The Accidental Tourist
The Accidental Tourist is a 1985 novel by Anne Tyler, a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize and won the National Book Critics Circle Award for Fiction in 1985 and the Ambassador Book Award for Fiction in 1986. The novel was adapted into a 1988 award-winning film starring William Hurt, Kathleen Turner, Geena Davis, for which Davis won an Academy Award. Set in Baltimore, the plot revolves around Macon Leary, a writer of travel guides whose son has been killed in a shooting at a fast-food restaurant, he and his wife Sarah, separately lost in grief, find their marriage disintegrating until she moves out. When he becomes incapacitated due to a fall involving his disturbed dog and one of his crazy home inventions, he returns to the family home to stay with his eccentric siblings—sister Rose and brothers Porter and Charles; the siblings' odd habits include alphabetizing the groceries in the kitchen cabinets and ignoring the ringing telephone. When his publisher, comes to visit, Julian finds himself attracted to Rose.
They marry, though Rose moves back in with her brothers, followed by Julian months who becomes part of the family. Macon hires Muriel Pritchett, a quirky young woman with a sickly son, to train his unruly dog, soon finds himself drifting into a relationship with the two of them. Muriel is the exact opposite of Macon's wife: brash, pushy, less "classy" and less educated, fond of wearing eccentric outfits. Despite his initial resistance to this relationship, Macon finds that he is surprised by Muriel's perceptiveness and optimism, as well as her quirky habits and ability to listen. Macon's natural love of the familiar and resistance to commitment results in a relationship, quite a struggle between the pushy Muriel and the passive Macon, but over time, Macon becomes attached to both Muriel and Alexander, the son, moves in with them in their tawdry little house. Macon finds that he loves "the surprise of her, the surprise of himself when he was with her. In the foreign country, Singleton Street he was an different person."
When his wife Sarah becomes aware of the situation, she decides they should reconcile, forcing him to make a difficult decision about his future. In The New York Times, Larry McMurtry says, "Tyler shows, with a fine clarity, the mingling of misery and contentment in the daily lives of her families, reminds us how alike--and yet distinct--happy and unhappy families can be. Muriel Pritchett is as appealing a woman. Michiko Kakutani wrote, "It is from just such private lives that Miss Tyler herself has spun her own minutely detailed art, rendering them with such warmth and fidelity that her readers, are startled into a new appreciation of the ordinary and mundane. Like John Updike, she has taken as her fictional territory that sprawling American landscape of the middle class, in 10 novels now, she has claimed as her special province the family in all its contrary dimensions."In contrast to most critics, John Blades, in the Chicago Tribune, wrote a scathing review: "In an age of dissonant, aggressive fiction, Tyler has established herself as a voice of sweet reason, the heiress apparent to Eudora Welty as the earth mother of American writers.
For all Tyler's seductive qualities--the great charm and coziness of her fictional universe, her compassion for misfits, not least, her soothing tranquilizing voice--there is something annoyingly synthetic about the work itself. However wise and wonderful, her fiction is diluted by the promiscuous use of artificial sweeteners, a practice that has made Tyler our foremost NutraSweet novelist."Edward Hoagland wrote in the New York Times,"Macon Leary, the magnificently decent yet ordinary man in The Accidental Tourist, follows logic to its zany conclusions, in doing this justifies...the catch-as-catch-can nature of much of life, making us realize that we are missing people of mild temperament in our own acquaintance who are heroes, too, if we had Ms. Tyler's eye for recognizing them.... Muriel, the man-chaser and man-saver of The Accidental Tourist, ranks among the more endearing characters of postwar literature." Innocent with an Explanation, The Accidental Tourist by Anne Tyler Review by Time Magazine
Silverado is a 1985 American western film produced and directed by Lawrence Kasdan, written by Kasdan and his brother Mark. It stars Scott Glenn, Danny Glover and Kevin Costner; the supporting cast features Brian Dennehy, Rosanna Arquette, John Cleese, Jeff Goldblum and Linda Hunt. The film was produced by Columbia Pictures and Delphi III Productions, distributed to theatres by Columbia, by Sony Pictures Home Entertainment for home media; the original soundtrack, with a score composed by Bruce Broughton, was released by Geffen Records. On November 12, 2005, an expanded two-disc version of the score was released by the Intrada Records label. Silverado premiered in the United States on July 9, 1985, it grossed $32,192,570 at the box office. Through an 11-week run, the film was shown at 1,190 theaters at its widest release. Met with positive critical reviews, it was nominated for Best Sound and Best Original Score at the Academy Awards. A man named Emmett is ambushed by three assailants while he sleeps in an isolated shack, but kills them all in a brief gunfight.
While aimed toward Silverado, he first heads towards Turley to meet his brother, Jake. On the way, Emmett finds a man, lying in the desert, having been robbed and left to die. Paden chooses to travel with Emmett. Arriving in Turley and Paden meet Mal, another cowboy that gets run out of town by Sheriff John Langston, they find out that Jake is awaiting hanging for killing a man. Paden is thrown in the same cell after he encounters and kills one of the men who robbed him, they escape the cell and, with Emmett, outrun Langston's posse with Mal's assistance. Mal is headed for Silverado and joins the group, they help a wagon train of settlers recover stolen money from thieves and lead them to Silverado where the four men part ways. Emmett and Jake visit their sister, whose husband, the land agent for the area, informs them that rancher Ethan McKendrick is attempting to maintain the open range, which he will dominate with his enormous herds of cattle, by driving all lawful claimants off the land. Emmett had been imprisoned for killing McKendrick's father years earlier and learns that McKendrick hired the men who attempted to kill him at the shack after his release.
Mal finds his father Ezra left destitute after his home had been burned down and his land overrun by cattle. Mal's sister, Rae has gone off on her own, taking up with Calvin "Slick" Stanhope, a shifty gambler in league with Silverado's ruthless sheriff, Cobb. Cobb, an old acquaintance of Paden's, is on McKendrick's payroll, arranges for Paden to supervise the gambling in a saloon owned by Cobb and managed by Stella, an honest woman who despises Cobb and welcomes Paden's presence. Cobb, threatens Stella to prevent Paden from involving himself in McKendrick's dealings. McKendrick's men murder Ezra, burn the land office, kidnap Emmett's young nephew Augie. Stella knows about the threat on her life, telling Paden that she won't be the cause of suffering and asks him to assist Mal and Jake in setting things right, they stampede McKendrick's cattle to provide cover for a raid on his ranch, in which most of the bandits are killed and Augie is rescued. McKendrick escapes to Silverado; the four men return to town to end the corruption.
Jake is hunted by Tyree, Cobb's right hand. Mal stabs him fatally with his own knife. Emmett and McKendrick battle on horseback. Paden faces off with Cobb in a showdown in the street, is quicker to the draw. After saying their goodbyes and Jake depart for California with their sister and her family, their long-stated goal. Mal and his sister decide to rebuild their family's homestead. Meanwhile, Paden has found a calling as the new sheriff of Silverado; the film was shot on location at the Cook Ranch in New Mexico. In 1984, Lawrence and Mark Kasdan and crew were out scouting a remote area of New Mexico by helicopter, hoping to find the most suitable place to build the town of Silverado; the location manager appeared at the property of local natives Marian Cook. At that time they wanted to build only two to three structures, offering Cook a "casual number" as a location fee. "There wasn't any great motivation for me one way or another. It just grew from that into a big budget movie and the Silverado set was built," Cook recalled.
The set was appropriately dressed and filmed for towns in four different states, depending on the view from the streets - mountains or prairie or the Galisteo River. In an interview with Trailer Addict, actor Scott Glenn related how casting profoundly influences directing. In reference to different actors working together, he mentioned how he "really liked" Kevin Costner, how he thought Kevin was "easy and comfortable" to be around, he exclaimed, "there is real magic going on with that performance." Glenn spent his time kidding around with Costner addressing him by saying, "hey movie star!" during that earlier stage in his career. Among mainstream critics in the U. S. the film received positive reviews. Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a score of 77% based on reviews from 31 critics, with an average score of 6.7 out of 10. At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average out of 100 to critics' reviews, the film received a score of 64% based on 14 reviews. Critic Janet Maslin, writing in The New York Times, said of director Kasdan, "he creates the film's most satisfying moments by communicating his own sheer enjoyment in revitalizing scenes and images that are so well-loved."
Impressed, she exclaimed
Body Heat is a 1981 American neo-noir erotic thriller film written and directed by Lawrence Kasdan. It stars William Hurt, Kathleen Turner and Richard Crenna, features Ted Danson, J. A. Preston, Mickey Rourke; the film was inspired by Double Indemnity. The film launched Turner's career—Empire magazine cited the film in 1995 when it named her one of the "100 Sexiest Stars in Film History"; the New York Times wrote in 2005 that, propelled by her "jaw-dropping movie debut Body Heat... she built a career on adventurousness and frank sexuality born of robust physicality."The film was the directorial debut of Kasdan, screenwriter of The Empire Strikes Back and Raiders of the Lost Ark. During a intense Florida heatwave, inept lawyer Ned Racine begins an affair with Matty, the wife of wealthy businessman, Edmund Walker. One night Ned arrives at the Walker mansion and playfully propositions a woman who he mistakenly thinks is Matty; the woman is Matty's visiting high school friend. Soon after, Matty tells Ned she wants to divorce Edmund, but their prenuptial agreement would leave her with little money.
Ned suggests murdering Edmund so Matty can inherit his wealth. He consults a shady former client, Teddy Lewis, an expert on incendiary devices, who supplies Ned with a bomb, though he encourages Ned to abandon whatever he is scheming. Ned, aided by Matty, kills Edmund and moves the body to an abandoned building connected to Edmund's business interests. Ned detonates the bomb to look. Soon after, Edmund's lawyer contacts Ned about a new will that Racine drafted for Edmund and was witnessed by Mary Ann Simpson; the new will was improperly prepared, making it null and void, resulting in Matty inheriting Edmund's entire fortune while disinheriting his surviving blood relatives. Matty reveals to Ned that she forged the will, knowing it would be nullified. Two of Ned's friends, assistant deputy prosecutor Peter Lowenstein, police detective Oscar Grace, begin to suspect Ned is involved in Edmund's death, they inform Ned. Mary Ann Simpson has disappeared. Nervous over the mounting evidence implicating him, questioning Matty's loyalty, Ned happens upon a lawyer who once sued him over a mishandled legal case.
The lawyer says that to make amends, he recommended Ned to Matty Walker, admits he told her about Ned's modest legal skills. Lowenstein informs Ned that on the night of the murder, hotel phone records show that repeated calls to Ned's room went unanswered, thereby weakening his alibi. Teddy tells Ned about a woman wanting another incendiary device, that he showed her how to booby trap a door. Matty says Edmund's glasses are in the Walker estate boathouse. Ned arrives that night and spots a long twisted wire attached to the door; when Matty arrives, Ned asks her to retrieve the glasses. Matty disappears from view. A body found inside is identified through dental records as Matty Walker. Now in prison, having realized Matty duped him, tries to convince Grace that she is still alive, he lays out for him the scenario that the woman he knew as "Matty" assumed the real Matty Tyler's identity in order to marry and murder Edmund for his money. The "Mary Ann Simpson" that Ned met had discovered the scheme and was blackmailing Matty, only to be murdered.
Had Ned been killed in the boathouse explosion, the police would have found both suspects' bodies. Ned obtains a copy of Matty's high school yearbook. In it are photos of Mary Ann Simpson and Matty Tyler, confirming his suspicion that Mary Ann assumed Matty's identity becoming Matty Walker. Below Mary Ann's is the nickname "The Vamp" and "Ambition—To be rich and live in an exotic land"; the real Mary Ann is last seen wearing a nonchalant facial expression, while lounging on a tropical beach, alongside a Brazilian Portuguese-speaking man. Kasdan "wanted this film to have the intricate structure of a dream, the density of a good novel, the texture of recognizable people in extraordinary circumstances."A substantial portion of the film was shot in east-central Palm Beach County, including downtown Lake Worth and in the oceanside enclave of Manalapan. Additional scenes were shot on Hollywood Beach, such as the scene set in a band shell. There was more graphic and extensive sex scene footage, but this was only shown in an early premier, including in West Palm Beach, the area it was filmed, was edited out for wider distribution.
In an interview, Body Heat film editor Carol Littleton says, "Obviously, there was more graphic footage. But we felt that less was more." In late 1980, Lawrence Kasdan met with four composers of those works he had admired, but only John Barry told him of ideas which were close to the director's own. 10 demos were recorded on March 31 and Barry wrote the whole score during April and early May 1981. The composer provided several themes and leitmotifs—the most memorable was "Main Theme", heard during the main titles and representing Matty. Barry worked with recording sessions engineer Dan Wallin to mix the soundtrack album, but for several reasons J. S Lasher remixed multitracks himself without Wallin's participation. J. S Lasher's album was released several times: as a 45 RPM in 1983 and as a CD in 1989. Both editions included'Ladd Company Logo' composed and conducted by John Williams. In 1998, Varèse Sarabande released a re-recording by the London Symphony Orchestra; this CD contains several new tracks, but still was not c
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
John Towner Williams is an American composer and pianist. With a career spanning over six decades, he has composed some of the most popular and critically acclaimed film scores in cinematic history, including those of the Star Wars series, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Superman, E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, the Indiana Jones series, the first two Home Alone films, the first two Jurassic Park films, Schindler's List, the first three Harry Potter films. Williams has been associated with director Steven Spielberg since 1974, composing music for all but four of his feature films––Duel, The Color Purple, Bridge of Spies, Ready Player One. Other works by Williams include theme music for the 1984 Summer Olympic Games, NBC Sunday Night Football, "The Mission" theme used by NBC News and Seven News in Australia, the television series Lost in Space and Land of the Giants, the incidental music for the first season of Gilligan's Island. Williams has composed numerous classical concertos and other works for orchestral ensembles and solo instruments.
He served as the Boston Pops's principal conductor from 1980 to 1993, is the orchestra's laureate conductor. Williams has won 24 Grammy Awards, seven British Academy Film Awards, five Academy Awards, four Golden Globe Awards. With 51 Academy Award nominations, Williams is the second most-nominated individual, after Walt Disney. In 2005, the American Film Institute selected Williams's score to 1977's Star Wars as the greatest American film score of all time; the soundtrack to Star Wars was additionally preserved by the Library of Congress into the National Recording Registry for being "culturally or aesthetically significant". Williams was inducted into the Hollywood Bowl's Hall of Fame in 2000, was a recipient of the Kennedy Center Honors in 2004 and the AFI Life Achievement Award in 2016. Williams composed the score for eight of the top 20 highest-grossing films at the U. S. box office. John Towner Williams was born on February 8, 1932 in Floral Park, New York, to Esther and Johnny Williams, a jazz percussionist who played with the Raymond Scott Quintet.
Williams has said of his lineage, "My father was a Maine man—we were close. My mother was from Boston. My father's parents ran a department store in Bangor, my mother's father was a cabinetmaker. People with those roots are not inclined to be lazy."In 1948, the Williams family moved to Los Angeles where John attended North Hollywood High School, graduating in 1950. He attended the University of California, Los Angeles, studied with the Italian composer Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco. Williams attended Los Angeles City College for one semester as the school had a Studio Jazz Band. In 1952, Williams was drafted into the U. S. Air Force, where he played the piano and conducted and arranged music for The U. S. Air Force Band as part of his assignments. In a 2016 interview with the US Air Force band, he recounted having attended basic Air Force training at Lackland base, after which he served as a pianist and brass player, with secondary duties of making arrangements for three years, he attended music courses at the University of Arizona as part of his service.
In 1955, following his Air Force service, Williams moved to New York City and entered the Juilliard School, where he studied piano with Rosina Lhévinne. During this time Williams worked as a jazz pianist in the city's many jazz clubs. After moving to Los Angeles, he began working as a session musician, most notably for composer Henry Mancini, he worked with Mancini on the Peter Gunn soundtrack, along with guitarist Bob Bain, bassist Rolly Bundock, drummer Jack Sperling, many of whom were featured on the Mr. Lucky television series. Known as "Johnny" during the 1950s and early 1960s, Williams composed the music for many television programs, served as music arranger and bandleader for a series of popular music albums with the singer Frankie Laine. While skilled in a variety of 20th-century compositional idioms, Williams's most familiar style may be described as a form of neoromanticism, inspired by the late 19th century's large-scale orchestral music—in the style of Tchaikovsky or Richard Wagner and their concept of leitmotif—that inspired his film music predecessors.
After his studies at Juilliard and the Eastman School of Music, Williams returned to Los Angeles, where he began working as an orchestrator at film studios. Among other composers, Williams worked with Franz Waxman, Bernard Herrmann, Alfred Newman, with his fellow orchestrators Conrad Salinger and Bob Franklyn. Williams was a studio pianist, performing on film scores by composers such as Jerry Goldsmith, Elmer Bernstein, Henry Mancini. With Mancini Williams recorded the scores of 1959's Peter Gunn, 1962's Days of Wine and Roses, 1963's Charade. Williams composed music for various television programs in the 1960s: the pilot episode of Gilligan's Island, Bachelor Father, the Kraft Suspense Theatre, Lost in Space, The Time Tunnel, Land of the Giants. Williams's first film composition was for the 1958 B movie Daddy-O, his first screen credit came two years in Because They're Young, he soon gained notice in Hollywood for his versatility in composing jazz and symphonic music. Williams received his first Academy Award nomination for his score for 1967's Valley of the Dolls, was nominated again for
Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. referred to as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB, is an American entertainment company headquartered in Burbank, California and a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Founded in 1923, it has operations in film and video games and is one of the "Big Five" major American film studios, as well as a member of the Motion Picture Association of America; the company's name originated from the four founding Warner brothers: Harry, Albert and Jack Warner. Harry and Sam emigrated as young children with their parents to Canada from Krasnosielc, Poland. Jack, the youngest brother, was born in Ontario; the three elder brothers began in the movie theater business, having acquired a movie projector with which they showed films in the mining towns of Pennsylvania and Ohio. In the beginning and Albert Warner invested $150 to present Life of an American Fireman and The Great Train Robbery, they opened their first theater, the Cascade, in New Castle, Pennsylvania, in 1903. When the original building was in danger of being demolished, the modern Warner Bros. called the current building owners, arranged to save it.
The owners noted people across the country had asked them to protect it for its historical significance. In 1904, the Warners founded the Pittsburgh-based Duquesne Amusement & Supply Company, to distribute films. In 1912, Harry Warner hired. By the time of World War I they had begun producing films. In 1918 they opened the first Warner Brothers Studio on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Sam and Jack produced the pictures, while Harry and Albert, along with their auditor and now controller Chase, handled finance and distribution in New York City. During World War I their first nationally syndicated film, My Four Years in Germany, based on a popular book by former ambassador James W. Gerard, was released. On April 4, 1923, with help from money loaned to Harry by his banker Motley Flint, they formally incorporated as Warner Bros. Pictures, Incorporated; the first important deal was the acquisition of the rights to Avery Hopwood's 1919 Broadway play, The Gold Diggers, from theatrical impresario David Belasco.
However, Rin Tin Tin, a dog brought from France after World War I by an American soldier, established their reputation. Rin Tin Tin debuted in the feature; the movie was so successful. Rin Tin Tin became the studio's top star. Jack nicknamed him "The Mortgage Lifter" and the success boosted Darryl F. Zanuck's career. Zanuck became a top producer and between 1928 and 1933 served as Jack's right-hand man and executive producer, with responsibilities including day-to-day film production. More success came. Lubitsch's film The Marriage Circle was the studio's most successful film of 1924, was on The New York Times best list for that year. Despite the success of Rin Tin Tin and Lubitsch, Warner's remained a lesser studio. Sam and Jack decided to offer Broadway actor John Barrymore the lead role in Beau Brummel; the film was so successful. By the end of 1924, Warner Bros. was arguably Hollywood's most successful independent studio, where it competed with "The Big Three" Studios. As a result, Harry Warner—while speaking at a convention of 1,500 independent exhibitors in Milwaukee, Wisconsin—was able to convince the filmmakers to spend $500,000 in newspaper advertising, Harry saw this as an opportunity to establish theaters in cities such as New York and Los Angeles.
As the studio prospered, it gained backing from Wall Street, in 1924 Goldman Sachs arranged a major loan. With this new money, the Warners bought the pioneer Vitagraph Company which had a nationwide distribution system. In 1925, Warners' experimented in radio, establishing a successful radio station, KFWB, in Los Angeles. Warner Bros. was a pioneer of films with synchronized sound. In 1925, at Sam's urging, Warner's agreed to add this feature to their productions. By February 1926, the studio reported a net loss of $333,413. After a long period denying Sam's request for sound, Harry agreed to change, as long as the studio's use of synchronized sound was for background music purposes only; the Warners signed a contract with the sound engineer company Western Electric and established Vitaphone. In 1926, Vitaphone began making films with music and effects tracks, most notably, in the feature Don Juan starring John Barrymore; the film was silent. To hype Don Juan's release, Harry acquired the large Piccadilly Theater in Manhattan, New York City, renamed it Warners' Theatre.
Don Juan premiered at the Warners' Theatre in New York on August 6, 1926. Throughout the early history of film distribution, theater owners hired orchestras to attend film showings, where they provided soundtracks. Through Vitaphone, Warner Bros. produced eight shorts in 1926. Many film production companies questioned the necessity. Don Juan did not recoup its production cost and Lubitsch left for MGM. By April 1927, the Big Five studios had ruined Warner's, Western Electric renewed Warner's Vit