The Scarlatti Inheritance
The Scarlatti Inheritance is the first of 27 thriller novels written by American author Robert Ludlum. In Washington during World War II, word is received that an elite member of the Nazi High Command is willing to defect and divulge information that will shorten the war, but his defection entails the release of the ultra-top-secret file on the Scarlatti Inheritance – a file whose contents will destroy many of the Western world's greatest and most illustrious reputations if they are made known. From there, the book takes itself back a few decades, tells the story of a corrupt American soldier, his billionaire mother, an agent working for one of the smallest secret service departments in the world. James Bond producer Albert R. Broccoli purchased film rights either before or shortly after publication. Broccoli asked Ludlum to write the script. Ludlum, who had film and theatre experience, said "I didn't leave that crowd of ocelots to go back into it." Ludlum claimed that Broccoli sought revisions in the agreement.
Dalton Trumbo was subsequently signed to write the script and worked on it in 1975. Documentary filmmaker Saul Swimmer would direct. Lew Grade optioned the film rights in the late 1970s hoping to make a movie starring Ingrid Bergman; however Grade says Bergman decided to pull out because of the long production schedule that would be involved and the film did not eventuate. "A pity as she would have been wonderful in it," wrote Grade. No film version was made
Trevayne is Robert Ludlum's fourth novel, published in 1973 under the pseudonym Jonathan Ryder. The novel centers around an independent and headstrong tycoon who reluctantly accepts an appointment from the President of the United States to head a subcommission to investigate malfeasance and rampant corruption committed by contractors and subcontractors with the Pentagon; the investigation unearths dangerous truths. The book was reissued under Ludlum's proper name. Ludlum explained the reason for his use of a pseudonym by saying he "had to publish Trevayne under another name. I chose Jonathan Ryder — the first name of one son, the second a contraction of my wife's maiden name — not because of potential retribution, but because the conventional wisdom of the time was that a novelist did not author more than a book a year. Why? Damned if I could figure it out. Something to do with'marketing psychology', whatever the hell that is." This novel is the only Ludlum novel without the word "The" in the title
A hardcover or hardback book is one bound with rigid protective covers. It has a sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened. Following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation Hbk. Hardcover books are printed on acid-free paper, they are much more durable than paperbacks, which have flexible damaged paper covers. Hardcover books are marginally more costly to manufacture. Hardcovers are protected by artistic dust jackets, but a "jacketless" alternative is becoming popular: these "paper-over-board" or "jacketless hardcover" bindings forgo the dust jacket in favor of printing the cover design directly onto the board binding. If brisk sales are anticipated, a hardcover edition of a book is released first, followed by a "trade" paperback edition the next year; some publishers publish paperback originals. For popular books these sales cycles may be extended, followed by a mass market paperback edition typeset in a more compact size and printed on shallower, less hardy paper.
This is intended to, in part, prolong the life of the immediate buying boom that occurs for some best sellers: After the attention to the book has subsided, a lower-cost version in the paperback, is released to sell further copies. In the past the release of a paperback edition was one year after the hardback, but by the early twenty-first century paperbacks were released six months after the hardback by some publishers, it is unusual for a book, first published in paperback to be followed by a hardback. An example is the novel The Judgment of Paris by Gore Vidal, which had its revised edition of 1961 first published in paperback, in hardcover. Hardcover books are sold at higher prices than comparable paperbacks. Books for the general public are printed in hardback only for authors who are expected to be successful, or as a precursor to the paperback to predict sale levels. Hardcovers consist of a page block, two boards, a cloth or heavy paper covering; the pages are sewn together and glued onto a flexible spine between the boards, it too is covered by the cloth.
A paper wrapper, or dust jacket, is put over the binding, folding over each horizontal end of the boards. Dust jackets serve to protect the underlying cover from wear. On the folded part, or flap, over the front cover is a blurb, or a summary of the book; the back flap is. Reviews are placed on the back of the jacket. Many modern bestselling hardcover books use a partial cloth cover, with cloth covered board on the spine only, only boards covering the rest of the book. Bookbinding Paperback
Pax Americana is a term applied to the concept of relative peace in the Western Hemisphere and the world beginning around the middle of the 20th century, thought to be caused by the preponderance of power enjoyed by the United States. Although the term finds its primary utility in the latter half of the 20th century, it has been used with different meanings and eras, such as the post-Civil War era in North America, regionally in the Americas at the start of the 20th century. Pax Americana is used in its modern connotations to refer to the peace among great powers established after the end of World War II in 1945 called the Long Peace. In this modern sense, it has come to indicate the military and economic position of the United States in relation to other nations. For example, the Marshall Plan, which spent $13 billion to rebuild the economy of Western Europe, has been seen as "the launching of the pax americana"; the Latin term derives from Pax Romana of the Roman Empire. The term is most notably associated with Pax Britannica under the British Empire, which served as the global hegemon and constabulary from the late 18th century until the early 20th century.
The first articulation of a Pax Americana occurred after the end of the American Civil War with reference to the peaceful nature of the North American geographical region, was abeyant at the commencement of the First World War. Its emergence was concurrent with the development of the idea of American exceptionalism; this view holds that the U. S. occupies a special niche among developed nations in terms of its national credo, historical evolution and religious institutions, unique origins. The concept originates from Alexis de Tocqueville, who asserted that the then-50-year-old United States held a special place among nations because it was a country of immigrants and the first modern democracy. From the establishment of the United States after the American Revolution until the Spanish–American War, the foreign policy of the United States had a regional, instead of global, focus; the Pax Americana, which the Union enforced upon the states of central North America, was a factor in the United States' national prosperity.
The larger states were surrounded by smaller states, but these had no anxieties: no standing armies to require taxes and hinder labor. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first time the phrase appeared in print was in the August 1894 issue of Forum: "The true cause for exultation is the universal outburst of patriotism in support of the prompt and courageous action of President Cleveland in maintaining the supremacy of law throughout the length and breadth of the land, in establishing the pax Americana." With the rise of the New Imperialism in the Western hemisphere at the end of the 19th century, debates arose between imperialist and isolationist factions in the U. S. Here, Pax Americana was used to connote the peace across the United States and, more as a Pan-American peace under the aegis of the Monroe Doctrine; those who favored traditional policies of avoiding foreign entanglements included labor leader Samuel Gompers and steel tycoon Andrew Carnegie. American politicians such as Henry Cabot Lodge, William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt advocated an aggressive foreign policy, but the administration of President Grover Cleveland was unwilling to pursue such actions.
On January 16, 1893, U. S. diplomatic and military personnel conspired with a small group of individuals to overthrow the constitutional government of the Kingdom of Hawaii and establish a Provisional Government and a republic. On February 15, they presented a treaty for annexation of the Hawaiian Islands to the U. S. Senate, but opposition to annexation stalled its passage; the United States opted to annex Hawaii by way of the Newlands Resolution in July 1898. After its victory in the Spanish–American War of 1898 and the subsequent acquisition of Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam, the United States had gained a colonial empire. By ejecting Spain from the Americas, the United States shifted its position to an uncontested regional power, extended its influence into Southeast Asia and Oceania. Although U. S. capital investments within the Philippines and Puerto Rico were small, these colonies were strategic outposts for expanding trade with Latin America and Asia China. In the Caribbean area, the United States established a sphere of influence in line with the Monroe Doctrine, not explicitly defined as such, but recognized in effect by other governments and accepted by at least some of the republics in that area.
The events around the start of the 20th century demonstrated that the United States undertook an obligation, usual in such cases, of imposing a "Pax Americana". As in similar instances elsewhere, this Pax Americana was not quite marked in its geographical limit, nor was it guided by any theoretical consistency, but rather by the merits of the case and the test of immediate expediency in each instance. Thus, whereas the United States enforced a peace in much of the lands southward from the Nation and undertook measures to maintain internal tranquility in such areas, the United States on the other hand withdrew from interposition in Mexico. European powers regarded these matters as the concern of the United States. Indeed, the nascent Pax Americana was, in essence, abetted by the policy of the United Kingdom, the preponderance of global sea power which the British Empire enjoyed by virtue of the strength of the Royal Navy
The Cry of the Halidon
The Cry of the Halidon is a 1974 suspense novel by Robert Ludlum. The story concerns a geologist, Alex McAuliff, who served in the Army as an infantry officer and fought in Korea, is commissioned to undertake a survey in Jamaica. It's an offer McAuliff just can't refuse: two million dollars for a geological survey of Jamaica's dark interior. All Dunstone, Limited asks for in return is his time, his expertise, above all his absolute secrecy. No one is to know of Dunstone's involvement - not McAuliff's handpicked team, but British Intelligence knows and they've let Alex know a secret of their own: the last survey team sent to Jamaica by Dunstone vanished without a trace. For McAuliff, it's too late to turn back. Alex knows about Dunstone...which means he knows too much. He is a marked man...but by whom? Dunstone Limited? British Intelligence? A rival company? A beautiful island and a beautiful woman who could be a spy are central to Alex's chance for survival; that and a single word... Halidon. In common with other Ludlum novels the lead character discovers there is more to the deal than expected and McAuliff is enlisted by British Intelligence.
The story develops as McAuliff's resources and abilities are tested leading him to a secret organisation hidden in the Jamaican mountains
Method acting is a range of training and rehearsal techniques that seek to encourage sincere and expressive performances, as formulated by a number of different theatre practitioners. These techniques are built on Stanislavski's system, developed by the Russian actor and director Konstantin Stanislavski and captured in his books An Actor Prepares, Building a Character, Creating a Role. Among those who have contributed to the development of the Method, three teachers are associated with "having set the standard of its success", each emphasizing different aspects of the approach: Lee Strasberg, Stella Adler, Sanford Meisner; the approach was first developed. All three subsequently claimed to be the rightful heirs of Stanislavski's approach. "The Method" is an elaboration of the "system" of acting developed by the Russian theatre practitioner Konstantin Stanislavski. In the first three decades of the 20th century, Stanislavski organized his training and rehearsal techniques into a coherent, systematic methodology.
The "system" brought together and built on: the director-centred, unified aesthetic and disciplined, ensemble approach of the Meiningen company. The "system" cultivates what Stanislavski calls the "art of experiencing", it mobilises the actor's conscious thought and will in order to activate other, less-controllable psychological processes—such as emotional experience and subconscious behaviour—sympathetically and indirectly. In rehearsal, the actor searches for inner motives to justify action and the definition of what the character seeks to achieve at any given moment. Stanislavski further elaborated the "system" with a more physically grounded rehearsal process known as the "Method of Physical Action". Minimising at-the-table discussions, he now encouraged an "active analysis", in which the sequence of dramatic situations are improvised. "The best analysis of a play", Stanislavski argued, "is to take action in the given circumstances."As well as Stanislavski's early work, the ideas and techniques of Yevgeny Vakhtangov were an important influence on the development of the Method.
Vakhtangov's "object exercises" were developed further by Uta Hagen as a means for actor training and the maintenance of skills. Strasberg attributed to Vakhtangov the distinction between Stanislavski's process of "justifying" behaviour with the inner motive forces that prompt that behaviour in the character and "motivating" behaviour with imagined or recalled experiences relating to the actor and substituted for those relating to the character. Following this distinction, actors ask themselves "What would motivate me, the actor, to behave in the way the character does?" Rather than the more Stanislavskian question "Given the particular circumstances of the play, how would I behave, what would I do, how would I feel, how would I react?" In America the transmission of the earliest phase of Stanislavski's work via the students of the First Studio of the Moscow Art Theatre revolutionized acting in the West. When the MAT toured the US in the early 1920s, Richard Boleslavsky, one of Stanislavski's students from the First Studio, presented a series of lectures on the "system" that were published as Acting: The First Six Lessons.
The interest generated led to a decision by Boleslavsky and Maria Ouspenskaya to emigrate to the US and to establish the American Laboratory Theatre. However, the version of Stanislavski's practice these students took to the US with them was that developed in the 1910s, rather than the more elaborated version of the "system" detailed in Stanislavski's acting manuals from the 1930s, An Actor's Work and An Actor's Work on a Role; the first half of An Actor's Work, which treated the psychological elements of training, was published in a abridged and misleadingly translated version in the US as An Actor Prepares in 1936. English-language readers confused the first volume on psychological processes with the "system" as a whole. Many of the American practitioners who came to be identified with the Method were taught by Boleslavsky and Ouspenskaya at the American Laboratory Theatre; the approaches to acting subsequently developed by their students—including Lee Strasberg, Stella Adler, Sanford Meisner—are confused with Stanislavski's "system".
Among the concepts and techniques of method acting are substitution, "as if", sense memory, affective memory, animal work. Contemporary method actors sometimes seek help from psychologists in the development of their roles. In Strasberg's approach, actors make use of experiences from their own lives to bring them closer to the experience of their characters; this technique, which Stanislavski came to call emotion memory, involves the recall of sensations involved in experiences that made a significant emotional impact on the actor. Without faking or forcing, actors allow those sensations to stimulate a response and try not to inhibit themselves. Stanislavski's approach rejected emotion memory except as a last resort and prioritised physical action as an indirect pathway to emotional expression; this can be seen in Stanislavki's notes for Leonidov in the production plan for Othello and in Benedetti's discussion of his training of actors at home and abroad. Stanislavski confirmed this emphasis in
A paperback known as a softcover or سعيد, is a type of book characterized by a thick paper or paperboard cover, held together with glue rather than stitches or staples. In contrast, hardcover or hardback books are bound with cardboard covered with cloth; the pages on the inside are made of paper. Inexpensive books bound in paper have existed since at least the 19th century in such forms as pamphlets, dime novels, airport novels. Modern paperbacks can be differentiated by size. In the U. S. there are "mass-market paperbacks" and larger, more durable "trade paperbacks." In the U. K. there are A-format, B-format, the largest C-format sizes. Paperback editions of books are issued when a publisher decides to release a book in a low-cost format. Cheaper, lower quality paper. Paperbacks can be the preferred medium when a book is not expected to be a major seller or where the publisher wishes to release a book without putting forth a large investment. Examples include many novels, newer editions or reprintings of older books.
Since paperbacks tend to have a smaller profit margin, many publishers try to balance the profit to be made by selling fewer hardcovers against the potential profit to be made by selling more paperbacks with a smaller profit per unit. First editions of many modern books genre fiction, are issued in paperback. Best-selling books, on the other hand, may maintain sales in hardcover for an extended period to reap the greater profits that the hardcovers provide; the early 19th century saw numerous improvements in the printing and book-distribution processes, with the introduction of steam-powered printing presses, pulp mills, automatic type setting, a network of railways. These innovations enabled the likes of Simms and McIntyre of Belfast, Routledge & Sons and Ward & Lock to mass-produce cheap uniform yellowback or paperback editions of existing works, distribute and sell them across the British Isles, principally via the ubiquitous W H Smith & Sons newsagent found at most urban British railway stations.
These paper bound volumes were offered for sale at a fraction of the historic cost of a book, were of a smaller format, 110 mm × 178 mm, aimed at the railway traveller. The Routledge's Railway Library series of paperbacks remained in print until 1898, offered the traveling public 1,277 unique titles; the German-language market supported examples of cheap paper-bound books: Bernhard Tauchnitz started the Collection of British and American Authors in 1841. These inexpensive, paperbound editions, a direct precursor to mass-market paperbacks ran to over 5,000 volumes. Reclam published Shakespeare in this format from October 1857 and went on to pioneer the mass-market paper-bound Universal-Bibliothek series from 10 November 1867; the German publisher Albatross Books revised the 20th-century mass-market paperback format in 1931, but the approach of World War II cut the experiment short. It proved an immediate financial success in the United Kingdom in 1935 when Penguin Books adopted many of Albatross' innovations, including a conspicuous logo and color-coded covers for different genres.
British publisher Allen Lane invested his own financial capital to launch the Penguin Books imprint in 1935, initiating the paperback revolution in the English-language book-market by releasing ten reprint titles. The first released book on Penguin's 1935 list was André Maurois' Ariel. Lane intended to produce inexpensive books, he purchased paperback rights from publishers, ordered large print runs to keep unit prices low, looked to non-traditional book-selling retail locations. Booksellers were reluctant to buy his books, but when Woolworths placed a large order, the books sold well. After that initial success, booksellers showed more willingness to stock paperbacks, the name "Penguin" became associated with the word "paperback". In 1939, Robert de Graaf issued a similar line in the United States, partnering with Simon & Schuster to create the Pocket Books label; the term "pocket book" became synonymous with paperback in English-speaking North America. In French, the term livre de poche is still in use today.
De Graaf, like Lane, negotiated paperback rights from other publishers, produced many runs. His practices contrasted with those of Lane by his adoption of illustrated covers aimed at the North American market. To reach an broader market than Lane, he used distribution networks of newspapers and magazines, which had a lengthy history of being aimed at mass audiences; because of its number-one position in what became a long list of pocket editions, James Hilton's Lost Horizon is cited as the first American paperback book. However, the first mass-market, pocket-sized, paperback book printed in the US was an edition of Pearl Buck's The Good Earth, produced by Pocket Books as a proof-of-concept in late 1938, sold in New York City. In World War II, the U. S. military distributed some 122 million "Armed Services Editions" paperback novels to the troops, which helped popularize the format after the war. Through the circulation of the paperback in kiosks and bookstores and intellectual knowledge was able to reach the masses.
This occurred at the same time that the masses were starting to attend university, leading to the student revolts of 1968 prompting open access to knowledge. The paperback book meant that more people were able to and access knowledge and this led to people wanting more and more of it; this accessibility posed a threat to the wealthy by imposing that