In films, an intertitle is a piece of filmed, printed text edited into the midst of the photographed action at various points. Intertitles used to convey character dialogue are referred to as "dialogue intertitles", those used to provide related descriptive/narrative material are referred to as "expository intertitles". In modern usage, the terms refer to similar text and logo material inserted at or near the start of films and television shows. In this era intertitles were always called "subtitles" and had Art Deco motifs, they were a mainstay of silent films once the films became of sufficient length and detail to necessitate dialogue and/or narration to make sense of the enacted or documented events. The British Film Catalogue credits the 1898 film Our New General Servant by Robert W. Paul as the first British film to use intertitles. Film scholar Kamilla Elliott identifies another early use of intertitles in the 1901 British film Scrooge, or, Marley's Ghost; the first Academy Awards presentation in 1929 included an award for "Best Title Writing" that went to Joseph W. Farnham for no specific film.
The award was never given again, as intertitles went out of common use due to the introduction of "talkies". In modern use, intertitles are used to supply an epigraph, such as a poem, or to distinguish various "acts" of a film or multimedia production by use as a title card. However, they are most used as part of a historical drama's epilogue to explain what happened to the depicted characters and events after the conclusion of the story proper; the development of the soundtrack eliminated their utility as a narrative device, but they are still used as an artistic device. For instance, intertitles were used as a gimmick in Frasier; the BBC's drama Threads uses them to give location and information on distant events beyond Sheffield. Law & Order and its related spinoffs used them to give not only the location, but the date of the upcoming scene. Guy Maddin is a modern filmmaker known for recreating the style of older films, uses intertitles appropriately; some locally produced shows, such as quiz bowl game shows, use animated variations of intertitles to introduce the next round.
Intertitles have had a long history in the area of amateur film as well. The efforts of home movie aficionados to intertitle their works post-production have led to the development of a number of innovative approaches to the challenge. Lacking access to high quality film dubbing and splicing equipment, amateur film makers must plan ahead when making a film to allow space for filming an intertitle over the existing film. Intertitles may be printed neatly on a piece of paper, a card, or a piece of cardboard and filmed, or they may be formed from adhesive strips and affixed to glass. In the early 1980s, digital recording technology improved to the point where intertitles could be created in born-digital format and recorded directly onto the film. Several specialty accessories from this period such as Sony's HVT-2100 Titler and cameras such as Matsushita's Quasar VK-743 and Zenith VC-1800 could be used to generate intertitles for home movies. Early 1980s video game consoles and applications catering to the demo scene were adapted for the generation and recording of intertitles for home films.
Among these were included the ColecoVision, the Magnavox Odyssey², the Bally Astrocade, the intertitle-specialized Famicom Titler. Acknowledgment Billing Character generator Closing credits Credit Digital on-screen graphic Lower third Opening credits Subtitle Supertitle Title sequence WGA screenwriting credit system
Henry Bergman was an American actor of stage and film, known for his long association with Charlie Chaplin. Born in San Francisco, Bergman acted in live theatre, appearing in Henrietta in 1888 at the Hollis Street Theatre in Boston and in the touring production of The Senator in 1892 and 1893, he made his Broadway debut in 1899 appearing with Anna Held in Papa's Wife, the musical hit of the year. He made his first film appearance with the L-KO Kompany in 1914 at the age of forty-six. In 1916, Bergman started working with Charlie Chaplin, beginning with The Floorwalker. For the rest of his career, Bergman remained a character actor for Chaplin and worked as a studio assistant, including Assistant Director, he played in many Chaplin shorts and features, including The Pawnshop, The Immigrant, A Dog's Life, The Gold Rush, The Circus, City Lights. Bergman's last on-screen appearance was in Modern Times as a restaurant manager, his final offscreen contribution was for The Great Dictator in 1940. Chaplin helped Bergman finance a restaurant in Hollywood, named "Henry's", which became a popular spot for celebrities as a precursor to the Brown Derby restaurant.
Henry Bergman continued to be associated with the Chaplin Studios until his death from a heart attack in 1946. He is interred in the Hillside Memorial Park Cemetery in California. Henry Bergman on IMDb Henry Bergman at the Internet Broadway Database Henry Bergman at AllMovie Henry Bergman at Find a Grave
Cruel, Cruel Love
Cruel, Cruel Love is a 1914 American comedy silent film made at the Keystone Studios and starring Charlie Chaplin. Chaplin plays a character quite different from the Little Tramp. In this short Keystone film, Chaplin is instead a rich, upper-class gentleman whose romance is endangered when his girlfriend sees him being embraced by her maid and jumps to the wrong conclusion, she angrily sends Lord Helpus away. Distraught, when Lord Helpus arrives home he is determined to end his life, he swallows what he envisions himself being tortured in Hell. Not long afterward, the girlfriend's gardener and maid explain to Minta that Lord Helpus was not flirting at all. Minta sends a note of apology to Lord Helpus. Upon reading it, Lord Helpus flies into a panic and summons an ambulance to help him before he dies from the fatal dose of poison. There is no danger of Lord Helpus expiring: His butler had stealthily switched the liquid in the glass to harmless water. Chaplin's romantic interest in this film, Minta Durfee, was the wife of fellow Keystone actor Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle.
Charles Chaplin - Lord Helpus/Mr. Dovey Chester Conklin - Lord Helpus' Butler Minta Durfee - The Lady Eva Nelson - Maid Cruel, Cruel Love was presumed to be a lost film for more than 50 years until a complete nitrate film copy in reasonable condition was discovered in South America. Restoration copies were made by David Shepard of Film Preservation Associates, by Lobster Films of Paris, its original two-reel format is available for sale. A reviewer from Motion Picture World wrote, "Slight in texture, but it makes a pleasing, laughable picture." List of rediscovered films Charlie Chaplin filmography The short film Cruel, Cruel Love is available for free download at the Internet Archive Cruel, Cruel Love on IMDb Cruel, Cruel Love at SilentEra Cruel, Cruel Love on YouTube Cruel, Cruel Love at Rotten Tomatoes
Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin was an English comic actor and composer who rose to fame in the era of silent film. He became a worldwide icon through his screen persona, "The Tramp", is considered one of the most important figures in the history of the film industry, his career spanned more than 75 years, from childhood in the Victorian era until a year before his death in 1977, encompassed both adulation and controversy. Chaplin's childhood in London was one of poverty and hardship, as his father was absent and his mother struggled financially, he was sent to a workhouse twice before the age of nine; when he was 14, his mother was committed to a mental asylum. Chaplin began performing at an early age, touring music halls and working as a stage actor and comedian. At 19, he was signed to the prestigious Fred Karno company, he began appearing in 1914 for Keystone Studios. He soon formed a large fan base, he directed his own films and continued to hone his craft as he moved to the Essanay and First National corporations.
By 1918, he was one of the best-known figures in the world. In 1919, Chaplin co-founded the distribution company United Artists which gave him complete control over his films, his first feature-length film was The Kid, followed by A Woman of Paris, The Gold Rush, The Circus. He refused to move to sound films in the 1930s, instead producing City Lights and Modern Times without dialogue, he became political, his next film The Great Dictator satirized Adolf Hitler. The 1940s were a decade marked with controversy for Chaplin, his popularity declined rapidly, he was accused of communist sympathies, while he created scandal through his involvement in a paternity suit and his marriages to much younger women. An FBI investigation was opened, Chaplin was forced to leave the United States and settle in Switzerland, he abandoned the Tramp in his films, which include Monsieur Verdoux, Limelight, A King in New York, A Countess from Hong Kong. Chaplin wrote, produced, starred in, composed the music for most of his films.
He was a perfectionist, his financial independence enabled him to spend years on the development and production of a picture. His films are characterized by slapstick combined with pathos, typified in the Tramp's struggles against adversity. Many contain political themes, as well as autobiographical elements, he received an Honorary Academy Award for "the incalculable effect he has had in making motion pictures the art form of this century" in 1972, as part of a renewed appreciation for his work. He continues to be held in high regard, with The Gold Rush, City Lights, Modern Times, The Great Dictator ranked on lists of the greatest films of all time. Charles Spencer Chaplin was born on 16 April 1889 to Charles Chaplin Sr.. There is no official record of his birth, although Chaplin believed he was born at East Street, Walworth, in South London, his mother and father had married four years at which time Charles Sr. became the legal guardian of Hannah's illegitimate son, Sydney John Hill. At the time of his birth, Chaplin's parents were both music hall entertainers.
Hannah, the daughter of a shoemaker, had a brief and unsuccessful career under the stage name Lily Harley, while Charles Sr. a butcher's son, was a popular singer. Although they never divorced, Chaplin's parents were estranged by around 1891; the following year, Hannah gave birth to a third son – George Wheeler Dryden – fathered by the music hall entertainer Leo Dryden. The child was taken by Dryden at six months old, did not re-enter Chaplin's life for 30 years. Chaplin's childhood was fraught with poverty and hardship, making his eventual trajectory "the most dramatic of all the rags to riches stories told" according to his authorised biographer David Robinson. Chaplin's early years were spent with his mother and brother Sydney in the London district of Kennington; as the situation deteriorated, Chaplin was sent to Lambeth Workhouse. The council housed him at the Central London District School for paupers, which Chaplin remembered as "a forlorn existence", he was reunited with his mother 18 months before Hannah was forced to readmit her family to the workhouse in July 1898.
The boys were promptly sent to another institution for destitute children. In September 1898, Hannah was committed to Cane Hill mental asylum – she had developed a psychosis brought on by an infection of syphilis and malnutrition. For the two months she was there and his brother Sydney were sent to live with their father, whom the young boys scarcely knew. Charles Sr. was by a severe alcoholic, life there was bad enough to provoke a visit from the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. Chaplin's father died two years at 38 years old, from cirrhosis of the liver. Hannah entered a period of remission but, in May 1903, became ill again. Chaplin 14, had the task of taking his mother to the infirmary, from where she was sent back to Cane Hill, he lived alone for several days, searching for food and sleeping rough, until Sydney – who had enrolled in the Navy two years earlier – returned. Hannah was released from the asylum eight months but in March 1905, her illness returned, this time permanently.
"There was nothing we could do but accept poor mother's fate", Chaplin wrote, a
Olga Edna Purviance was an American actress during the silent movie era. She was the leading lady in many of Charlie Chaplin's early films and in a span of eight years, she appeared in over 30 films with him. Purviance was born in Paradise Valley, Nevada, to English immigrant Louisa Wright Davey and American vintner to the western mining camps Madison Gates Purviance; when she was three, the family moved to Lovelock, where they assumed ownership of a hotel. Her parents divorced in 1902, her mother married Robert Nurnberger, a German plumber. Growing up, Purviance was a talented pianist, she left Lovelock in 1913, moved in with her married sister Bessie while attending business college in San Francisco. In 1915, Purviance was working as a secretary in San Francisco when actor and director Charlie Chaplin was working on his second film with Essanay Studios, working out of Niles, California, 28 miles southeast of San Francisco, in Southern Alameda County, he was looking for a leading lady for A Night Out.
One of his associates noticed Purviance at a Tate's Café in San Francisco and thought she should be cast in the role. Chaplin arranged a meeting with her and, although he was concerned that she might be too serious for comedic roles, she won the job. Chaplin and Purviance were romantically involved during the making of his Essanay and First National films of 1915 to 1917. Purviance appeared including the 1921 classic The Kid, her last credited appearance in a Chaplin film, A Woman of Paris, was her first lead role. The film was not a success and ended Purviance's career, she went on to appear in two more films: The Sea Gull known as A Woman of the Sea and Éducation de Prince, a French film released in 1927, just before she retired from acting. Romantically involved with Charlie Chaplin for several years, Purviance married John Squire, a Pan-American Airlines pilot, in 1938, they remained married until his death in 1945. On January 13, 1958, Purviance died from throat cancer at the Motion Picture Country Hospital in Hollywood.
Her remains are interred at Grand View Memorial Park Cemetery in California. She was portrayed by Penelope Ann Miller in the film Chaplin and by Katie Maguire in the film Madcap Mabel. Edna Purviance on IMDb Edna Purviance—tribute and research site Edna Purviance at Then & NowEdna Purviance at Find a Grave
Albert Austin was an English actor, film star and script writer, noted for his work in Charlie Chaplin films. He was born in Birmingham, Warwickshire and was a music hall performer before going to the U. S. with Chaplin, both as members of the Fred Karno troupe in 1910. Noted for his painted handlebar moustache and acerbic manner, he worked for Chaplin's stock company and played supporting roles in many of his films as a foil to the star and working as his assistant director. After the development of sound films, he moved into scriptwriting and acting, chiefly in comedy short subjects. Among other things, he assisted Chaplin in developing the plot of The Adventurer. However, he only received screen credit as a collaborator once, for City Lights; as an actor, he appeared in Chaplin's comedies for the Mutual Film Corporation. He had two brief, uncredited roles in one of Chaplin's'silent' comedies made in the sound era, City Lights. Austin is seen briefly at the beginning of Chaplin's short film One A.
M.. He appeared in films starring Jackie Coogan and Mack Sennett. Austin's best known performance may be in Chaplin's short The Pawnshop. Austin enters the shop with an alarm clock, hoping to pawn it. To establish the clock's value, Chaplin dissects it. Austin maintains a deadpan expression as Chaplin progressively destroys his clock hands the pieces back to Austin, he had the leading role in Mary Pickford's Suds, where he co-stars as a customer leaving his shirt at her laundry. In that film he appears without his comic moustache. In his final years he worked as a police officer at the Warner Brothers studios, according to a The New York Times obituary, he died on August 17, 1953, was interred at Grand View Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California. The New York Times obituary, August 19, 1953 Charlie Chaplin's Collaborators, British Film Institute, accessed Nov. 10, 2008 Works by or about Albert Austin at Internet Archive Albert Austin on IMDb