VHS is a standard for consumer-level analog video recording on tape cassettes. Developed by Victor Company of Japan in the early 1970s, it was released in Japan on September 9, 1976 and in the United States on August 23, 1977. From the 1950s, magnetic tape video recording became a major contributor to the television industry, via the first commercialized video tape recorders. At that time, the devices were used only in expensive professional environments such as television studios and medical imaging. In the 1970s, videotape entered home use, creating the home video industry and changing the economics of the television and movie businesses; the television industry viewed videocassette recorders as having the power to disrupt their business, while television users viewed the VCR as the means to take control of their hobby. In the 1970s and early 1980s, there was a format war in the home video industry. Two of the standards, VHS and Betamax, received the most media exposure. VHS won the war, dominating 60 percent of the North American market by 1980 and emerging as the dominant home video format throughout the tape media period.
Optical disc formats began to offer better quality than analog consumer video tape such as VHS and S-VHS. The earliest of these formats, LaserDisc, was not adopted. However, after the introduction of the DVD format in 1997, VHS's market share began to decline. By 2008, DVD had replaced VHS as the preferred low-end method of distribution; the last known company in the world to manufacture VHS equipment, Funai of Japan, ceased production in July 2016. After several attempts by other companies, the first commercially successful VTR, the Ampex VRX-1000, was introduced in 1956 by Ampex Corporation. At a price of US$50,000 in 1956, US$300 for a 90-minute reel of tape, it was intended only for the professional market. Kenjiro Takayanagi, a television broadcasting pioneer working for JVC as its vice president, saw the need for his company to produce VTRs for the Japan market, at a more affordable price. In 1959, JVC developed a two-head video tape recorder, by 1960 a color version for professional broadcasting.
In 1964, JVC released the DV220. In 1969, JVC collaborated with Sony Corporation and Matsushita Electric in building a video recording standard for the Japanese consumer; the effort produced the U-matic format in 1971, the first format to become a unified standard. U-matic was successful in business and some broadcast applications, but due to cost and limited recording time few of the machines were sold for home use. Soon after and Matsushita broke away from the collaboration effort, in order to work on video recording formats of their own. Sony started working on Betamax, while Matsushita started working on VX. JVC released the CR-6060 in 1975, based on the U-matic format. Sony and Matsushita produced U-matic systems of their own. In 1971, JVC engineers Yuma Shiraishi and Shizuo Takano put together a team to develop a consumer-based VTR. By the end of 1971 they created an internal diagram titled "VHS Development Matrix", which established twelve objectives for JVC's new VTR; these included: The system must be compatible with any ordinary television set.
Picture quality must be similar to a normal air broadcast. The tape must have at least a two-hour recording capacity. Tapes must be interchangeable between machines; the overall system should be versatile, meaning it can be scaled and expanded, such as connecting a video camera, or dub between two recorders. Recorders should be affordable, easy to have low maintenance costs. Recorders must be capable of being produced in high volume, their parts must be interchangeable, they must be easy to service. In early 1972, the commercial video recording industry in Japan took a financial hit. JVC restructured its video division, shelving the VHS project. However, despite the lack of funding and Shiraishi continued to work on the project in secret. By 1973 the two engineers had produced a functional prototype. In 1974, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry, desiring to avoid consumer confusion, attempted to force the Japanese video industry to standardize on just one home video recording format.
Sony had a functional prototype of the Betamax format, was close to releasing a finished product. With this prototype, Sony persuaded the MITI to adopt Betamax as the standard, allow it to license the technology to other companies. JVC believed that an open standard, with the format shared among competitors without licensing the technology, was better for the consumer. To prevent the MITI from adopting Betamax, JVC worked to convince other companies, in particular Matsushita, to accept VHS, thereby work against Sony and the MITI. Matsushita agreed out of concern that Sony might become the leader in the field if its proprietary Betamax format was the only one allowed to be manufactured. Matsushita regarded Betamax's one-hour recording time limit as a disadvantage. Matsushita's backing of JVC persuaded Hitachi and Sharp to back the VHS standard as well. Sony's release of its Betamax unit to the Japanese market in 1975 placed further pressure on the MITI to side with the company. However, the collaboration of
Humour spelt as humor, is the tendency of experiences to provoke laughter and provide amusement. The term derives from the humoral medicine of the ancient Greeks, which taught that the balance of fluids in the human body, known as humours, controlled human health and emotion. People of all ages and cultures respond to humour. Most people are able to experience humour—be amused, smile or laugh at something funny—and thus are considered to have a sense of humour; the hypothetical person lacking a sense of humour would find the behaviour inducing it to be inexplicable, strange, or irrational. Though decided by personal taste, the extent to which a person finds something humorous depends on a host of variables, including geographical location, maturity, level of education and context. For example, young children may favour slapstick such as Punch and Judy puppet shows or the Tom and Jerry cartoons, whose physical nature makes it accessible to them. By contrast, more sophisticated forms of humour such as satire require an understanding of its social meaning and context, thus tend to appeal to a more mature audience.
Many theories exist what social function it serves. The prevailing types of theories attempting to account for the existence of humour include psychological theories, the vast majority of which consider humour-induced behaviour to be healthy; the benign-violation theory, endorsed by Peter McGraw, attempts to explain humour's existence. The theory says'humour only occurs when something seems wrong, unsettling, or threatening, but seems okay, acceptable or safe'. Humour can be used as a method to engage in social interaction by taking away that awkward, uncomfortable, or uneasy feeling of social interactions. Others believe that'the appropriate use of humour can facilitate social interactions'; some claim. Author E. B. White once said, "Humor can be dissected as a frog can, but the thing dies in the process and the innards are discouraging to any but the pure scientific mind." Counter to this argument, protests against "offensive" cartoons invite the dissection of humour or its lack by aggrieved individuals and communities.
This process of dissecting humour does not banish a sense of humour but begs attention towards its politics and assumed universality. Arthur Schopenhauer lamented the misuse of humour to mean any type of comedy. However, both humour and comic are used when theorising about the subject; the connotations of humour as opposed to comic are said to be that of response versus stimulus. Additionally, humour was thought to include a combination of ridiculousness and wit in an individual; the French were slow to adopt the term humour. Non-satirical humour can be termed droll humour or recreational drollery; as with any art form, the acceptance of a particular style or incidence of humour depends on sociological factors and varies from person to person. Throughout history, comedy has been used as a form of entertainment all over the world, whether in the courts of the Western kings or the villages of the Far East. Both a social etiquette and a certain intelligence can be displayed through forms of wit and sarcasm.
Eighteenth-century German author Georg Lichtenberg said that "the more you know humour, the more you become demanding in fineness." Western humour theory begins with Plato, who attributed to Socrates in the Philebus the view that the essence of the ridiculous is an ignorance in the weak, who are thus unable to retaliate when ridiculed. In Greek philosophy, Aristotle, in the Poetics, suggested that an ugliness that does not disgust is fundamental to humour. In ancient Sanskrit drama, Bharata Muni's Natya Shastra defined humour as one of the nine nava rasas, or principle rasas, which can be inspired in the audience by bhavas, the imitations of emotions that the actors perform; each rasa was associated with a specific bhavas portrayed on stage. The terms comedy and satire became synonymous after Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers such as Abu Bischr, his pupil Al-Farabi, Persian Avicenna, Averroes.
Due to cultural differences, they disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation, instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija. They viewed comedy as the "art of reprehension" and made no reference to light and cheerful events or troublesome beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term comedy thus gained a new semantic meaning in Medieval literature. Mento star Lord Flea, stated in a 1957 interview that he thought that: "West Indians have the best sense of humour in the world. In the most solemn song, like Las Kean Fine, which tells of a boiler explosion on a sugar plantation that killed several of the workers, their natural wit and humour shine though." Confucianist Neo-Confucian orthodoxy, with its emphasis on ritual and propriety, has traditionally looked down upon hu
Captain Underpants and the Big, Bad Battle of the Bionic Booger Boy
Captain Underpants and the Big, Bad Battle of the Bionic Booger Boy are the sixth and seventh books in the Captain Underpants series by Dav Pilkey. The first part was published on August 1, 2003, the second part was published on September 30, 2003; the duology features the debut of George and Harold's new pets Sulu and Crackers who first appeared in the first and second parts respectively. The second part features the debut of time travel in the series, which would become a core theme of the series on; the full color covers will be for Part 1's color called Blue. But Part 2's color called and White. At demonstration speech day and Harold shows off the "Squishy", but Melvin forces everyone to watch his demonstration, the "Combine-o-Tron 2000", which he uses his hamster Sulu and a robotic hamster body he built to show off. Melvin orders Sulu to do some tricks for the class. After noticing the scene and Harold adopt Sulu, who joins the two. Meanwhile, Ms. Ribble uses a Squishy on an grumpy Mr. Krupp, who believes that George and Harold are responsible.
When Mr. Krupp finds them in the lunchroom, Melvin immediately tattles on the boys and Mr. Krupp sends them to detention, causing them to make a libelous Captain Underpants comic starring Melvin. Having read the comic, Melvin builds a super-powered robot. However, Melvin sneezes at the last second from an allergy and gets combined with the robot and boogers, turning him into the Bionic Booger Boy, he acquires his own drinking fountain. Cold and flu season begins and when the class visits a tissue factory, owner Snoddy offers free tissues, but Melvin becomes gigantic as a natural defense. George turns Mr. Krupp into Captain Underpants and the man saves his secretary, Miss Edith Anthrope, her wet kisses turn him back and Melvin devours him, but Sulu defeats Melvin using large size novelty items from warehouses. George's suggestion, reversing the batteries in the Combine-o-Tron works, only three robotic booger globs fly off. However, Mr. Krupp and Melvin's brains have accidentally switched bodies and the globs come to life and smashes the Combine-o-Tron.
The robo-boogers chase the heroes to a dead end, but where Sulu spits them out into outer space. After a number of incidents and Harold discover the body mix up. Since it'd take "Mr. Melvin" six months to build another machine, George suggests going back in time, which makes Melvin snap his fingers. George and Harold are forced to tell the secret and "Mr. Melvin" orders them to create a comic about him, before setting to build; the next day, "Mr. Melvin" is furious that the former mentioned depicts him as uncool, but soon explains to them if the machine's used two days in a row, he gives them the "Forgetchamacallit 2000", against one's short term memory. George and Harold decide two days back. However, the boys end up in the Cretaceous period and get a Quetzalcoatlus, who they nickname "Crackers"; the two go to. George convinces her she is dreaming because of etc.. Harold sends Crackers back they erase her memory and travel to the present. Meanwhile, "Kruppy the Kid" is helping two old ladies cross the street.
He rescues a cat from a tree at the same time, but accidentally leaves the ladies up there. They, other victims of him, including Anthrope, form an angry mob. "Mr. Melvin" switches one another back. In space, the boogers land on a spaceship, hanging on as it returns to Earth, before they start destroying the space center. Underpants goes off to help, but discovers that his powers were taken by "Big Melvin", who refuses to help unless George and Harold changes the comic. Captain Underpants and the boys are cornered at a local store and starts throwing random items stacked outside. By chance, Carl is killed upon swallowing an orange; the other boogers become cautious, but Captain Underpants makes a deliberately annoying "Underpants Dance", making them climb up his chosen building, right into a well-placed orange-made Squishy. Soon, "Big Melvin" lies to the Eyewitness News crew while George and Harold sneak back to school, returning with the machines. Captain Underpants gets his powers back the crew and audience's memories are erased.
When the boys return to their clubhouse, Harold is keeping Crackers as another pet, which George allows for a night. The next day, they end up in an opposite fictional universe... Melvin is a huge snitch who tattles on everything. One day, Melvin tells on a bank robber to the police, which makes him so famous that he wins the election he takes by a landslide. Melvin first becomes Mayor. Over the days people make him the protecter of the town; the jails fill up so he's forced to create a giant robot one. Underpants escapes out of the robot jail, he does not want to hurt the people inside, but pours a giant bottle of "Mrs. Plop's Prune Juice" into the robot jails mouth, making it shoot out the prisoners, he breaks open Melvin's glass dome. Melvin is now sent to the "jail for dumb kids." The town goes back to normal. While driven to the toxic waste dump, a waste barrel falls on a cotton field, where the cotton grows to an unbelievable size. One day, is it made into "Glow In the Dark underwear" and Melvin's mother gives him one from a big sale.
Overnight, Melvin grows into a monster. The police calls the military. Underpants flies in and notices a tag on the back saying it will shrink if washed. Melvin takes Underpants to the lake, but his underwear becomes soaked. Underpants a
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit. Lending activities can be performed either indirectly through capital markets. Due to their importance in the financial stability of a country, banks are regulated in most countries. Most nations have institutionalized a system known as fractional reserve banking under which banks hold liquid assets equal to only a portion of their current liabilities. In addition to other regulations intended to ensure liquidity, banks are subject to minimum capital requirements based on an international set of capital standards, known as the Basel Accords. Banking in its modern sense evolved in the 14th century in the prosperous cities of Renaissance Italy but in many ways was a continuation of ideas and concepts of credit and lending that had their roots in the ancient world. In the history of banking, a number of banking dynasties – notably, the Medicis, the Fuggers, the Welsers, the Berenbergs, the Rothschilds – have played a central role over many centuries.
The oldest existing retail bank is Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, while the oldest existing merchant bank is Berenberg Bank. The concept of banking may have begun in ancient Assyria and Babylonia, with merchants offering loans of grain as collateral within a barter system. Lenders in ancient Greece and during the Roman Empire added two important innovations: they accepted deposits and changed money. Archaeology from this period in ancient China and India shows evidence of money lending. More modern banking can be traced to medieval and early Renaissance Italy, to the rich cities in the centre and north like Florence, Siena and Genoa; the Bardi and Peruzzi families dominated banking in 14th-century Florence, establishing branches in many other parts of Europe. One of the most famous Italian banks was the Medici Bank, set up by Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici in 1397; the earliest known state deposit bank, Banco di San Giorgio, was founded in 1407 at Italy. Modern banking practices, including fractional reserve banking and the issue of banknotes, emerged in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Merchants started to store their gold with the goldsmiths of London, who possessed private vaults, charged a fee for that service. In exchange for each deposit of precious metal, the goldsmiths issued receipts certifying the quantity and purity of the metal they held as a bailee; the goldsmiths began to lend the money out on behalf of the depositor, which led to the development of modern banking practices. The goldsmith paid interest on these deposits. Since the promissory notes were payable on demand, the advances to the goldsmith's customers were repayable over a longer time period, this was an early form of fractional reserve banking; the promissory notes developed into an assignable instrument which could circulate as a safe and convenient form of money backed by the goldsmith's promise to pay, allowing goldsmiths to advance loans with little risk of default. Thus, the goldsmiths of London became the forerunners of banking by creating new money based on credit; the Bank of England was the first to begin the permanent issue of banknotes, in 1695.
The Royal Bank of Scotland established the first overdraft facility in 1728. By the beginning of the 19th century a bankers' clearing house was established in London to allow multiple banks to clear transactions; the Rothschilds pioneered international finance on a large scale, financing the purchase of the Suez canal for the British government. The word bank was taken Middle English from Middle French banque, from Old Italian banco, meaning "table", from Old High German banc, bank "bench, counter". Benches were used as makeshift desks or exchange counters during the Renaissance by Jewish Florentine bankers, who used to make their transactions atop desks covered by green tablecloths; the definition of a bank varies from country to country. See the relevant country pages under for more information. Under English common law, a banker is defined as a person who carries on the business of banking by conducting current accounts for his customers, paying cheques drawn on him/her and collecting cheques for his/her customers.
In most common law jurisdictions there is a Bills of Exchange Act that codifies the law in relation to negotiable instruments, including cheques, this Act contains a statutory definition of the term banker: banker includes a body of persons, whether incorporated or not, who carry on the business of banking'. Although this definition seems circular, it is functional, because it ensures that the legal basis for bank transactions such as cheques does not depend on how the bank is structured or regulated; the business of banking is in many English common law countries not defined by statute but by common law, the definition above. In other English common law jurisdictions there are statutory definitions of the business of banking or banking business; when looking at these definitions it is important to keep in mind that they are defining the business of banking for the purposes of the legislation, not in general. In particular, most of the definitions are from legislation that has the purpose of regulating and supervising banks rather than regulating the actual business of banking.
However, in many cases the statutory definition mirrors the common law one. Examples of statutory definitions: "banking business" means the business of receiving money on current or deposit account and collecting cheques drawn by or paid in by customers, the making
Scholastic Corporation is an American multinational publishing and media company known for publishing and distributing books and educational materials for schools, teachers and children. Products are distributed to schools and districts, to consumers through the schools via reading clubs and fairs, through retail stores and online sales; the business has three segments: Children Book Publishing & Distribution and International. Scholastic holds the perpetual US publishing rights to the Harry Potter and Hunger Games book series. Scholastic is the world's largest publisher and distributor of children's books and print and digital educational materials for pre-K to grade 12. In addition to Harry Potter and The Hunger Games, the company is known for its school book clubs and book fairs, classroom magazines such as Scholastic News, popular book series: Clifford the Big Red Dog, The Magic School Bus, Captain Underpants, I Spy. Scholastic publishes instructional reading and writing programs, offers professional learning and consultancy services for school improvement.
Clifford the Big Red Dog serves as the mascot for Scholastic. In 1920, Maurice R. "Robbie" Robinson founded the business he named Scholastic Publishing Company in his hometown of Wilkinsburg, right outside Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. As a publisher of youth magazines, the first publication was The Western Pennsylvania Scholastic, it covered high school sports and social activities and debuted on October 22, 1920. In the 1960s, international publishing locations were added in New Zealand and Sydney. In February 2012, it bought Weekly Reader Publishing from Reader's Digest Association, announced in July that year that it planned to discontinue separate issues of Weekly Reader magazines after more than a century of publication, co-branded the magazines as "Scholastic News/Weekly Reader". Founded in 1923 by Maurice R. Robinson, The Scholastic Art & Writing Awards, administered by the Alliance for Young Artists & Writers, have recognized more than 9 million young artists and writers, provided more than $25 million in awards and scholarships and are the nation's longest-running art and writing awards.
Recipients of The Scholastic Art and Writing Awards include Richard Anuszkiewicz, Richard Avedon, Harry Bertoia, Mel Bochner, Truman Capote, Paul Davis, Frances Farmer, Red Grooms, Robert Indiana, Bernard Malamud, Joyce Maynard, Joyce Carol Oates, Philip Pearlstein, Peter S. Beagle, Sylvia Plath, Robert Redford, Jean Stafford, Mozelle Thompson, Ned Vizzini, Kay WalkingStick, Andy Warhol, Charles White, all of whom won when they were in high school. In March 2018, author James Patterson announced an increase in his annual donations for classroom libraries from $1.75 million to $2 million, in a program run in conjunction with the Scholastic Book Clubs. Patterson is distributing 4,000 gifts of $500 each to teachers around the country. Trade Publishing Imprints include: Arthur A. Levine Books, which specializes in fiction and non-fiction books for young readers; the imprint was founded at Scholastic in 1996 by Arthur Levine in New York City. The first book published by Arthur A. Levine Books was When She Was Good by Norma Fox Mazer in autumn of 1997.
The imprint is most notable as the publisher for the American editions of the Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling. In March 2019, Levine left Scholastic to form his own new publisher. Scholastic will retain Levine's back catalogue; the Chicken House Four Winds Press Klutz Press Orchard Books Scholastic Australia made up of Koala Books, Margaret Hamilton Books, Omnibus Books, Scholastic Press. Children's Press. Founded in 1945 and based in Chicago, this press published the Rookie Read-About series and has a secondary imprint, Franklin Watts. In 1996, Children's Press became a division of Grolier, which became an imprint of Scholastic Corporation in 2000. Scholastic Media is a corporate division led by Deborah Forte since 1995, it covers "all forms of media and consumer products, is comprised of four main groups – Productions, Marketing & Consumer Products and Audio." Weston Woods is its production studio, acquired in 1996, as was Soup2Nuts from 2001–2015 before shutting down. Scholastic has produced audiobooks such as the Caldecott/Newbery Collection.
It will produce the 39 Clues and as Scholastic Productions produced the series Voyagers!, My Secret Identity, Charles in Charge. In April 2019, Scholastic signed a distribution deal with 9 Story Media Group, including 230 hours of TV series. Scholastic book clubs are offered at schools in many countries. Teachers administer the program to the students in their own classes, but in some cases, the program is administered by a central contact for the entire school. Within Scholastic, Reading Clubs is a separate unit. Reading clubs are arranged by age/grade. Scholastic Parents Media publishes the Scholastic Child magazine; the group specializes in online advertising sales and custom programs designed for parents with children aged 0–6. Scholastic has been criticized for inappropriately marketing to children. Scholastic now requires parents to submit children's names with birth dates to place online orders, creating controversy. A significant number of titles carried have strong media tie-ins and are considered relatively
Captain Underpants and the Perilous Plot of Professor Poopypants
Captain Underpants and the Perilous Plot of Professor Poopypants is the fourth book in the Captain Underpants series written by Dav Pilkey. A scientist from the fictitious country of New Swissland called Professor Pippy P. Poopypants goes to the United States to demonstrate how his striking Shrinky-Pig and Goosy-Grow can help the world by reducing the garbage and increasing food, but everyone laughs at Poopypants' name rather than take him seriously. Meanwhile, Jerome Horwitz Elementary School is going to a restaurant-arcade called The Piqua Pizza Palace, but when George and Harold rearrange the lunch sign, Mr. Krupp demands they clean the teachers' lounge, making them lose their chance of going to the Piqua Pizza Palace with everyone else. However, the boys get their revenge by modifying things around in the teachers' lounge and after the field trip, the teachers get covered in glue and foam pellets before Ms. Ribble makes it worse, they chase the boys around the school and after seeing the teachers looking like abominable snowmen, Mr. Fyde retires, thinking he's going insane.
Meanwhile, Professor Poopypants sees an ad to teach and applies for the job, thinking children to be kind and sweet-hearted, but they spend days laughing at his silly name. The professor only gets them interested by building a robot that makes gerbils jog along with them but it is short-lived; some time Ms. Ribble reads the Pied Piper of Hamelin, which inspires George and Harold to make a comic about the Professor trying to take over the world, which destroys the last of Professor Poopypants' sanity, he makes the gerbil machine as large as a tall building shrinks the school and holds them hostage to turn their names sillier, with a system of 3 alphabetical name charts based on the first/last letter of each part of a first and last name. George and Harold's names are changed to "Fluffy" and "Cheeseball" respectively, they get Captain Underpants to steal Professor Poopypants' enlarging machine, but he and the machine are shrunk in the process. The two of them get flicked off the school. Harold makes a paper airplane that George enlarges and after many dangers, Underpants rescues them.
George enlarges Underpants to the gerbil's size he defeats Professor Poopypants and everyone's names revert. The boys use the machines to bring Captain Underpants back to normal size. Captain Underpants is soaked with water. Professor Poopypants is hauled off to jail and from George and Harold, he changes his name so that no one will make fun of it anymore, he changes his name to his grandfather's, Tippy Tinkletrousers, that which makes the prisoners ridicule him more. George Beard/Fluffy Toiletnose Harold Hutchins/Cheeseball Wafflefanny Mr. Benjamin Krupp/Mr. Lumpy Pottybiscuits Captain Underpants/Buttercup Chickenfanny Chuckles Jingleberry McMonkeyburger, Jr. Stinky McMonkeyburger Jiggles T. Chunkyskunks Tipper Q. Zipperdripper Professor Pippy P. Poopypants/Tippy Tinkletrousers Porkbelly Funkyskunk Connor Mancini/Buttercup Bananalips Aaron Mancini/Stinky Bananalips Ingrid Ashley/Chim-Chim Diaperbrains Larry Zarrow/Booger Stinkersquirt Stephanie Yarkoff/Snotty Gorillabreath Robbie Staenberg/Loopy Pizzapants Janet Warwick/Poopsie Chucklebutt Melvin Sneedly/Pinky Pizzabrains Ivana Godadebafroom/Chim-Chim Lizardtushie Mr. Rected/Mr.
Gizzardnose Miss Labler / Miss Liverbuns Ms. Ribble/Ms. Gizzardtush Mr. Meaner/Mr. Bananabuns Miss Anthrope/Miss Diapertush Ms. Guided/ Ms. Lizardnose Mr. Fyde/Mr. Barftush Dr. Diaper / Dr. Bubblebuns Authors: Cynthia Rylant/Buttercup Gizzardsniffer Dav Pilkey/Gidget Hamsterbrains Dan Santat/Gidget Pizzasniffer Jose Garibaldi/Poopsie Lizardlips Martin Ontiveros/Pinky Burgerfanny Dav Pilkey and Captain Underpants; the book that followed this was The Wicked Wedgie Woman. The Book received positive reviews from critics, making the villain, Professor Poopypants, appear in Books of the series as both a recurring character, or the main villain; the book was removed from an elementary school in Page, North Dakota due to parental complaints