocalist, she released several albums and once performed with Frank Sinatra at Carnegie Hall in 1984. In addition to acting, Moreau worked behind the camera as a writer and producer, her accomplishments were the subject of the film Calling the Shots by Holly Dale. Throughout her life, Moreau maintained friendships with prominent writers such as Jean Cocteau, Jean Genet, Henry Miller and Marguerite Duras, she was married to Jean-Louis Richard and to American film director William Friedkin. Director Tony Richardson left his wife Vanessa Redgrave for her in 1967, she had affairs with directors Louis Malle and François Truffaut, fashion designer Pierre Cardin, jazz trumpeter Miles Davis and the Greek actor/playboy Theodoros Roubanis. Moreau was a close friend of Sharon Stone, who presented a 1998 American Academy of Motion Pictures life tribute to Moreau at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater, academy headquarters in Beverly Hills.
Orson Welles called her "the greatest actress in the world", she remained one of France's most accomplished actresses. Lumière L'Adolescente Lillian Gish Jeanne Moreau at Encyclopædia Britannica Jeanne Moreau Biography on newwavefilm.com Jeanne Moreau on IMDb Jeanne Moreau at AllMovie
Jean Vigo was a French film director who helped establish poetic realism in film in the 1930s. His work influenced French New Wave cinema of early 1960s. Vigo was born to the militant anarchist Miguel Almereyda. Much of Vigo's early life was spent on the run with his parents, his father was imprisoned and murdered in Fresnes Prison on 13 August 1917. Some speculated that Almereyda was hushed up by order of extreme Socialist politicians Louis-Jean Malvy and Joseph Caillaux, men punished for war-time treason; the young Vigo was subsequently sent to boarding school under an assumed name, Jean Sales, to conceal his identity. Vigo was married and had a daughter, Luce Vigo, a film critic, in 1931, he died in 1934 of complications from tuberculosis. Vigo is noted for two films that affected the future development of both French and world cinema: Zero for Conduct and L'Atalante. Zero for Conduct was approvingly described by critic David Thomson as "forty-four minutes of sustained, if shot anarchic crescendo."
L'Atalante was Vigo's only full-length feature. The simple story of a newly married couple splitting and reuniting effortlessly merges rough, naturalistic filmmaking with shimmering, dreamlike sequences and effects. Thomson described the result as "not so much a masterpiece as a definition of cinema, thus a film that stands resolutely apart from the great body of films."His career began with two other films: À propos de Nice, a subversive silent film inspired by Soviet newsreels which considered social inequity in the resort town of Nice. None of his four films were financial successes. Zero for Conduct was banned by the French government until after the war, L'Atalante was mutilated by its distributor. By this point, Vigo was too ill to strenuously fight the matter. Both films have outlived their detractors. In the late 1980s a 1934 copy of L'Atalante was found in the British National Film and Television Archive, became a key element in the restoration of the film to its original version. Writing on Vigo's career in The New York Times, film critic Andrew Johnston stated: "The ranks of the great film directors are short on Keatses and Shelleys, young artists cut off in their prime, leaving behind a handful of great works that suggest what might have been.
But one who qualifies is Jean Vigo, the French director who died of tuberculosis at age 29 in 1934." 1930: À propos de Nice 1931: La Natation par Jean Taris or Taris, roi de l'eau 1933: Zéro de conduite 1934: L'Atalante 2011 Parajanov-Vartanov Institute Award posthumously honored Jean Vigo for Zero for Conduct and was presented to his daughter and French film critic Luce Vigo. Martin Scorsese wrote a letter for the occasion with praise for Vigo, Sergei Parajanov and Mikhail Vartanov, all of whom struggled with heavy censorship; the Prix Jean Vigo is an annual award given since 1951 to outstanding French film directors. The Jean Vigo Award is an annual prize given to Best Director at the Navarra Int'l Documentary Film Festival in Spain. Vigo: Passion for Life, a 1998 British biopic about Jean Vigo, starring James Frain. Michael Temple, Jean Vigo. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005. David Weir, Jean Vigo and the Anarchist Eye. Atlanta: On Our Own Authority! Publishing, 2014. Jean Vigo on IMDb Senses of Cinema: Great Directors Critical Database Jean Vigo Anarchist Encyclopedia Jean Vigo Punto de Vista festival "sees Jean Vigo as a permanent point of reference and guide."
Sight & Sound
Sight & Sound is a British monthly film magazine published by the British Film Institute. Sight & Sound was first published in 1932 and in 1934 management of the magazine was handed to the nascent BFI, which still publishes the magazine today. Sight & Sound was published quarterly for most of its history until the early 1990s, apart from a brief run as a monthly publication in the early 1950s, but in 1991 it merged with another BFI publication, the Monthly Film Bulletin, started to appear monthly; the journal was edited by Gavin Lambert from 1949 to 1955, from 1956 to 1990 by Penelope Houston. The relaunch editor was Philip Dodd, it is edited by Nick James. The magazine reviews all film releases each month, including those with a limited release, as opposed to most film magazines which concentrate on those films with a general release. Sight & Sound features a full cast and crew credit list for each reviewed film, as well as the entire plot of said film; every decade, Sight & Sound asks an international group of film professionals to vote for their ten greatest films of all time.
Until 1992, the votes of the invited critics and directors were compiled to make one list. However, since 1992, directors have been invited to participate in a separate poll; the individual results are eclectic. The top-of-the-list consensus has its limits. In 2002, both the critics and the directors selected Stanley Kubrick films in their top ten; the Sight & Sound accolade has come to be regarded as one of the most important of the "greatest film" polls. Roger Ebert described it as "by far the most respected of the countless polls of great movies—the only one most serious movie people take seriously." The first poll, in 1952, was topped by Bicycle Thieves. The five subsequent polls were won by Citizen Kane, while Vertigo received the most votes in 2012. Only La Règle du jeu has appeared in all seven of the magazine's decennial polls. Among the directors that participated in 2012 are Quentin Tarantino, Martin Scorsese, Ken Loach and Francis Ford Coppola. Sight & Sound has in the past been the subject of criticism, notably from Raymond Durgnat, who accused it of elitism and snobbery, although he did write for it in the 1950s, again in the 1990s.
The magazine's American counterpart is Film Comment, a magazine published by the Film Society of Lincoln Center in New York City. It has been accused of populism in recent years. Bicycle Thieves City Lights The Gold Rush Battleship Potemkin Intolerance Louisiana Story Greed Le Jour Se Lève The Passion of Joan of Arc Brief Encounter The Rules of the Game Le Million Closest runners-up: Citizen Kane, La Grande Illusion, The Grapes of Wrath. Citizen Kane L'Avventura The Rules of the Game Greed Ugetsu Battleship Potemkin Bicycle Thieves Ivan the Terrible La Terra Trema L'Atalante Closest runners-up: Hiroshima mon amour, Pather Panchali and Zero for Conduct. Citizen Kane The Rules of the Game Battleship Potemkin 8½ L'Avventura Persona The Passion of Joan of Arc The General The Magnificent Ambersons Ugetsu Wild Strawberries Closest runners-up: The Gold Rush, Hiroshima mon amour, Ivan the Terrible, Pierrot le Fou, Vertigo. Citizen Kane The Rules of the Game Seven Samurai Singin' in the Rain 8½ Battleship Potemkin L'Avventura The Magnificent Ambersons Vertigo The General The Searchers Closest runners-up: 2001: A Space Odyssey and Andrei Rublev.
Citizen Kane The Rules of the Game Tokyo Story Vertigo The Searchers L'Atalante The Passion of Joan of Arc Pather Panchali Battleship Potemkin 2001: A Space Odyssey Closest runners-up: Bicycle Thieves and Singin' in the Rain. Citizen Kane Vertigo The Rules of the Game The Godfather and The Godfather Part II Tokyo Story 2001: A Space Odyssey Battleship Potemkin Sunrise: A Song of Two Humans 8½ Singin' in the Rain Closest runners-up: Seven Samurai and The Searchers. A new rule was imposed for this ballot: related films that are considered part of a larger whole were to be treated as separate films for voting purposes. For the 2012 poll, Sight & Sound listened to decades of criticism about the lack of diversity of its poll participants and made a huge effort to invite a much wider variety of critics and filmmakers from around the world to participate, taking into account gender, race, geographical region, socioeconomic status, other kinds of underrepresentation. Vertigo Citizen Kane Tokyo Story The Rules of the Gam
Jean-Claude Brialy was a French actor and director. Brialy was born in Aumale, French Algeria. Brialy moved to mainland France with his family in 1942, moved to Paris in 1954, appeared in his first film in 1955, he became a star in the late 1950s when he was one of the most prolific actors of the French "nouvelle vague". He made films with such important nouvelle vague filmmakers as Claude Chabrol, Éric Rohmer, Jean-Luc Godard, Louis Malle, François Truffaut, Agnès Varda, Jacques Rozier, he was a director of a number of films, including Églantine. In his autobiographies, Le Ruisseau des singes and J'ai oublié de vous dire... he revealed that he was bisexual. He was an alumnus of the Prytanée National Militaire, he owned a restaurant, L'Orangerie, on the Île Saint-Louis, worked as a TV presenter, a singer and a radio host. Monaco: Commander of the Order of Cultural Merit Églantine Les volets clos L'oiseau rare Un amour de pluie Le Ruisseau des singes J'ai oublié de vous dire... Jean-Claude Brialy on IMDb Jean-Claude Brialy at Find a Grave
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent