Royal Prince Alfred Hospital
The Royal Prince Alfred Hospital is a major public teaching hospital in Sydney, located on Missenden Road in Camperdown. It is a teaching hospital of the Central Clinical School of the Sydney Medical School at the University of Sydney and is situated in proximity to the Blackburn Building of the university's main campus. RPAH is the largest hospital in the Sydney Local Health District, with 700 beds. Following a $350 million redevelopment, the perinatal hospital King George V Memorial Hospital has been incorporated into it. An Australian television documentary, RPA, is filmed there and depicts the everyday workings of a major metropolitan hospital. Royal Prince Alfred is one of the oldest hospitals in NSW; the funds were raised by public subscription, to make a monument to commemorate the recovery of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh from an assassination attempt in 1868 by Henry James O'Farrell. Thomas Holt was founder and director of the hospital from 1873–83; this new hospital was proposed to be built in Macquarie Street, to incorporate the Sydney Infirmary.
However, the Board of that institution rejected this proposal. On 3 April 1873 Parliament passed an Act to incorporate Prince Alfred Hospital. Mansfield Brothers were appointed as architects to design the buildings; the first building erected was a cottage, near the southern entrance from Missenden Road, which became the gardener's cottage. Construction started on the Administration Building and C and D Pavilions in 1876, at which time gardens were established, with assistance from the staff of the Botanical Gardens; the Administration Building is Victorian Free Classical in style, built symmetrically about a three-storied portico. It boasts a cream brick façade and sandstone embellishments, with red bricks emphasising the ground floor arched openings; the entrance portico has grey granite columns. The roof covering was slate, but is now terracotta tiling; the Hospital was opened in 1882. Both the Victoria and the Albert Pavilion are three-storied Federation Free Classical style red brick buildings.
The original pavilions were constructed to commemorate the royal visit of Prince Alfred. The foundation stone was laid in 1901 and the buildings were completed in 1904. Both pavilions have handsome elevations, dominated by a projecting bay surmounted by a pediment bearing copper clad statues of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert; the Queen Victoria Pavilion was extended in sympathetic manner by the construction of the Fairfax Institute of Pathology in 1943. The buildings were designed by Walter Liberty Vernon; the Admission Block and the Victoria & Albert Pavilions are listed on the New South Wales Heritage Register. It was only two years after its opening in 1882 that the hospital accepted its first medical students from the Medical School of the University of Sydney. Since the hospital has benefited from this close relationship at the teaching and clinical levels. For example, it is the only public hospital in Australia to offer a comprehensive revision course for the RACP written exam for basic physician trainees.
RPA's staff of over 4,000 provides the largest number of in-patient treatments in the state 500,000 out-patient treatments, 45,000 adult and paediatric emergency department patients and delivers 4,000 babies each year. With around 50 percent of all admissions being district services, RPA treats more public patients than any other hospital in the state. Within RPA itself, four clinical sections provide specialty clinical services: Division of Medicine, Division of Surgery, Division of Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Division of Diagnostic Service. In addition, a range of Allied Health services are provided, including clinical psychology, health promotion and dietetics, occupational therapy, clinical pharmacy, speech pathology, social work and volunteer service. RPA has undertaken an extensive program of construction. Public spaces including gardens for patients have been renovated. New facilities include the Hot floor, a purpose-built nucleus of critical care services designed to improve patient care and clinical outcomes.
It brings together operating theatres. Sydney Cancer Centre - The only ambulatory care centre of its type in Australia, combining diagnostic and follow-up services. Obstetric and gynaecological services - A birthing unit with nine delivery rooms, three home-like birthing rooms and 32 neonatal cots. Diagnostic services - Facilities include positron emission tomography. Institute of Rheumatology and Orthopaedics - 60 bed unit covering diagnosis. Day-surgery centre - 38 bed centre containing separate admissions station, operating theatres and recovery area in a calming environment. Sydney South West Pathology Service - Eastern Zone - Laboratory services in diganostic pathology including the NSW porphyrin reference unit. Known as the Central Sydney Laboratory Service. Charles Perkins Centre, dedicated to specialised healthcare and associated clinical research into obesity, cardiovascular disease and related areas. Facilities include a whole-body calorimeter, metabolic kitchen, exercise physiology gymnasiums
Established in 1937, Epworth Freemasons, located at 166 Clarendon St in East Melbourne, was a practical expression of the work of Freemasonry in the Victorian community. It is now run by Epworth Healthcare, it is a non-government, not-for-profit, charitable institution providing a range of inpatient and ambulatory care services including: Women's and related health services including maternity, women’s health and breast clinics and gynaecological surgery and IVF. Surgical services including general surgery, orthopaedics, plastic surgery, ophthalmology and ENT. Comprehensive cancer care covering diagnosis, surgical oncology, medical oncology and chemotherapy. In October 2006 the Hospital was purchased by ING Real Estate, which leased the hospital to Epworth Healthcare. One immediate effect was the merging of two emergency departments, the previous Freemason's Emergency was closed while Epworth Richmond's still operates; the now Epworth Freemasons Hospital still operates as a hospital. The site is listed on the Victorian Heritage Register.
The Freemasons Hospital was established in 1937, as an initiative of Victoria's Freemasons in the 1930s to accommodate middle-class fee paying patients. The original five-level reinforced concrete building was designed by architects and Meldrum, in a Functionalist Modern style with its bold horizontal balconies, contrasting vertical service tower and minimal decoration; the white rendered exterior was trimmed with horizontal tubular steel balustrades. Between 1956-58 the hospital was extended by architects and Noad, to a design sympathetic to the original by continuing the sweeping balconies. Further wings to the east were again in 1977 with the front entrance altered; the hospital is of architectural significance to the State of Victoria. 234 inpatient beds 9 Delivery Suites Day Procedure Centre Intensive Care Unit Epworth Healthcare SourcesEast Melbourne Historical Society, East Melbourne Walk Heritage Victoria, Victorian Heritage Register: Freemasons Hospital
St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne
St Vincent's Hospital is a major hospital in Fitzroy, Australia. It is operated by the St Vincent's Health service known as the Sisters of Charity Health Service, Melbourne, it is situated at the corner of Victoria Street. The hospital is a tertiary referral centre which offers a variety of medical and mental health specialities. St Vincent's Hospital was opened in 1893 as a Catholic hospital owned and operated by the Sisters of Charity. Conceived as a branch of the Sydney institution of the same name the hospital was intended to be a charitable institution, hoped would help bolster Melbourne's minimal health care; this idea was given avid support by Melbourne's Catholic Archbishop, Dr Thomas Carr, who welcomed the idea of a hospital to take care of the'poor and sick and abandoned children... the young girls of poor parents and servants...' These ideals corresponded directly with prevalent Victorian ideas of benevolence, which were popular with the middle classes. In these early days, the hospital was quite small, with room for less than 100 beds.
The hospital soon built up ties with the working class suburb of Fitzroy, deliberately selected by the founding sisters of the Hospital, with many of the poorer residents taking advantage of the advent of a charitable hospital opening up on their doorstep. Over time it became a large public hospital, with close links to the Mercy Melbourne, it has a St Vincent's Private Hospital associated with it. In July 2002, the Sisters of Charity Health Service, Melbourne was rebranded as St Vincent's Health. A new building was constructed behind the original building, now heritage-listed; the new hospital has been praised for its innovative design - for example, complementary medical and surgical specialties exist on opposite sides of the same ward, there are decentralised nurses' stations, satellite pharmacies on every second floor stocking locally relevant medications. The Druid's Wing was opened at St Vincent's on Sunday 11 May 1913 by Dr Mannix, the Roman Catholic coadjutor Archbishop of Melbourne.
It housed a residence for nurses in training. The building has been vacant since 1995 due to the construction of the new Inpatient Services Building, it is due for demolition, starting in February 2015, to make way for the new Aikenhead Centre for Medical Discovery. A clinical school was opened in St Vincent's Hospital in 1909 as part of the University of Melbourne, it is one of the clinical schools at the University of Melbourne. St Vincent's Hospital is a clinical school of the University of Notre Dame, Sydney. Third and fourth year students have placements in geriatrics, anaesthetics and ICU; the hospital offers a wide range of postgraduate training programs. St Vincent's Pathology is a major pathology service in Victoria, operated out of St Vincent's Hospital. Services offered include anatomical pathology, haematology and microbiology. There are several surgical wards at St Vincent's Hospital. There is a psychiatric unit and an Emergency department. Note: This is not an exhaustive list. Anaesthesia Emergency department, including facilities for resuscitation Intensive care unit Cardiology Respiratory Neurology Gastroenterology Oncology Infectious diseases, Clinical microbiology Endocrinology Nephrology Rheumatology Haematology Addiction medicine General medicine Microsurgery Plastic surgery Cardiothoracic surgery Orthopaedic surgery Colorectal surgery Urology Neurosurgery General surgery Gastrointestinal surgery Psychiatry ECATT teamSt Vincent's Health operates a mental health ward and an Enhanced Crisis Assessment & Treatment Team & Triage Service that assesses patients in the Emergency Department and manages patients with acute psychiatric disorders who are a potential risk to themselves or others in the community.
List of hospitals in Australia St Vincent's Hospital
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
The Northern Hospital, Epping
The Northern Hospital in Epping, Australia, is major community hospital. It lies to the west of Epping Plaza, it is a 400-bed hospital serving the northern suburbs of Melbourne, as well as the surrounding country areas of Victoria. It has one of the busiest emergency departments in the state; the nursing wards are called Units with the following names: Children Unit, Coronary Care, Intensive Care and Women's Health, Surgical, Short Stay Unit, cardiovascular laboratory and Special Care Nursery. The Northern Hospital is one of the clinical schools of the Melbourne Medical School. Official website The Northern Hospital Services at Northern Health
Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh, named after the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, is a substantive title, created three times for members of the British royal family since 1726. The current holder is Prince Philip, husband of Queen Elizabeth II; the title was first created in the Peerage of Great Britain on 26 July 1726 by King George I, who bestowed it on his grandson Prince Frederick, who became Prince of Wales the following year. The subsidiary titles of the dukedom were Baron of Snowdon, in the County of Caernarvon, Viscount of Launceston, in the County of Cornwall, Earl of Eltham, in the County of Kent, Marquess of the Isle of Ely; these titles were in the Peerage of Great Britain. The marquessate was erroneously gazetted as Marquess of the Isle of Wight although Marquess of the Isle of Ely was the intended title. In editions of the London Gazette the Duke is referred to as the Marquess of the Isle of Ely. Upon Frederick's death, the titles were inherited by his son Prince George; when Prince George became King George III in 1760, the titles "merged into the Crown", ceased to exist.
Queen Victoria re-created the title, this time in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, on 24 May 1866 for her second son Prince Alfred, instead of Duke of York, the traditional title of the second son of the Monarch. The subsidiary titles of the dukedom were Earl of Kent and Earl of Ulster in the Peerage of the United Kingdom; when Alfred became the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1893, he retained his British titles. His only son Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha committed suicide in 1899, so the Dukedom of Edinburgh and subsidiary titles became extinct upon the elder Alfred's death in 1900; the title was created for a third time on 19 November 1947 by King George VI, who bestowed it on his son-in-law Philip Mountbatten, when he married Princess Elizabeth. Subsequently, Elizabeth was styled "HRH The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh" until her accession in 1952; the subsidiary titles of the dukedom are Earl of Merioneth and Baron Greenwich, of Greenwich in the County of London.
Like the dukedom, these titles are in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Earlier that year, Philip had renounced his Greek and Danish royal titles along with his rights to the Greek throne. In 1957, Philip became a Prince of the United Kingdom. Although the following individuals are in the line of succession to the Dukedom, they are in line of succession to the throne; as a consequence, should one of the following individuals become king, the Dukedom of Edinburgh would cease to exist, as it would merge with the Crown. It was announced in 1999, at the time of the wedding of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, that he would follow his father as Duke of Edinburgh; this is unlikely to happen by direct inheritance, as Prince Edward is the youngest of Prince Philip's three sons. Rather, the title is expected to be newly created for Prince Edward after it "eventually reverts to the crown" after "both the death of the current Duke of Edinburgh and the Prince of Wales' succession as King." A fictional Duke of Edinburgh appears in the 1980s sitcom The Black Adder.
Rowan Atkinson plays the title character, Prince Edmund, granted the title Duke of Edinburgh by his father, a fictitious King Richard IV. HRH The Duke of Edinburgh on Burke's Peerage Duke of Edinburgh
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, surgical treatment, rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. In different countries, there are different requirements for an individual to practice neurosurgery, there are varying methods through which they must be educated. In most countries, neurosurgeon training requires a minimum period of seven years after graduating from medical school. In the United States, a neurosurgeon must complete four years of undergraduate education, four years of medical school, seven years of residency. Most, but not all, residency programs have some component of clinical research. Neurosurgeons may pursue additional training in the form of a fellowship, after residency or in some cases, as a senior resident; these fellowships include pediatric neurosurgery, trauma/neurocritical care and stereotactic surgery, surgical neuro-oncology, neurovascular surgery, skull-base surgery, peripheral nerve and spine surgery.
In the U. S. neurosurgery is considered a competitive specialty composed of 0.6% of all practicing physicians. In the United Kingdom, students must gain entry into medical school. MBBS qualification takes four to six years depending on the student's route; the newly qualified physician must complete foundation training lasting two years. Junior doctors apply to enter the neurosurgical pathway. Unlike most other surgical specialties, it has its own independent training pathway which takes around eight years. Neurosurgery remains amongst the most competitive medical specialties in which to obtain entry. Neurosurgery, or the premeditated incision into the head for pain relief, has been around for thousands of years, but notable advancements in neurosurgery have only come within the last hundred years; the Incas appear to have practiced a procedure known as trepanation since the late Stone age. During the Middle Ages in Arabia from 936 to 1013 AD, Al-Zahrawi performed surgical treatments of head injuries, skull fractures, spinal injuries, subdural effusions and headache.
There was not much advancement in neurosurgery until late 19th early 20th century, when electrodes were placed on the brain and superficial tumors were removed. History of electrodes in the brain: In 1878 Richard Canton discovered that electrical signals transmitted through an animal's brain. In 1950 Dr. Jose Delgado invented the first electrode, implanted in an animal's brain, using it to make it run and change direction. In 1972 the cochlear implant, a neurological prosthetic that allowed deaf people to hear was marketed for commercial use. In 1998 researcher Philip Kennedy implanted the first Brain Computer Interface into a human subject. History of tumor removal: In 1879 after locating it via neurological signs alone, Scottish surgeon William Macewen performed the first successful brain tumor removal. On November 25, 1884 after English physician Alexander Hughes Bennett used Macewen's technique to locate it, English surgeon Rickman Godlee performed the first primary brain tumor removal, which differs from Macewen's operation in that Bennett operated on the exposed brain, whereas Macewen operated outside of the "brain proper" via trepanation.
On March 16, 1907 Austrian surgeon Hermann Schloffer became the first to remove a pituitary tumor. The main advancements in neurosurgery came about as a result of crafted tools. Modern neurosurgical tools, or instruments, include chisels, dissectors, elevators, hooks, probes, suction tubes, power tools, robots. Most of these modern tools, like chisels, forcepts, hooks and probes, have been in medical practice for a long time; the main difference of these tools and post advancement in neurosurgery, were the precision in which they were crafted. These tools are crafted with edges. Other tools such as hand held power saws and robots have only been used inside of a neurological operating room; as an example, the University of Utah developed a device for computer-aided design / computer-aided manufacturing which uses an image-guided system to define a cutting tool path for a robotic cranial drill. General neurosurgery involves most neurosurgical conditions including neuro-trauma and other neuro-emergencies such as intracranial hemorrhage.
Most level 1 hospitals have this kind of practice. Specialized branches have developed to cater to difficult conditions; these specialized branches co-exist with general neurosurgery in more sophisticated hospitals. To practice advanced specialization within neurosurgery, additional higher fellowship training of one to two years is expected from the neurosurgeon; some of these divisions of neurosurgery are: Vascular neurosurgery includes clipping of aneurysms and performing carotid endarterectomy. Stereotactic neurosurgery, functional neurosurgery, epilepsy surgery (the latter includes partial or total corpus callosotomy – severing part or all of the corpus callosum to stop or lessen seizure spread and activity, the surgical removal of functional, physiological and/or anatomical pieces or divisions of the brain, called epileptic foci, that are operable and th