Leonardo da Vinci, A Memory of His Childhood
Leonardo da Vinci and A Memory of His Childhood is a 1910 essay by Sigmund Freud about Leonardo da Vinci. It consists of a psychoanalytic study of Leonardo's life based on his paintings. In the Codex Atlanticus Leonardo recounts being attacked as an infant in his crib by a bird. Freud cite the passage as: “It seems that it had been destined before that I should occupy myself so with the vulture, for it comes to my mind as a early memory, when I was still in the cradle, a vulture came down to me, he opened my mouth with his tail and struck me a few times with his tail against my lips.” According to Freud, this was a childhood fantasy based on the memory of sucking his mother's nipple. He backed up his claim with the fact that Egyptian hieroglyphs represent the mother as a vulture, because the Egyptians believed that there are no male vultures and that the females of the species are impregnated by the wind. In most representations the vulture-headed maternal deity was formed by the Egyptians in a phallic manner, her body, distinguished as feminine by its breasts bore the penis in a state of erection.
However, the translation "Geier", which Maria Herzfeld had used for "nibbio" in 1904 in the first edition of her book Leonardo da Vinci, der Denker, Forscher und Poet, was not the kite Leonardo da Vinci had meant: a small hawk-like bird of prey, common in the Vinci area, a scavenger. This disappointed Freud because, as he confessed to Lou Andreas-Salomé in a letter of 9 February 1919, he regarded the Leonardo essay as "the only beautiful thing I have written"; the psychologist Erich Neumann, writing in Art and the Creative Unconscious, attempted to repair the theory by incorporating the kite. Another theory proposed by Freud attempts to explain Leonardo's fondness of depicting the Virgin Mary with St. Anne in the picture The Virgin and Child with St. Anne. Leonardo, illegitimate, was raised by his blood mother before being "adopted" by the wife of his father Ser Piero; the idea of depicting the Mother of God with her own mother was therefore close to Leonardo's heart, because he, in a sense, had'two mothers' himself.
It is worth noting that in both versions of the composition it is hard to discern whether St. Anne is a full generation older than Mary. Freud points out that, in the painting, the outline of a vulture can be seen; this is connected to the original fantasy involving the vulture in Leonardo da Vinci's crib. Psychobiography The full text of Leonardo da Vinci: a Psychosexual Study of an Infantile Reminiscence at Wikisource Sigmund Freud. Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood. New York: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-00149-5. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Meyer Schapiro. Leonardo and Freud: An Art-Historical Study. In Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 147-178. Sigmund Freud. "Eine Kindheitserinnerung des Leonardo da Vinci." Studienausgabe. Vol. 10: Bildende Kunst und Literatur. Pp. 87–160, Frankfurt/Main 1969. Wayne Andersen. "Leonardo da Vinci and the Slip of Fools." History of European Ideas Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 61–78, 1994. Wayne Andersen. Freud, Leonardo da Vinci, the Vulture's Tail, A Refreshing Look at Leonardo's Sexuality.
Other Press, New York. 2001
In Freudian psychology, psychosexual development is a central element of the psychoanalytic sexual drive theory, that human beings, from birth, possess an instinctual libido that develops in five stages. Each stage – the oral, the anal, the phallic, the latent, the genital – is characterized by the erogenous zone, the source of the libidinal drive. Sigmund Freud proposed that if the child experienced sexual frustration in relation to any psychosexual developmental stage, he or she would experience anxiety that would persist into adulthood as a neurosis, a functional mental disorder. Sigmund Freud observed that during the predictable stages of early childhood development, the child's behavior is oriented towards certain parts of his or her body, e.g. the mouth during breast-feeding, the anus during toilet-training. He argued that adult neurosis is rooted in childhood sexuality, suggested that neurotic adult behaviors are manifestations of childhood sexual fantasy and desire; that is because human beings are born "polymorphous perverse", infants can derive sexual pleasure from any part of their bodies, that socialization directs the instinctual libidinal drives into adult heterosexuality.
Given the predictable timeline of childhood behavior, he proposed "libido development" as a model of normal childhood sexual development, wherein the child progresses through five psychosexual stages – the oral. Sexual infantilism: in pursuing and satisfying his or her libido, the child might experience failure and thus might associate anxiety with the given erogenous zone. To avoid anxiety, the child becomes fixated, preoccupied with the psychologic themes related to the erogenous zone in question, which persist into adulthood, underlie the personality and psychopathology of the man or woman, as neurosis, personality disorders, et cetera; the first stage of psychosexual development is the oral stage, spanning from birth until the age of one year, wherein the infant's mouth is the focus of libidinal gratification derived from the pleasure of feeding at the mother's breast, from the oral exploration of his or her environment, i.e. the tendency to place objects in the mouth. The id dominates, because neither the ego nor the super ego is yet developed, since the infant has no personality, every action is based upon the pleasure principle.
Nonetheless, the infantile ego is forming during the oral stage. Weaning is the key experience in the infant's oral stage of psychosexual development, his or her first feeling of loss consequent to losing the physical intimacy of feeding at mother's breast. Yet, weaning increases the infant's self-awareness that he or she does not control the environment, thus learns of delayed gratification, which leads to the formation of the capacities for independence and trust. Yet, thwarting of the oral-stage — too much or too little gratification of desire — might lead to an oral-stage fixation, characterised by passivity, immaturity, unrealistic optimism, manifested in a manipulative personality consequent to ego malformation. In the case of too much gratification, the child does not learn that he or she does not control the environment, that gratification is not always immediate, thereby forming an immature personality. In the case of too little gratification, the infant might become passive upon learning that gratification is not forthcoming, despite having produced the gratifying behavior.
The second stage of psychosexual development is the anal stage, spanning from the age of eighteen months to three years, wherein the infant's erogenous zone changes from the mouth to the anus, while the ego formation continues. Toilet training is the child's key anal-stage experience, occurring at about the age of two years, results in conflict between the id and the ego in eliminating bodily wastes, handling related activities; the style of parenting influences the resolution of the id–ego conflict, which can be either gradual and psychologically uneventful, or which can be sudden and psychologically traumatic. The ideal resolution of the id–ego conflict is in the child's adjusting to moderate parental demands that teach the value and importance of physical cleanliness and environmental order, thus producing a self-controlled adult. Yet, if the parents make immoderate demands of the child, by over-emphasizing toilet training, it might lead to the development of a compulsive personality, a person too concerned with neatness and order.
If the child obeys the id, the parents yield, he or she might develop a self-indulgent personality characterized by personal slovenliness and environmental disorder. If the parents respond to that, the child must comply, but might develop a weak sense of self, because it was the parents' will, not the child's ego, which controlled the toilet training; the third stage of psychosexual development is the phallic stage, spanning the ages of three to six years, wherein the
Sigmund Freud Museum (Vienna)
The Sigmund Freud Museum in Vienna is a museum founded in 1971 covering Sigmund Freud's life story. It is located in the Alsergrund district, at Berggasse 19. In 2003 the museum was put in the hands of the newly established Sigmund Freud Foundation, which has since received the entire building as an endowment, it covers the history of psychoanalysis. The building was newly built in 1891; the previous building on the site, once the home of Victor Adler, had been torn down. His old rooms, where he lived for 47 years and produced the majority of his writings, now house a documentary centre to his life and works; the influence of psychoanalysis on art and society is displayed through a program of special exhibitions and a modern art collection. The museum consists of a part of his old private quarters. Attached to the museum are Europe's largest psychoanalytic research library, with 35,000 volumes, the research institute of the Sigmund Freud Foundation; the display includes original items owned by Freud, the practice's waiting room, parts of Freud's extensive antique collection.
However his famous couch is now in the Freud Museum in London, along with most of the original furnishings, as Freud was able to take his furniture with him when he emigrated. A third Freud Museum, after London and Vienna, was started in the Czech town of Příbor in 2006 when the house of his birth was opened to the public; the museum contains an archive of images containing around two thousand documents photographs, but paintings and sculptures. The collection consists of all of the existing photos of Sigmund Freud and his family, a large number of photos of Anna Freud and photos from psychoanalytic congresses etc. In 1938 Freud was forced to leave German-annexed Austria due to his Jewish ancestry, fled to London; the museum was opened in 1971 by the Sigmund Freud Society in the presence of Anna Freud. In 1996 the building was expanded with new rooms for special events; the Foundation has ongoing plans to expand the museum. Since 1970 the annual Sigmund Freud Lecture has taken place in Vienna on 6 May.
This event, at which psychoanalysts speak on a contemporary theme, was established by the Sigmund Freud Society and is now organised by the Foundation. Freud Museum Home page in English
The Interpretation of Dreams
The Interpretation of Dreams is an 1899 book by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, in which the author introduces his theory of the unconscious with respect to dream interpretation, discusses what would become the theory of the Oedipus complex. Freud revised the book at least eight times and, in the third edition, added an extensive section which treated dream symbolism literally, following the influence of Wilhelm Stekel. Freud said of this work, "Insight such as this falls to one's lot but once in a lifetime."Dated 1900, the book was first published in an edition of 600 copies, which did not sell out for eight years. The Interpretation of Dreams gained in popularity, seven more editions were published in Freud's lifetime; because of the book's length and complexity, Freud wrote an abridged version called On Dreams. The original text is regarded as one of Freud's most significant works. Freud spent the summer of 1895 at Schloss BelleVue near Grinzing in Austria, where he began the inception of The Interpretation of Dreams.
In a 1900 letter to Wilhelm Fliess, he wrote in commemoration of the place: "Do you suppose that some day a marble tablet will be placed on the house, inscribed with these words:'In this house on July 24, 1895, the secret of dreams was revealed to Dr. Sigm. Freud'? At the moment I see little prospect of it." — Freud in a letter to Wilhelm Fliess, June 12, 1900 While staying at Schloss Bellevue, Freud dreamed his famous dream of'Irma's injection'. His reading and analysis of the dream allowed him to be exonerated from his mishandling of the treatment of a patient in 1895. In 1963, Belle Vue manor was demolished, but today a memorial plaque with just that inscription has been erected at the site by the Austrian Sigmund Freud Society. Dreams, in Freud's view, are formed as the result of two mental processes; the first process involves unconscious forces that construct a wish, expressed by the dream, the second is the process of censorship that forcibly distorts the expression of the wish. In Freud's view, all dreams are forms of "wish fulfillment".
Freud states: "My presumption that dreams can be interpreted at once puts me in opposition to the ruling theory of dreams and in fact to every theory of dreams..."Freud advanced the idea that an analyst can differentiate between the manifest content and latent content of a dream. The manifest content refers to the remembered narrative; the latent content refers to the underlying meaning of the dream. During sleep, the unconscious condenses and forms representations of the dream content, the latent content of, unrecognizable to the individual upon waking. Critics have argued. Freud, contested this criticism, noting that "the assertion that all dreams require a sexual interpretation, against which critics rage so incessantly, occurs nowhere in my Interpretation of Dreams, it is not to be found in any of the numerous editions of this book and is in obvious contradiction to other views expressed in it." Freud acknowledged that the interpretation of dreams is the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind."
Freud claimed. Though, the connection may be minor, as the dream content can be selected from any part of the dreamer's life, he described four possible sources of dreams: a) mentally significant experiences represented directly, b) several recent and significant experiences combined into a single unity by the dream, c) one or more recent and significant experiences which are represented in the content by the mention of a contemporary but indifferent experience, d) an internal significant experience, such as a memory or train of thought, invariably represented in the dream by a mention of a recent but indifferent impression. Oftentimes people experience external stimuli, such as an alarm clock or music, being distorted and incorporated into their dreams. Freud explained that this is because "the mind is withdrawn from the external world during sleep, it is unable to give it a correct interpretation..." He further explained that our mind wishes to continue sleeping, therefore will try to suppress external stimuli, weave the stimuli into the dream, compel a person to wake up, or encourage him or her to overcome it.
Freud believed that dreams were picture-puzzles, though they may appear nonsensical and worthless on the surface, through the process of interpretation they can form a "poetical phrase of the greatest beauty and significance." Dreams are brief compared to the abundance of dream thoughts. Through condensation or compression, dream content can be presented in one dream. Oftentimes, people may recall having more than one dream in a night. Freud explained that the content of all dreams occurring on the same night represents part of the same whole, he believed. The first dream is more distorted and the latter is more distinct. Displacement of dream content occurs when manifest content does not resemble the actual meaning of the dream. Displacement comes through the influence of a censorship agent. Representation in dreams is the causal relation between two things. Freud argues that objects can be combined into a single representation in a dream. An abridged version called On Dreams was published in 1901 as part of Lowenfeld and Kurella's Grenzfragen des Nerven und Seelenlebens.
It was re-published in 1911 in larger form as a book. On Dreams is also
The Oedipus complex is a concept of psychoanalytic theory. Sigmund Freud introduced the concept in his Interpretation of Dreams and coined the expression in his A Special Type of Choice of Object made by Men; the positive Oedipus complex refers to a child's unconscious sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent and hatred for the same-sex parent. The negative Oedipus complex refers to a child's unconscious sexual desire for the same-sex parent and hatred for the opposite-sex parent. Freud considered that the child's identification with the same-sex parent is the successful outcome of the complex and that unsuccessful outcome of the complex might lead to neurosis and homosexuality. Freud rejected the term "Electra complex", introduced by Carl Gustav Jung in 1913 in his work, Theory of Psychoanalysis in regard to the Oedipus complex manifested in young girls. Freud further proposed that the Oedipus complex, which refers to the sexual desire of a son for his mother, is a desire for the parent in both males and females, that boys and girls experience the complex differently: boys in a form of castration anxiety, girls in a form of penis envy.
Oedipus refers to a 5th-century BC Greek mythological character Oedipus, who unwittingly kills his father and marries his mother, Jocasta. A play based on the myth, Oedipus Rex, was written by Sophocles, ca. 429 BC. Modern productions of Sophocles' play were staged in Paris and Vienna in the 19th century and were phenomenally successful in the 1880s and 1890s; the Austrian psychiatrist, Sigmund Freud, attended. In his book The Interpretation of Dreams first published in 1899, he proposed that an Oedipal desire is a universal, psychological phenomenon innate to human beings, the cause of much unconscious guilt. Freud believed that the Oedipal sentiment has been inherited through the millions of years it took for humans to evolve from apes, he based this on his analysis of his feelings attending the play, his anecdotal observations of neurotic or normal children, on the fact that Oedipus Rex was effective on both ancient and modern audiences. However, in The Interpretation of Dreams, Freud makes it clear that the "primordial urges and fears" that are his concern and the basis of the Oedipal complex are inherent in the myths the play by Sophocles is based on, not in the play itself, which Freud refers to as a "further modification of the legend" that originates in a "misconceived secondary revision of the material, which has sought to exploit it for theological purposes".
Freud described the character Oedipus: A six-stage chronology of Sigmund Freud's theoretic evolution of the Oedipus complex is: Stage 1. 1897–1909. After his father's death in 1896, having seen the play Oedipus Rex, by Sophocles, Freud begins using the term "Oedipus"; as Freud wrote in an 1897 letter, "I found in myself a constant love for my mother, jealousy of my father. I now consider this to be a universal event in early childhood. Stage 2. 1909–1914. Proposes that Oedipal desire is the "nuclear complex" of all neuroses. Stage 3. 1914–1918. Considers maternal incest. Stage 4. 1919–1926. Complete Oedipus complex. Stage 5. 1926–1931. Applies the Oedipal theory to religion and custom. Stage 6. 1931–1938. Investigates the "feminine Oedipus attitude" and "negative Oedipus complex". In classical psychoanalytic theory, the Oedipus complex occurs during the phallic stage of psychosexual development, when occurs the formation of the libido and the ego. In the phallic stage, a boy's decisive psychosexual experience is the Oedipus complex—his son–father competition for possession of mother.
It is in this third stage of psychosexual development that the child's genitalia is his or her primary erogenous zone. Psychosexual infantilism—Despite mother being the parent who gratifies the child's desires, the child begins forming a discrete sexual identity—"boy", "girl"—that alters the dynamics of the parent and child relationship; the boy directs his libido upon his mother and directs jealousy and emotional rivalry against his father—because it is he who sleeps with his mother. Moreover, to facilitate union with mother, the boy's id wants to kill father, but the pragmatic ego, based upon the reality principle, knows that the father is the stronger of the two males competing to possess the one female. Nonetheless, the boy remains ambivalent about his father's place in the family, manifested as fear of castration by the physically greater father. Psycho-logic defense—In both sexes, defense mechanisms provide transitory resolutions of the conflict between the drives of the id and the drives of the ego.
The first defense mechanism is
The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement
The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement is a 1914 work by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis. Freud's work is intended as a polemic against the competing theories in psychotherapy which opposed his psychoanalysis, for example Alfred Adler's individual psychology and Carl Jung's analytical psychology. Adler and Jung had been followers of Freud but objected to his emphasis on sexual matters, his main criticism of them is their insistence on still calling themselves psychoanalysts. Works related to The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement at Wikisource
Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was born to Galician Jewish parents in the Austrian Empire, he qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna. Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902. Freud lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud left Austria to escape the Nazis, he died in exile in the United Kingdom in 1939. In creating psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory, his analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the underlying mechanisms of repression.
On this basis Freud elaborated his theory of the unconscious and went on to develop a model of psychic structure comprising id, ego and super-ego. Freud postulated the existence of libido, a sexualised energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, a death drive, the source of compulsive repetition, hate and neurotic guilt. In his works, Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture. Though in overall decline as a diagnostic and clinical practice, psychoanalysis remains influential within psychology and psychotherapy, across the humanities, it thus continues to generate extensive and contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause. Nonetheless, Freud's work has suffused popular culture. In the words of W. H. Auden's 1940 poetic tribute to Freud, he had created "a whole climate of opinion / under whom we conduct our different lives."
Freud was born to Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austrian Empire, the first of eight children. Both of his parents were in modern-day Ukraine, his father, Jakob Freud, a wool merchant, had two sons and Philipp, by his first marriage. Jakob's family were Hasidic Jews, although Jakob himself had moved away from the tradition, he came to be known for his Torah study, he and Freud's mother, Amalia Nathansohn, 20 years younger and his third wife, were married by Rabbi Isaac Noah Mannheimer on 29 July 1855. They were struggling financially and living in a rented room, in a locksmith's house at Schlossergasse 117 when their son Sigmund was born, he was born with a caul. In 1859, the Freud family left Freiberg. Freud's half brothers emigrated to Manchester, parting him from the "inseparable" playmate of his early childhood, Emanuel's son, John. Jakob Freud took his wife and two children firstly to Leipzig and in 1860 to Vienna where four sisters and a brother were born: Rosa, Adolfine, Alexander.
In 1865, the nine-year-old Freud entered the Leopoldstädter Kommunal-Realgymnasium, a prominent high school. He graduated from the Matura in 1873 with honors, he loved literature and was proficient in German, Italian, English, Hebrew and Greek. Freud entered the University of Vienna at age 17, he had planned to study law, but joined the medical faculty at the university, where his studies included philosophy under Franz Brentano, physiology under Ernst Brücke, zoology under Darwinist professor Carl Claus. In 1876, Freud spent four weeks at Claus's zoological research station in Trieste, dissecting hundreds of eels in an inconclusive search for their male reproductive organs. In 1877 Freud moved to Ernst Brücke's physiology laboratory where he spent six years comparing the brains of humans and other vertebrates with those of invertebrates such as frogs and lampreys, his research work on the biology of nervous tissue proved seminal for the subsequent discovery of the neuron in the 1890s. Freud's research work was interrupted in 1879 by the obligation to undertake a year's compulsory military service.
The lengthy downtimes enabled him to complete a commission to translate four essays from John Stuart Mill's collected works. He graduated with an MD in March 1881. In 1882, Freud began his medical career at the Vienna General Hospital, his research work in cerebral anatomy led to the publication of an influential paper on the palliative effects of cocaine in 1884 and his work on aphasia would form the basis of his first book On the Aphasias: a Critical Study, published in 1891. Over a three-year period, Freud worked in various departments of the hospital, his time spent in Theodor Meynert's psychiatric clinic and as a locum in a local asylum led to an increased interest in clinical work. His substantial body of published research led to his appointment as a university lecturer or docent in neuropathology in 1885, a non-salaried post but one which entitled him to give lectures at the University of Vienna. In 1886, Freud resigned his hospital post and entered private practice specializing in "nervous disorders".
The same year he married Martha Bernay