The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Roy and Diz
Roy and Diz is an album by trumpeters Roy Eldridge and Dizzy Gillespie recorded in 1954 and released on the Clef label as two separate volumes. Selections from these sessions were released as Trumpet Battle and The Trumpet Kings The Allmusic review awarded the album 3 stars. "Sometimes I'm Happy" - 5:22 "Algo Bueno" - 6:10 "Trumpet Blues" - 7:54 "Ballad Medley – I’m Through with Love/Can't We Be Friends/Don't You Know?/I Don’t Know Why I Love You Like I Do/If I Had You" - 10:17 "Blue Moon" - 9:04 "I've Found a New Baby" - 9:14 "Pretty Eyed Baby" - 5:31 "I Can't Get Started" - 10:57 "Limehouse Blues" - 9:54 Roy & Diz: Tracks 6, 8, 3, 2 & 7 Roy & Diz #2: Tracks 1, 4, 9 & 5 Trumpet Battle: Tracks 6, 8, 1 & 4 The Trumpet Kings: Tracks 3, 2, 7, 9 & 5 Roy Eldridge, Dizzy Gillespie - trumpet, vocals Oscar Peterson - piano Herb Ellis - guitar Ray Brown - bass Louis Bellson - drums
The double bass, or the bass, is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra. It is a standard member of the orchestra's string section, as well as the concert band, is featured in concertos and chamber music in Western classical music; the bass is used in a range of other genres, such as jazz, 1950s-style blues and rock and roll, psychobilly, traditional country music, bluegrass and many types of folk music. The bass is a transposing instrument and is notated one octave higher than tuned to avoid excessive ledger lines below the staff; the double bass is the only modern bowed string instrument, tuned in fourths, rather than fifths, with strings tuned to E1, A1, D2 and G2. The instrument's exact lineage is still a matter of some debate, with scholars divided on whether the bass is derived from the viol or the violin family; however the body shape where it curves into the neck matches the viol family whereas in the rest of the violin family, the body meets the neck with no blending curve.
The double bass is played by plucking the strings. In orchestral repertoire and tango music, both arco and pizzicato are employed. In jazz and rockabilly, pizzicato is the norm. Classical music uses the natural sound produced acoustically by the instrument, as does traditional bluegrass. In jazz and related genres, the bass is amplified; the double bass stands around 180 cm from scroll to endpin. However, other sizes are available, such as a 1⁄2 or 3⁄4, which serve to accommodate a player's height and hand size; these sizes do not reflect the size relative to 4⁄4 bass. It is constructed from several types of wood, including maple for the back, spruce for the top, ebony for the fingerboard, it is uncertain whether the instrument is a descendant of the viola da gamba or of the violin, but it is traditionally aligned with the violin family. While the double bass is nearly identical in construction to other violin family instruments, it embodies features found in the older viol family. Like other violin and viol-family string instruments, the double bass is played either with a bow or by plucking the strings.
In orchestral repertoire and tango music, both arco and pizzicato are employed. In jazz and rockabilly, pizzicato is the norm, except for some solos and occasional written parts in modern jazz that call for bowing. In classical pedagogy all of the focus is on performing with the bow and producing a good bowed tone. Bowed notes in the lowest register of the instrument produce a dark, mighty, or menacing effect, when played with a fortissimo dynamic. Classical bass students learn all of the different bow articulations used by other string section players, such as détaché, staccato, martelé, sul ponticello, sul tasto, tremolo and sautillé; some of these articulations can be combined. Classical bass players do play pizzicato parts in orchestra, but these parts require simple notes, rather than rapid passages. Classical players perform both bowed and pizz notes using vibrato, an effect created by rocking or quivering the left hand finger, contacting the string, which transfers an undulation in pitch to the tone.
Vibrato is used to add expression to string playing. In general loud, low-register passages are played with little or no vibrato, as the main goal with low pitches is to provide a clear fundamental bass for the string section. Mid- and higher-register melodies are played with more vibrato; the speed and intensity of the vibrato is varied by the performer for an emotional and musical effect. In jazz and other related genres, much or all of the focus is on playing pizzicato. In jazz and jump blues, bassists are required to play rapid pizzicato walking basslines for extended periods; as well and rockabilly bassists develop virtuoso pizzicato techniques that enable them to play rapid solos that incorporate fast-moving triplet and sixteenth note figures. Pizzicato basslines performed by leading jazz professionals are much more difficult than the pizzicato basslines that Classical bassists encounter in the standard orchestral literature, which are whole notes, half notes, quarter notes, occasional eighth note passages.
In jazz and related styles, bassists add semi-percussive "ghost notes" into basslines, to add to the rhythmic feel and to add fills to a bassline. The double bass player stands, or sits on a high stool, leans the instrument against their body, turned inward to put the strings comfortably in reach; this stance is a key reason for the bass's sloped shoulders, which mark it apart from the other members of the violin family—the narrower shoulders facilitate playing the strings in their higher registers. The double bass is regarded as a modern descendant of the string family of instruments that originated in Europe in the 15th century, as such has been described as a bass Violin. Before the 20th century many double basses had only three strings, in contrast to the five to six strings typical of instruments in the viol family or the four strings of instruments in the violin family; the double bass's proportions are di
Johnny Burke (lyricist)
John Francis Burke was a lyricist and prolific between the 1920s and 1950s. His work is considered part of the Great American Songbook, his song "Swinging on a Star", from the Bing Crosby film Going My Way, won an Academy Award for Best Song in 1944. Burke was born in California; when he was still young, his family moved to Chicago, where Burke's father founded a construction business. As a youth, Burke studied drama, he attended Crane College and the University of Wisconsin–Madison, where he played piano in the orchestra. After graduating from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1927, Burke joined the Chicago office of the Irving Berlin Publishing Company in 1926 as a pianist and song salesman, he played piano in dance bands and vaudeville. Irving Berlin Publishing transferred Burke to its New York City office, where he began to write lyrics in collaboration with composer Harold Spina. In 1932, they wrote "Shadows on the Swanee", followed in 1933 by "Annie Doesn't Live Here Anymore", their first big hit for the Guy Lombardo Orchestra.
In 1934, Burke and Spina wrote "You're Not the Only Oyster in the Stew", a novelty hit for Fats Waller, as was "My Very Good Friend, the Milkman". Burke and Spina wrote many songs that were played by leading bands of the day, including those led by Ben Pollack, Paul Whiteman and Ozzie Nelson; the Burke - Spina partnership ended in 1936 when Burke left for Hollywood. Burke's first partner in Hollywood was Arthur Johnston, he worked with Jimmy Monaco, but he was to make his mark in collaboration with Jimmy Van Heusen. The team of Burke and Van Heusen turned out some of the great hit tunes of the 1940s. Burke signed a contract with Paramount in 1939, spent his entire career with the same studio. Burke's primary function as a lyricist was working on the films of Bing Crosby. Of the 41 films on which he worked, 25 starred Bing Crosby. Seventeen songs were substantial hits, including "Pennies from Heaven", "I've Got a Pocketful of Dreams", "Only Forever", "Moonlight Becomes You" and "Sunday, Monday, or Always".
In 1939, Burke wrote the lyrics for "Scatterbrain", with music by Frankie Masters and "What's New?" with Bob Haggart. In 1955, Burke added lyrics to a standard by jazz pianist Erroll Garner entitled "Misty". Burke wrote the words and music to the Nat King Cole song "If Love Ain't There"; the film The Vagabond King was Burke's last Hollywood work. Eight years he died in New York City from a heart attack at the age of 55. Burke and Van Heusen's song "Swinging on a Star", from the Bing Crosby film Going My Way, won an Academy Award for Best Song in 1944, one of seven Academy Awards won by the film. Burke was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1970. In 1995, Burke's life was depicted in the Broadway musical revue, "Swinging on a Star". Burke was married four times, he was married to Mary Mason in the 1960s. He was married to Bess Patterson from 1939–1955. Among the landmarks of Burke's songwriting career were: with Harold Spina: "Annie Doesn't Live Here Anymore" "You're Not the Only Oyster in the Stew" "My Very Good Friend, the Milkman" "Shadows on the Swanee" "The Beat of My Heart" "Now You've Got Me Doing It" "I've Got a Warm Spot in My Heart for You" with Arthur Johnston: "Pennies from Heaven" "One Two, Button Your Shoe" "Double or Nothing" "The Moon Got in My Eyes" "All You Want to Do Is Dance" with Jimmy Monaco: "Only Forever" "I've Got a Pocketful of Dreams" "Don't Let That Moon Get Away" "An Apple for the Teacher" "On the Sentimental Side" "My Heart Is Taking Lessons" "Scatterbrain" "That Sly Old Gentleman from Featherbed Lane" "Sing a Song of Sunbeams" "East Side of Heaven" "Where the Turf Meets the Surf" with Jimmy Van Heusen: "Too Romantic" "Sweet Potato Piper" "Polka Dots and Moonbeams" "Imagination" "Moonlight Becomes You" "Sunday, Monday, or Always" "Going My Way" "Swinging on a Star" "It Could Happen to You" "And His Rockin' Horse Ran Away" "The First One Hundred Years" "But Beautiful" "Apalachicola, Fla" "Here's That Rainy Day" "It's an Old Spanish Custom" "Oh, You Crazy Moon" "To See You Is to Love You" "Suddenly It's Spring" "Like Someone in Love" " Road to Morocco" "You May Not Love Me" "It's Always You" Johnny Burke at the Songwriters Hall of Fame Johnny Burke's entry at ASCAP A collection of material relating to Burke is housed in the Great American Songbook Foundation archives
Birks' Works is an album by trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie recorded in 1957 and released on the Verve label. The original album featured 10 tracks and was reissued as Birks Works: The Verve Big Band Sessions, a 2 CD compilation featuring unreleased tracks, alternate takes and tracks from Gillespie's previous 1956 albums Dizzy in Greece and World Statesman; the Penguin Guide to Jazz selected the reissue compilation as part of its suggested Core Collection. The Allmusic review awarded the album 5 stars calling it "Essential music". All compositions by Dizzy Gillespie except as indicated Side One: "Jordu" - 4:13 "Birks' Works" - 4:56 "Umbrella Man" - 3:02 "Autumn Leaves" - 3:11 "Tangerine" - 3:43Side Two: "Over the Rainbow" - 4:37 "Yo No Quiero Bailar" - 4:42 "If You Could See Me Now" - 3:30 "Left Hand Corner" - 2:26 "Whisper Not" - 5:17 Disc One: "Dizzy's Business" - 3:37 Originally released on World Statesman "Hey Pete! Let's Eat More Meat" - 5:39 Originally released on Dizzy in Greece "Jessica's Day" - 4:50 Originally released on World Statesman "Tour de Force" - 5:04 Originally released on World Statesman "I Can't Get Started" - 2:55 Originally released on World Statesman "Stella by Starlight" - 4:07 Originally released on World Statesman "Doodlin'" - 3:56 Originally released on World Statesman "A Night in Tunisia" - 5:34 Originally released on World Statesman "The Champ" - 4:42 Originally released on World Statesman "Yesterdays" - 3:46 Originally released on Dizzy in Greece "Tin Tin Deo" - 4:17 Originally released on Dizzy in Greece "Groovin' for Nat" - 3:21 Originally released on Dizzy in Greece "My Reverie" - 2:52 Originally released on World Statesman "Dizzy's Blues" - 2:32 Originally released on World Statesman "Annie's Dance" - 4:05 Originally released on Dizzy in Greece "Cool Breeze" - 4:55 Originally released on Dizzy in Greece "School Days" - 4:23 Originally released on Dizzy in Greece "Jordu" - 4:13 "Yo No Quiero Bailar" - 4:42Disc Two: "Birk's Works" - 4:56 "Autumn Leaves" - 3:11 "Tangerine" - 3:43 "Over the Rainbow" - 4:37 "Umbrella Man" - 3:02 "If You Could See Me Now" - 3:30 "Left Hand Corner" - 0:13 Previously unreleased "Left Hand Corner" - 2:26 Previously unreleased "Left Hand Corner" - 2:16 Previously unreleased "Left Hand Corner" - 0:10 Previously unreleased "Left Hand Corner" - 2:22 "Whisper Not" - 5:52 Previously unreleased "Whisper Not - 5:08 Previously unreleased "Whisper Not - 5:17 "Stablemates" - 4:12 Originally released on Dizzy in Greece "That's All" - 3:13 Originally released on Dizzy in Greece "Groovin' High" - 3:53 Originally released on Dizzy in Greece "Mayflower Rock" - 3:17 Previously unreleased "Mayflower Rock" - 3:14 Originally released as 45rpm single B-side "Joogie Boogie" - 4:14 Originally released as 45rpm single "I Remember Clifford" - 4:15 "You'll Be Sorry" - 2:17 Previously unreleased "Wonder Why" - 3:51 Previously unreleased Dizzy Gillespie - trumpet, arranger Talib Daawud, Lee Morgan, Ermit V. Perry, Carl Warwick - trumpet Melba Liston - trombone, arranger Al Grey, Rod Levitt - trombone Ernie Henry, Jimmy Powell - alto saxophone Benny Golson - tenor saxophone, arranger Billy Mitchell - tenor saxophone Billy Root - baritone saxophone Wynton Kelly - piano Paul West - bass Charlie Persip - drums Austin Cromer - vocals Ernie Wilkins - arranger Recorded in New York City on April 7 & 8, 1957 Dizzy Gillespie - trumpet, vocals Joe Gordon, Quincy Jones, Ermit V. Perry, Carl Warwick - trumpet Rod Levitt, Melba Liston, Frank Rehak - trombone Jimmy Powell, Phil Woods - alto saxophone Billy Mitchell, Ernie Wilkins - tenor saxophone Marty Flax - baritone saxophone Walter Davis Jr. - piano Nelson Boyd - bass Charlie Persip - drums Recorded in New York City on May 18 & 19 and June 6, 1956 Dizzy Gillespie, Talib Daawud, Lee Morgan, Ermit V. Perry, Carl Warwick - trumpet Al Grey, Melba Liston - trombone Ernie Henry, Jimmy Powell - alto saxophone Billy Mitchell, Benny Golson - tenor saxophone Pee Wee Moore - baritone saxophone Wynton Kelly - piano Paul West - bass Charlie Persip - drums Recorded in New York City on July 8, 1957
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700, in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard, a row of keys that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings; the word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument, which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano e forte and fortepiano. The Italian musical terms piano and forte indicate "soft" and "loud" in this context referring to the variations in volume produced in response to a pianist's touch or pressure on the keys: the greater the velocity of a key press, the greater the force of the hammer hitting the strings, the louder the sound of the note produced and the stronger the attack; the name was created as a contrast to harpsichord, a musical instrument that doesn't allow variation in volume. The first fortepianos in the 1700s had smaller dynamic range.
An acoustic piano has a protective wooden case surrounding the soundboard and metal strings, which are strung under great tension on a heavy metal frame. Pressing one or more keys on the piano's keyboard causes a padded hammer to strike the strings; the hammer rebounds from the strings, the strings continue to vibrate at their resonant frequency. These vibrations are transmitted through a bridge to a soundboard that amplifies by more efficiently coupling the acoustic energy to the air; when the key is released, a damper stops the strings' vibration, ending the sound. Notes can be sustained when the keys are released by the fingers and thumbs, by the use of pedals at the base of the instrument; the sustain pedal enables pianists to play musical passages that would otherwise be impossible, such as sounding a 10-note chord in the lower register and while this chord is being continued with the sustain pedal, shifting both hands to the treble range to play a melody and arpeggios over the top of this sustained chord.
Unlike the pipe organ and harpsichord, two major keyboard instruments used before the piano, the piano allows gradations of volume and tone according to how forcefully a performer presses or strikes the keys. Most modern pianos have a row of 88 black and white keys, 52 white keys for the notes of the C major scale and 36 shorter black keys, which are raised above the white keys, set further back on the keyboard; this means that the piano can play 88 different pitches, going from the deepest bass range to the highest treble. The black keys are for the "accidentals". More some pianos have additional keys. Most notes have three strings, except for the bass; the strings are sounded when keys are pressed or struck, silenced by dampers when the hands are lifted from the keyboard. Although an acoustic piano has strings, it is classified as a percussion instrument rather than as a stringed instrument, because the strings are struck rather than plucked. There are two main types of piano: the upright piano.
The grand piano is used for Classical solos, chamber music, art song, it is used in jazz and pop concerts. The upright piano, more compact, is the most popular type, as it is a better size for use in private homes for domestic music-making and practice. During the 1800s, influenced by the musical trends of the Romantic music era, innovations such as the cast iron frame and aliquot stringing gave grand pianos a more powerful sound, with a longer sustain and richer tone. In the nineteenth century, a family's piano played the same role that a radio or phonograph played in the twentieth century. During the nineteenth century, music publishers produced many musical works in arrangements for piano, so that music lovers could play and hear the popular pieces of the day in their home; the piano is employed in classical, jazz and popular music for solo and ensemble performances and for composing and rehearsals. Although the piano is heavy and thus not portable and is expensive, its musical versatility, the large number of musicians and amateurs trained in playing it, its wide availability in performance venues and rehearsal spaces have made it one of the Western world's most familiar musical instruments.
With technological advances, amplified electric pianos, electronic pianos, digital pianos have been developed. The electric piano became a popular instrument in the 1960s and 1970s genres of jazz fusion, funk music and rock music; the piano was founded on earlier technological innovations in keyboard instruments. Pipe organs have been used since Antiquity, as such, the development of pipe organs enabled instrument builders to learn about creating keyboard mechanisms for sounding pitches; the first string instruments with struck strings were the hammered dul