Silappadikaram is one of Five Great Epics according to Tamil literary tradition. Ascetic-prince Ilango Adigal is credited with this work, the younger brother of reputed warrior-king Senguttuvan of the Chera dynasty; as a literary work, Silappadikaram is held in high regard by the Tamil people. It contains a total of 5270 lines of poetry; the epic revolves around Kannagi, who having lost her husband to a miscarriage of justice at the court of the Pandyan Dynasty, wreaks her revenge on his kingdom. Regarded as one of the great works of Tamil literature, the Silappadikaram is a poetic rendition with details of Tamil culture. Silappadikaram has been dated to belong to the beginning of Common era, although the author might have built upon a pre-existing folklore to spin this tale; the story involves the three Tamil kingdoms of the ancient era, which were ruled by the Chola and Chera dynasties. Silappadikaram has many references to historical events and personalities, although it has not been accepted as a reliable source of history by many historians because of the inclusion of many exaggerated events and achievements to the ancient Tamil kings.
At the end of the Sangam epoch, the Tamil country was in political confusion. The older order of the three Tamil dynasties was replaced by the invasion of the Kalabhras; these new kings and others encouraged the religions of Jainism. Ilango Adigal, the author of Silappatikaram lived in this period and was one of the vast number of Jain and Buddhist authors in Tamil poetry; these authors influenced by their monastic faiths, wrote books based on moralistic values to illustrate the futility of secular pleasures. Silappatikaram used akaval meter, a style adopted from Sangam literature. Silappatikaram does not use the convention of regarding the land divisions becoming part of description of life among various communities of hero and heroine; the epic mentions evenings in the spring season, as the prime time that exacerbates the feelings of longing in those who are separated. These patterns are found only in the works of Sanskrit by Kalidasa; these authors went beyond the nature of Sangam poems, which contain descriptions of human emotions and feelings in an abstract fashion, employed fictional characters in a well conceived narrative incorporating personal and social ramifications thus inventing Tamil Epics.
The story of silappatikaram is set during the first few centuries of CE and narrates the events in the three Tamil kingdoms: Chera and Pandya. It mentions the Ilankai king Gajabahu and the Chera Senguttuvan, it confirms that the northern kingdoms of Chedi and Vajra were known to the Tamil people of the time. The epic vividly describes the Tamil society of the period, its cities, the people's religious and folk traditions and their gods; the authorship of Silappatikaram is credited to the pseudonym Ilango Adigal. He is reputed to be the brother of Chera king Senguttuvan, although there is no evidence in the Sangam poetic works that the famous king had a brother. There are claims that Ilango Adigal was a contemporary of Sattanar, the author of Manimekalai; the prologues of each of these books tell us. From comparative studies between Silappatikaram and certain Buddhist and Jain works such as Nyayaprakasa, the date of Silappatikaram has been determined to be around the fifth and the sixth centuries CE.
In the pathigam, the prologue to the book, Ilango Adigal gives the reader the gist of the book with the précis of the story. He lays the objectives of the book... Kovalan - Son of a wealthy merchant in Puhar Kannagi - Wife of Kovalan Masattuvan - A wealthy grain merchant and the father of Kovalan Madhavi - A beautiful courtesan dancer Chitravathi - Madhavi's Mother Vasavadaththai - Madhavi's female friend Kosigan - Madhavi's messenger to Kovalan Madalan - A Brahmin visitor to Madurai from Puhar Kavunthi Adigal - A Jain nun Neduncheliyan - Pandya king Kopperundevi - Pandya Queen Silappatikaram depicts the life of Kannagi, a chaste woman who led a peaceful life with Kovalan in Puhar the capital of Cholas. Kannagi was born in a wealthy sea merchant family, her father, was a reputed ship captain of Puhar. She was brought up with discipline, she was married to Kovalan, the young son of a rich caravan trader, whose family were sea traders and had the sea goddess Manimekalai as patron deity. Her life went astray by the association of Kovalan with another woman Madhavi, a dancer.
Kovalan settled at Madhavi's house. But Madhavi's mother started to get money from Kannagi in the name of Kovalan's request, without knowledge of both Kovalan and Madhavi; the loyal and astute Kannagi lost all the wealth given to them by their parents. One fine day Madhavi unknowingly utters a line of knowledge within the song she was singing and Kovalan finds his error of leaving his wife, he leaves Madhavi to rejoin Kannagi. Reluctant to go to their rich parents for help, the duo start resurrecting their life in Madurai, the capital of Pandyas. While Kannagi stays in the outskirts of Madurai, Kovalan goes to the city to sell one of Kannagi's two ruby anklets to start a business. At the same time, the royal goldsmith had stolen a pearl anklet belonging to the queen, for which he frames Kovalan. Th
La Martiniere College
La Martinière College is a non-denominational private school in India and in France. La Martinière Schools were founded posthumously by Major General Claude Martin, in the early 19th century. Martin had acquired a large fortune while serving the Nawab of Awadh Asaf-ud-Daula and bequeath a major part of his estate to establish the schools, his will outlined every detail of the schools, from their location to the manner of celebrating the annual Founder's Day. The seven branches maintain close contacts and share most traditions. La Martinière College, Lucknow was awarded a Battle Honour -'Defence of Lucknow' for the part the staff and pupils played in the Defence of the Residency at Lucknow during the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 - the only school in the world so distinguished. La Martiniere Calcutta and La Martinière Lucknow consist of separate girls' and boys' schools, while the three in La Martinière Lyon are co-educational; the Colleges are day schools. Extra-curricular activities, including sports and community service organizations, are emphasized, music and dance are included in the general curriculum.
Claude Martin was born on 5 January 1735 in France. He came to India. After the French influence declined in India, he served in the British East India Company and rose to the rank of Major-General. After taking up residence in Lucknow, he occupied an important position in the court of Nawab Shuja-ud-Daulah and his son, Asaf-ud-Daula. During this period Martin accumulated a fortune of about 4,000,000 rupees, he built the palace of'Constantia' and his fine house of Farud Baksh, both of which he equipped with luxuries that included a library of some 4,000 volumes written in many languages and a picture gallery containing a collection of works of art. Martin died in Lucknow on 13 September 1800. According to his will, he was buried in the vault prepared for his remains in the basement of the college in Lucknow; the major portion of his estate were left for the founding of three institutions, one each at Lucknow and his birthplace Lyon in France. It took 30 years to dispose of the litigation arising out of Claude Martin's will.
As the result of a Supreme Court decision, La Martinière Schools opened in Calcutta, on 1 March 1836. Claude Martin's intent was the education of children in India without specific mention to race and creed. However, the attitude of British rulers in India changed to a Victorian and imperialist outlook resulted in the formation of a school meant for European Christians, though permitting Catholics, Armenien Christians and those of other denominations, it was only in 1935. The La Martinière coat of arms was designed by the founder Claude Martin, it is supported by each bearing the design of a fish, the emblem of Oudh. The devices on the escutcheon appear to epitomise Claude Martin's life; the ship recalls his voyage to India. The lion with the pennant represents his career as an officer in the East India Company and with the Nawab of Oudh The setting sun behind the castellated building to the right of the shield has been said to point to the sunset of his days and the large part which the building of "Constantia" played in his years.
The coat of arms and the accompanying motto Labore et Constantia are now shared by all the schools founded by Martin. The La Martinere College flag consists of the coat of arms on a gold background; the flag is flown above the buildings, used for formal events and celebrations, such as the annual Founder's Day. The seal is engraved on the school buildings. Founder's Day is commemorated every year on 13 September, the day; some of the traditions of this day include an extended formal assembly in the morning with a faculty march, a speech by a prominent guest or alumnus, the playing of bagpipes, singing of the school song and other selected hymns by the College choir, the laying of a wreath at Claude Martin's tomb. For the Founder's Day dinner the entire senior school and staff are treated to an elaborate sit-down dinner in the afternoon. Claude Martin had listed in his will that his death should not be commemorated as a day of mourning but one of celebration of his life, he had written out a menu for the meal to be served.
Although today, the menu does not remain the same, the tradition of the Founder's Day dinner is still preserved. A Founder's Day Social is held in the evening for the senior school. Classes are suspended on Founder's Day, followed by a school holiday. At the end of each academic year in April, Prize Day is held to recognise academic excellence and to honour high achieving students; some of the traditions include a formal assembly in the afternoon involving a faculty march, a formal speech by a prominent guest or alumnus, singing of the school song and other selected works by the College choir. The top three ranking students of each class are awarded prizes books, upper classes receive subject proficiency awards. In India, the students achieving first rank in competing academic examinations in grades 10 and 12 are awarded the Founder's Gold Medal. Several additional special prizes are awarded; each year, on the last Sunday of November, the athletic talents of the students are displayed. Traditions include a school march, gymnastics, a performance by the school band, an athletic competition between the school houses.
The students of each College are divided into four houses for promoting academic and athletic competition among students. The houses have different
Other Backward Class
Other Backward Class is a collective term used by the Government of India to classify castes which are educationally or disadvantaged. It is one of several official classifications of the population of India, along with Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes; the OBCs were found to comprise 52% of the country's population by the Mandal Commission report of 1980, a figure which had shrunk to 41% by 2006 when the National Sample Survey Organisation took place. There is substantial debate over the exact number of OBCs in India. In the Indian Constitution, OBCs are described as "socially and educationally backward classes", the Government of India is enjoined to ensure their social and educational development — for example, the OBCs are entitled to 27% reservations in public sector employment and higher education; the list of OBCs maintained by the Indian Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment is dynamic, with castes and communities being added or removed depending on social and economic factors.
In spite of the 27 % reservation, RTI data showed. In 2015, at educational institutes, funds meant for OBC students under the reservation policy were not used properly or were underused in cases of upgrading infrastructure as well as in violation of faculty recruitment of OBCs according to the 27% reservation policy; until 1985, the affairs of the Backward Classes were looked after by the Backward Classes Cell in the Ministry of Home Affairs. A separate Ministry of Welfare was established in 1985 to attend to matters relating to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and OBCs; the Backward Classes Division of the Ministry looks after the policy and implementation of programmes relating to social and economic empowerment of OBCs, matters relating to two institutions set up for the welfare of OBCs, the National Backward Classes Finance and Development Corporation and the National Commission for Backward Classes. Under Article 340 of the Indian Constitution, it is obligatory for the government to promote the welfare of the OBCs.
The president may by order appoint a commission consisting of such persons as he thinks fit to investigate the conditions of and educationally backward classes within the territory of India and the difficulties under which they labour and to make recommendations as to the steps that should be taken by the union or any state to remove such difficulties and as to improve their condition and as to the grants that should be made, the order appointing such commission shall define the procedure to be followed by the commission.... A commission so appointed shall investigate the matters referred to them and present to the president a report setting out the facts as found by them and making such recommendations as they think proper. A 1992 decision of the Supreme Court of India resulted in a requirement that 27% of civil service positions be reserved for members of OBCs. In August 2010 the Times of India reported that at most 7% of eligible positions in government jobs had been filled by OBCs, in spite of the 27% reservation.
This difference between proportion of different communities in higher educational institutions is because of difference in primary school enrollment. Political parties in India have attempted to use these communities as votebanks. Below is the distribution of population of each religion by caste categories, obtained from merged sample of Schedule 1 and Schedule 10 of available data from the National Sample Survey Organisation 55th and National Sample Survey Organisation 61st Rounds Round Survey; the First Backward Classes Commission was established by a presidential order on 29 January 1953 under the chairmanship of Kaka Kalelkar, submitted its report on 30 March 1955. It had prepared a list of 2,399 backward castes or communities for the entire country, of which 837 had been classified as the "most backward"; some of the most notable recommendations of the Kalelkar commission were: Undertaking caste-wise enumeration of population in the census of 1961. Reservation of vacancies in all government services and local bodies for other backward classes.
The commission in its final report recommended "caste as the criteria". However, the report was not accepted by the government, which feared that the backward classes excluded from the caste and communities selected by the commission might not be considered, those in most need would be swamped by the multitudes, thus receiving insufficient attention; the decision to set up a second backward classes commission was made official by the president on 1 January 1979. The commission popularly known as the Mandal Commission, its chairman being B. P. Mandal, submitted a report in December 1980 that stated that the population of OBCs, which includes both Hindus and non-Hindus, was around 52 per cent of the total population according to the Mandal Commission; the number of backward castes and communities was 3,743 in the initial list of Mandal Commission set up in 1979-80. The number of backward castes in Central list of OBCs has now increased to 5,013 in 2006 as per National Commission for Ba
Cargill, Incorporated is an American held global corporation based in Minnetonka and incorporated in Wilmington, Delaware. Founded in 1865, it is the largest held corporation in the United States in terms of revenue. If it were a public company, it would rank, as of 2015, number 15 on the Fortune 500, behind McKesson and ahead of AT&T; some of Cargill's major businesses are trading and distributing grain and other agricultural commodities, such as palm oil. Cargill has a large financial services arm, which manages financial risks in the commodity markets for the company. In 2003, it split off a portion of its financial operations into Black River Asset Management, a hedge fund with about $10 billion of assets and liabilities, it owned 2/3 of the shares of The Mosaic Company, one of the world's leading producers and marketers of concentrated phosphate and potash crop nutrients. Cargill reports revenues of $114.695 billion and earnings of $3.103 billion in 2018. Employing over 155,000 employees in 66 countries, it is responsible for 25% of all United States grain exports.
The company supplies about 22% of the US domestic meat market, importing more product from Argentina than any other company, is the largest poultry producer in Thailand. All the eggs used in US McDonald's restaurants pass through Cargill's plants, it is the only US producer of Alberger process salt, used in the fast-food and prepared food industries. Cargill remains a family-owned business; as a result, most of its growth has been due to reinvestment of the company's own earnings rather than public financing. Gregory R. Page succeeded former CEO Warren Staley in mid-2007, as Staley reached Cargill's mandatory retirement age of 65, was CEO and chairman until 2013, when he in turn was succeeded by Dave MacLennan. Cargill was founded in 1865 by William W. Cargill when he bought a grain flat house in Conover, Iowa. A year William was joined by his brother Sam, forming W. W. Cargill and Brother. Together, they opened a lumberyard. In 1875, Cargill moved to La Crosse and their brother James joined the business.
La Crosse was strategically located on the Mississippi near the junctions of the La Crosse River and Southern Minnesota divisions of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad. Sam Cargill left La Crosse in 1887 to manage the office in Minneapolis, an important emerging grain center. Three years the Minneapolis operation incorporated as Cargill Elevator Co.. In 1898, John H. MacMillan, Sr. and his brother, began working for W. W. Cargill. MacMillan married William Cargill's eldest daughter, Edna. Upon Sam Cargill's death in 1903, William Cargill became the sole owner of the La Crosse office. John MacMillan was named general manager of Cargill Elevator Company and moved his family to Minneapolis. William Cargill died in 1909. MacMillan worked to resolve the credit issues and to force his brother-in-law William S. Cargill out of the company; the current owners are descended from John MacMillan's two sons, John H. MacMillan, Jr. and Cargill MacMillan, Sr. and his youngest brother-in-law, Austen S. Cargill I.
John MacMillan ran the company until his retirement in 1936. Under his leadership Cargill grew several fold, expanding out of the Midwest by opening its first East coast offices, in New York, in 1923, the first Canadian and Latin American offices in 1928, 1929 and 1930. During this time, Cargill saw both record profits and major cash crunches; the first of the crises was the debt left by the death of William W. Cargill; the company issued $2.25 million in Gold Notes, backed by Cargill stock. The Gold Notes were due in 1917, but thanks to record grain prices caused by World War I all debts were paid by 1915; as World War I continued into 1917, Cargill made record earnings and faced criticisms of war profiteering. Four years as a fallout from the financial crash of 1920, Cargill posted its first loss. One of the biggest criticisms of the company has been its perceived arrogance; the MacMillans' aggressive management style led to a decades-long feud with the Chicago Board of Trade. It began in 1934.
The US government forced it to accept Cargill as a member. The 1936 corn crop failed and with the 1937 crop unavailable until October, the Chicago Board of Trade ordered Cargill to sell some of its corn. Cargill refused to comply; the US Commodity Exchange Authority and Chicago Board of Trade accused Cargill of trying to corner the corn market. In 1938, the Chicago Board suspended three of its officers from the trading floor; when the Board lifted its suspension a few years Cargill refused to rejoin, instead trading through independent traders. In 1962, Cargill did rejoin the Chicago Board of Trade, two years after the death of John MacMillan, Jr. During World War II, MacMillan, Jr. continued to expand the company, which boomed as it stored and transported grain and built ships for the United States Navy. In 1960, Erwin Kelm became the first non-family chief executive. Aiming for expansion into downstream production, he led the company into milling, starche
KFC known as Kentucky Fried Chicken, is an American fast food restaurant chain headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky that specializes in fried chicken. It is the world's second-largest restaurant chain after McDonald's, with 22,621 locations globally in 136 countries as of December 2018; the chain is a subsidiary of Yum! Brands, a restaurant company that owns the Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, WingStreet chains. KFC was founded by Colonel Harland Sanders, an entrepreneur who began selling fried chicken from his roadside restaurant in Corbin, during the Great Depression. Sanders identified the potential of the restaurant franchising concept, the first "Kentucky Fried Chicken" franchise opened in Utah in 1952. KFC popularized chicken in the fast food industry, diversifying the market by challenging the established dominance of the hamburger. By branding himself as "Colonel Sanders", Harland became a prominent figure of American cultural history, his image remains used in KFC advertising to this day. However, the company's rapid expansion overwhelmed the aging Sanders, he sold it to a group of investors led by John Y. Brown Jr. and Jack C.
Massey in 1964. KFC was one of the first American fast food chains to expand internationally, opening outlets in Canada, the United Kingdom and Jamaica by the mid-1960s. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, it experienced mixed fortunes domestically, as it went through a series of changes in corporate ownership with little or no experience in the restaurant business. In the early 1970s, KFC was sold to the spirits distributor Heublein, taken over by the R. J. Reynolds food and tobacco conglomerate; the chain continued to expand overseas, in 1987, it became the first Western restaurant chain to open in China. It has since expanded in China, now the company's single largest market. PepsiCo spun off its restaurants division as Tricon Global Restaurants, which changed its name to Yum! Brands. KFC's original product is pressure-fried chicken pieces, seasoned with Sanders' recipe of 11 herbs and spices; the constituents of the recipe represent a notable trade secret. Larger portions of fried chicken are served in a cardboard "bucket", which has become a well-known feature of the chain since it was first introduced by franchisee Pete Harman in 1957.
Since the early 1990s, KFC has expanded its menu to offer other chicken products such as chicken fillet sandwiches and wraps, as well as salads and side dishes such as French fries and coleslaw and soft drinks. KFC is known for its slogans "It's Finger Lickin' Good!", "Nobody does chicken like KFC", "So good". Harland Sanders was raised on a farm outside Henryville, Indiana; when Sanders was five years old, his father died. This left Sanders, as the eldest son. After he reached seven years of age, his mother taught him. After leaving the family home at the age of 13, Sanders passed through several professions, with mixed success. In 1930, he took over a Shell filling station on US Route 25 just outside North Corbin, Kentucky, a small town on the edge of the Appalachian Mountains, it was here that he first served to travelers the recipes that he had learned as a child: fried chicken and other dishes such as steaks and country ham. After four years of serving from his own dining room table, Sanders purchased the larger filling station on the other side of the road and expanded to six tables.
By 1936, this had proven successful enough for Sanders to be given the honorary title of Kentucky colonel by Governor Ruby Laffoon. In 1937 he expanded his restaurant to 142 seats, added a motel he purchased across the street, naming it Sanders Court & Café. Sanders was unhappy with the 35 minutes it took to prepare his chicken in an iron frying pan, but he refused to deep fry the chicken, which he believed lowered the quality of the product. If he pre-cooked the chicken in advance of orders, there was sometimes wastage at day's end. In 1939, the first commercial pressure cookers were released onto the market designed for steaming vegetables. Sanders bought one, modified it into a pressure fryer, which he used to fry chicken; the new method reduced production time to be comparable with deep frying, while, in the opinion of Sanders, retaining the quality of pan-fried chicken. In July 1940, Sanders finalised what came to be known as his "Original Recipe" of 11 herbs and spices. Although he never publicly revealed the recipe, he admitted to the use of salt and pepper, claimed that the ingredients "stand on everybody's shelf".
After being recommissioned as a Kentucky colonel in 1950 by Governor Lawrence Wetherby, Sanders began to dress the part, growing a goatee and wearing a black frock coat, a string tie, referring to himself as "Colonel". His associates went along with the title change, "jokingly at first and in earnest", according to biographer Josh Ozersky; the Sanders Court & Café served travelers, so when the route planned in 1955 for Interstate 75 bypassed Corbin, Sanders sold his properties and traveled the US to franchise his chicken recipe to restaurant owners. Independent restaurants would pay four cents on each chicken as a franchise fee, in exchange for Sanders' "secret blend of herbs and spices" and the right to feature his recipe on their menus and use his name and likeness for promotional purposes. In 1952 he had successfully franchised his recipe to his friend Pete Harman of South Salt Lake, the operator of one of the city's largest restaurants. Don Anderson, a sign painter hired by
The Indian subcontinent known as the Asian subcontinent and Indo subcontinent, is a southern region and peninsula of Asia situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically, it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, the Arakanese in the east. Politically, the Indian subcontinent includes Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Sometimes, the geographical term'Indian subcontinent' is used interchangeably with'South Asia', although that last term is used as a political term and is used to include Afghanistan. Which countries should be included in either of these remains the subject of debate. According to Oxford English Dictionary, the term "subcontinent" signifies a "subdivision of a continent which has a distinct geographical, political, or cultural identity" and a "large land mass somewhat smaller than a continent".
It is first attested in 1845 to refer to the North and South Americas, before they were regarded as separate continents. Its use to refer to the Indian subcontinent is seen from the early twentieth century, it was convenient for referring to the region comprising both British India and the princely states under British Paramountcy. The term Indian subcontinent has a geological significance. Similar to various continents, it was a part of the supercontinent of Gondwana. A series of tectonic splits caused formation of various basins, each drifting in various directions; the geological region called "Greater India" once included Madagascar, Seychelles and Austrolasia along with the Indian subcontinent basin. As a geological term, Indian subcontinent has meant that region formed from the collision of the Indian basin with Eurasia nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene; the geographical region has simply been known as "India". Other related terms are South Asia, and the terms "Indian subcontinent" and "South Asia" are sometimes used interchangeably.
There is no globally accepted definition on which countries are a part of South Asia or the Indian subcontinent. The less common term "South Asian subcontinent" has seen occasional use since the 1970s. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent was first a part of so-called "Greater India", a region of Gondwana that drifted away from East Africa about 160 million years ago, around the Middle Jurassic period; the region experienced high volcanic activity and plate subdivisions, creating Madagascar, Antarctica and the Indian subcontinent basin. The Indian subcontinent drifted northeastwards, colliding with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene; this geological region includes Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. The zone where the Eurasian and Indian subcontinent plates meet remains one of the geologically active areas, prone to major earthquakes; the English term "subcontinent" continues to refer to the Indian subcontinent. Physiographically, it is a peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, the Arakanese in the east.
It extends southward into the Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea to the southwest and the Bay of Bengal to the southeast. Most of this region rests on the Indian Plate and is isolated from the rest of Asia by large mountain barriers. Using the more expansive definition – counting India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Maldives as the constituent countries – the Indian subcontinent covers about 4.4 million km2, 10% of the Asian continent or 3.3% of the world's land surface area. Overall, it is home to a vast array of peoples; the Indian subcontinent is a natural physical landmass in South Asia, geologically the dry-land portion of the Indian Plate, isolated from the rest of Eurasia. Given the difficulty of passage through the Himalayas, the sociocultural and political interaction of the Indian subcontinent has been through the valleys of Afghanistan in its northwest, the valleys of Manipur in its east, by maritime routes. More difficult but important interaction has occurred through passages pioneered by the Tibetans.
These routes and interactions have led to the spread of Buddhism out of the Indian subcontinent into other parts of Asia. And the Islamic expansion arrived into the Indian subcontinent in two ways, through Afghanistan on land and to Indian coast through the maritime routes on the Arabian Sea. Whether called the Indian subcontinent or South Asia, the definition of the geographical extent of this region varies. Geopolitically, it had formed the whole territory of Greater India. In terms of modern geopolitical boundaries, the Indian subcontinent comprises the Republic of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, besides, by convention, the island nation of Sri Lanka and other islands of the Indian Ocean, such as the Maldives; the term "Indian continent" is first introduced in the early 20th century, when most of the territory was part of British India. The Hindu Kush, centered on eastern Afghanistan, is the boundary connecting the Indian subcontinent with Central Asia to the northwest, the Persian Plateau to the west.
The socio-religious history of Afghanistan are related to the Turkish-influenced Central Asia and no
Dilkusha is a residential colony in Lucknow, the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, India. Near the banks of the River Gomti, the colony has been the residence of government officials for more than a hundred years. Dilkusha is situated 2 km from Hazratganj in central Lucknow, is close to amenities and schools such as Loreto and La Martiniere. Dilkusha means "my heart is happy"; the palace of Dilkusha Kothi, the oldest building in the colony, was built in the eighteenth century by Nawab Saadat Ali Khan. The palace served as a hunting lodge for British officers and nawabs. Dilkusha Kothi was an Indianised English baroque style building, but was damaged during the First War of Indian Independence in 1857. Today the colony is owned by the government of Uttar Pradesh; the residences are divided into A, B, C, PW and EH. The colony for the most part is close-knit, with journalists, academics, IAS, PCS and other government officials living here. There is a recreation club for the residents of the colony. Photograph of the ruined Dilkusha Kothi