Eden Phillpotts was an English author and dramatist. He was born in Mount Abu, was educated in Plymouth and worked as an insurance officer for 10 years before studying for the stage and becoming a writer. Eden Phillpotts was a great-nephew of Bishop of Exeter, his father Henry Phillpotts was a son of the bishop’s younger brother Thomas Phillpotts. James Surtees Phillpotts. Eden Phillpotts was born on 4 November 1862 at Mount Abu in Rajasthan, his father Henry was an officer in the Indian Army, while his mother Adelaide was the daughter of an Indian Civil Service officer posted in Madras, George Jenkins Waters. Henry Phillpotts died in 1866, leaving Adelaide a widow at the age of 21. With her three small sons, of whom Eden was the eldest, she returned to England and settled in Plymouth. Phillpotts was educated at Mannamead School in Plymouth. At school he showed no signs of a literary bent. In 1879, aged 17, he went to London to earn his living, he found a job as a clerk with the Sun Fire Office. Phillpotts’ ambition was to be an actor and he attended evening classes at a drama school for two years.
He came to the conclusion that he would never make a name as an actor but might have success as a writer. In his spare time out of office hours he proceeded to create a stream of small works which he was able to sell. In due course he left the insurance company to concentrate on his writing, while working part-time as assistant editor for the weekly Black and White Magazine. Eden Phillpotts maintained four books a year for the next half century, he produced poetry, short stories, novels and mystery tales. Many of his novels were about rural Devon life and some of his plays were distinguished by their effective use of regional dialect. Eden Phillpotts died at his home in Broadclyst near Exeter, Devon, on 29 December 1960. Phillpotts was for many years the President of the Dartmoor Preservation Association and cared passionately about the conservation of Dartmoor, he was a supporter of the Rationalist Press Association. Phillpotts was a friend of Agatha Christie, an admirer of his work and a regular visitor to his home.
In her autobiography she expressed gratitude for his early advice on fiction writing and quoted some of it. Jorge Luis Borges was another Phillpotts admirer. Borges mentioned him numerous times, wrote at least two reviews of his novels, included him in his "Personal Library", a collection of works selected to reflect his personal literary preferences. Philpotts had a long incestuous relationship with his daughter Adelaide. In a 1976 interview for a book about her father, Adelaide described an incestuous relationship with him that she says lasted from the age of five or six until her early thirties, when he remarried; when she herself married at the age of 55 her father never forgave her, never communicated with her again. Phillpotts wrote a great many books with a Dartmoor setting. One of his novels, Widecombe Fair, inspired by an annual fair at the village of Widecombe-in-the-Moor, provided the scenario for his comic play The Farmer's Wife, it went on to become a 1928 silent film of the same name, directed by Alfred Hitchcock.
It was followed by a 1941 remake, directed by Leslie Arliss. He co-wrote several plays with The Farmer's Wife and Yellow Sands. Eden is best known as the author of many novels and poems about Dartmoor, his Dartmoor cycle of 18 novels and two volumes of short stories still has many avid readers despite the fact that many titles are out of print. Philpotts wrote a series of novels, each set against the background of a different trade or industry. Titles include: Brunel's Storm in a Teacup. Among his other works is The Grey Room, the plot of, centered on a haunted room in an English manor house, he wrote a number of other mystery novels, both under his own name and the pseudonym Harrington Hext. These include: The Thing at Their Heels, The Red Redmaynes, The Monster, The Clue from the Stars, The Captain's Curio; the Human Boy was a collection of schoolboy stories in the same genre as Rudyard Kipling's Stalky & Co. though different in mood and style. Late in his long writing career he wrote a few books of interest to science fiction and fantasy readers, the most noteworthy being Saurus, which involves an alien reptilian observing human life.
Eric Partridge praised the impact of his dialect writing. Three plays: The shadows. Comprising "The Human Boy," "The Human Boy Again," "The Human Boy and the War," "The Human Boy's Diary," "From the Angle of Seventeen," Etc. West Country Plays The Book of Avis: A Trilogy Comprising Bred in the Bone, Witch's Cauldron, A Shadow Passes Day, Kenneth F.. Eden Phillpotts on Dartmoor. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 978-0-7153-8118-2; the New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature, George Watson, Ian R. Willison CUP Archive, 1987 Wikilivres has original media or text related to this article: Eden Phillpotts Works by Eden Phillpotts at Project Gutenberg Works by Eden Phillpotts at Faded Page Works by or about Eden Phillpotts at Internet Archive Works by Eden Phillpotts at LibriVox Eden Phillpotts at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Eden Phillpotts papers, MSS 1458 at L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Brigham Young University
Dartmoor is a moor in southern Devon, England. Protected by National Park status as Dartmoor National Park, it covers 954 km2; the granite which forms the uplands dates from the Carboniferous Period of geological history. The moorland is capped with many exposed granite hilltops known as tors, providing habitats for Dartmoor wildlife; the highest point is 621 m above sea level. The entire area is rich in antiquities and archaeology. Dartmoor is managed by the Dartmoor National Park Authority, whose 22 members are drawn from Devon County Council, local district councils and Government. Parts of Dartmoor have been used as military firing ranges for over 200 years; the public is granted extensive land access rights on Dartmoor and it is a popular tourist destination. Dartmoor includes the largest area of granite in Britain, with about 625 km2 at the surface, though most of it is under superficial peat deposits; the granite was intruded at depth as a pluton into the surrounding sedimentary rocks during the Carboniferous period about 309 million years ago.
It is accepted that the present surface is not far below the original top of the pluton. A considerable gravity anomaly is associated with the Dartmoor pluton as with other such plutons. Measurement of the anomaly has helped to determine the shape and extent of the rock mass at depth. Dartmoor is known for its tors – hills topped with outcrops of bedrock, which in granite country such as this are rounded boulder-like formations. More than 160 of the hills of Dartmoor have the word tor in their name but quite a number do not. However, this does not appear to relate to whether or not there is an outcrop of rock on their summit; the tors are the focus of an annual event known as the Ten Tors Challenge, when around 2400 people aged between 14 and 19 walk for distances of 56, 72 or 88 km between ten tors on many differing routes. The highest points on Dartmoor are on the northern moor: High Willhays, 621 m, Yes Tor, 619 m, The highest points on the southern moor are Ryder's Hill, 515 m, Snowdon 495 m, an unnamed point, 493 m at, between Langcombe Hill and Shell Top.
The best-known tor on Dartmoor is Haytor, 457 m. For a more complete list see List of Dartmoor tors and hills; the high ground of Dartmoor forms the catchment area for many of Devon's rivers. As well as shaping the landscape, these have traditionally provided a source of power for moor industries such as tin mining and quarrying; the moor takes its name from the River Dart, which starts as the East Dart and West Dart and becomes a single river at Dartmeet. It leaves the moor at Buckfastleigh, flowing through Totnes below where it opens up into a long ria, reaching the sea at Dartmouth. For a full list, expand the Rivers of Dartmoor navigational box at the bottom of this page. Much more rain falls on Dartmoor than in the surrounding lowlands; as much of the national park is covered in thick layers of peat, the rain is absorbed and distributed so the moor is dry. In areas where water accumulates, dangerous bogs or mires can result; some of these, topped with bright green moss, are known to locals as "feather beds" or "quakers", because they can shift beneath a person's feet.
Quakers result from sphagnum moss growing over the water that accumulates in the hollows in the granite. The vegetation of the bogs depends on the location. Blanket bog, which forms on the highest land where the rainfall exceeds 2,000 millimetres a year, consists of cotton-grass, Bog Asphodel and Common Tormentil, with Sphagnum thriving in the wettest patches; the valley bogs have lush growth of rushes, with sphagnum, cross-leaved heath and several other species. Some of the bogs on Dartmoor have achieved notoriety. Fox Tor Mires was the inspiration for Great Grimpen Mire in Conan Doyle's novel The Hound of the Baskervilles, although there is a waymarked footpath across it. Sabine Baring-Gould, in his Book of Dartmoor related the story of a man, making his way through Aune Mire at the head of the River Avon when he came upon a top-hat brim down on the surface of the mire, he kicked it, whereupon a voice called out: "What be you a-doin' to my'at?" The man replied, "Be there now a chap under'n?"
"Ees, I reckon," was the reply, "and a hoss under me likewise." Along with the rest of South West England, Dartmoor has a temperate climate, wetter and milder than locations at similar height in the rest of England. At Princetown, near the centre of the moor at a height of 453 metres and February are the coldest months with mean minimum temperatures around 1 °C. July and August are the warmest months with mean daily maxima not reaching 18 °C. Compared with Teignmouth, on the coast about 22 miles to the east, the average maximum and minimum temperatures are 3.0 °C and 2.6 °C lower and frost is at least five times as frequent. On the highest ground, in the north of the moor, the growing season is less than 175 days – this contrasts with some 300 days along most of the south coast of the county. Rainfall tends to be associated with
Fox Tor is a minor tor on Dartmoor in the county of Devon, England. On the flank of the tor, about 500 m to the north stands Childe's Tomb - according to local legend, the last resting place of Childe the Hunter, an unfortunate traveller who died there during a blizzard. About 800 m. NNE of the tor lie the remains of Foxtor Farm, used by Eden Phillpotts as one of the main settings of his 1904 novel The American Prisoner, in a subsequent early "talkie" film, made in 1929. Occupancy of Fox tor farm lasted for only fifty years Little Fox Tor known as Yonder Tor lies about 500 m. to the east. About a kilometre north-east of the tor lies the swampy land known as Fox Tor Mires; this is said to have been the inspiration for the fictional Grimpen Mire in the novel The Hound of the Baskervilles by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. This wide expanse of peat bog continues to be dangerous to walkers after heavy rain. There is another Fox Tor on Dartmoor, one of five outcrops on the western bank of the River Tavy in woodland north of Peter Tavy, at grid reference SX514788.
There is another on Bodmin Moor near Lewannick. A comprehensive history of Fox Tor Farm and its tenants is included in: Stanbrook, Elisabeth. "Fox Tor Farm". Dartmoor Forest Farms - A Social History from Enclosure to Abandonment. Tiverton: Devon Books. Pp. 42–52. ISBN 0-86114-887-8
Childe's Tomb is a granite cross on Dartmoor, England. Although not in its original form, it is more elaborate than most of the crosses on Dartmoor, being raised upon a constructed base, it is known that a kistvaen is underneath. A well-known legend attached to the site, first recorded in 1630 by Tristram Risdon, concerns a wealthy hunter, who became lost in a snow storm and died there despite disembowelling his horse and climbing into its body for protection; the legend relates that Childe left a note of some sort saying that whoever found and buried his body would inherit his lands at Plymstock. After a race between the monks of Tavistock Abbey and the men of Plymstock, the Abbey won; the tomb was destroyed in 1812 by a man who stole most of the stones to build a house nearby, but it was reconstructed in 1890. Childe's Tomb is a reconstructed granite cross on the south-east edge of Foxtor Mires, about 500 metres north of Fox Tor on Dartmoor, England at grid reference SX625704. According to William Burt, in his notes to Dartmoor, a Descriptive Poem by N. T. Carrington, the original tomb consisted of a pedestal of three steps, the lowest of, built of four stones each six feet long and twelve inches square.
The two upper steps were made of eight shorter but shaped stones, on top was an octagonal block about three feet high with a cross fixed upon it. The tomb lies on the line of several cairns that marked the east-west route of the ancient Monks' Path between Buckfast Abbey and Tavistock Abbey and it was no doubt erected here as part of that route: it would have been useful in this part of the moor with few landmarks where a traveller straying from the path could end up in Foxtor Mires. Tristram Risdon, writing in about 1630, said that Childe's Tomb was one of three remarkable things in the Forest of Dartmoor. Risdon stated that the original tomb bore an inscription: "They fyrste that fyndes and bringes mee to my grave, The priorie of Plimstoke they shall have", but no sign of this has been found. Today the cross, a replacement, is about 3 feet 4 inches tall and 1 foot 8 inches across at the crosspiece, it has its base in a socket stone which rests on a pedestal of granite blocks that raises the total height of the cross to 7 ft.
The original, now broken, socket stone for the cross lies nearby. The whole is surrounded by a circle of granite stones set on their edge which once surrounded the cairn—the rocks of which are now scattered around—that was built over a large kistvaen that still exists beneath the pedestal. In the early 19th century there was much interest in enclosing and "improving" the open moorland on Dartmoor, encouraged by Sir Thomas Tyrwhitt's early successes at Tor Royal near Princetown. Enclosure was aided by the enhanced access provided by the construction of the first turnpike roads over the moor: the road between Ashburton and Two Bridges opened in around 1800, for instance. In February 1809 one Thomas Windeatt, from Bridgetown, took over the lease of a plot of land of about 582 acres in the valley of the River Swincombe. In 1812 Windeatt started to build a farmhouse, Fox Tor Farm, on his land and his workmen robbed the nearby Childe's Tomb of most of its stones for the building and its doorsteps.
In 1902 William Crossing wrote that he had been told by an old moorman that some of the granite blocks from the tomb's pedestal had been used to make a clapper bridge across a stream flowing into the River Swincombe near the farm. The moorman said that they had lettering on their undersides; this encouraged Crossing to arrange to lift the clapper bridge. However, he did locate nine out of the twelve stones that had made up the pedestal, as well as the broken socket stone for the cross. Crossing rediscovered the original site of the tomb in 1882 and said that all that remained was a small mound and some half buried stones, he cleared out the kistvaen, reporting that it was 5 feet 6 inches long by 2 feet 8 inches wide and that unlike most kistvaens found on the moor, the stones lining it had been shaped by man, which led him to suggest that it was less old than most. Having located most of the stones of the original tomb, Crossing thought that it could be rebuilt in its original form with little effort, but it was not to be.
J. Brooking Rowe, writing in 1895, states that the tomb was re-erected in 1890 under the direction of Mr. E. Fearnley Tanner, who said that he was dissatisfied with the result because several stones were missing and it was difficult to recreate the original character of the monument. Tanner was the honourable secretary of the Dartmoor Preservation Association, this reconstruction was one of the first acts of that organisation; the replacement base and cross were made in Holne in 1885. According to legend, the cross was erected over the kistvaen of Childe the Hunter, Ordulf, son of Ordgar, an Anglo-Saxon Earl of Devon in the 11th century; the name Childe is derived from the Old English word cild, used as a title of honour. Legend has it that Childe was in a party hunting on the moor when they were caught in some changeable weather. Childe was lost. In order to save himself from dying of exposure, he killed his horse, disembowelled it and crept inside the warm carcass for shelter, he froze to death, but before he died, he wrote a note to the effect that whoever should find him and bury him in their church should inherit his Plymstock estate.
His body was found by the monks of Tavistock Abbey. However, they he
William Crossing was a writer and chronicler of Dartmoor and the lives of its inhabitants. He died at Plymouth, Devon. Crossing was born in Plymouth on the 14 November 1847. Early in his youth he was fond of Dartmoor, his early associations centring on the neighbourhood of Sheepstor, Walkhampton and Yannadon, he acquired a taste for antiquities from his mother. He went on to explore Tavistock, Lydford and the northern borders of the Moor, as well as South Brent, on its southern verge. After finishing his schooling in Plymouth, he went to the Independent College at Taunton, returned to finish his education at the Mannamead School, his earliest literary efforts were in the direction of fiction -'thrilling romances,' composed for the delectation of his school-fellows. His first essay in poetry was at the age of fourteen, when a poem written by him appeared in the pages of Young England, December, 1861. In 1863 he went for a short coastal voyage to Wales, gained a liking for the sea. Returning from this voyage, he took to business pursuits in Plymouth, recommenced his Dartmoor explorations.
In 1872 he settled down at South Brent. In the previous year he began making notes about his rambles, however, any systematic arrangement. In the 1890s he published numerous other works and his Guide to Dartmoor, illustrated by Philip Guy Stevens in 1909, he was much afflicted by rheumatism in the last 25 years of his life and in 1921 his wife died. From July 1925 to his death Crossing was an invalid and he died at Plymouth, 3 September 1928, he is now considered one of the best authorities on Dartmoor and its antiquities, having made it the subject of his life's work. He was one of the earliest members of the Dartmoor Preservation Association, joining it on its formation, it is quite probable that he started the popularity of the modern pursuit of letterboxing. In his book Guide to Dartmoor he refers to what is to have been the first letter box, it was placed at Cranmere Pool on northern Dartmoor by a local guide in 1854. In Crossing's memory in 1938 a plaque and letterbox were placed at Duck's Pool on the southern moor by some individuals and members of a walking club known as Dobson's Moormen.
He was buried with his wife at Mary Tavy: his house at Mary Tavy bears a commemorative tablet unveiled in 1952. The style of Crossing's work in Guide to Dartmoor has similarities to the much more recent work of Alfred Wainwright; the hand drawn sketches of views and rough maps of walks together with the descriptive nature of the walks are like those of the Wainwright guides to the Lake District. Leaves from Sherwood, etc.. Plymouth, 1868 The Ancient Crosses of Dartmoor. An expansion of a series of articles which appeared in the Western Antiquary. Amid Devonia's Alps. Plymouth, 1888 Tales of the Dartmoor Pixies: Glimpses of Elfin Haunts and Antics. 1890 The Land of Stream and Tor. Plymouth, 1891. Crockern Tor and the Ancient Stannary Parliament. Exeter, 1892 Old Stone Crosses of the Dartmoor Borders. Exeter and London, 1892 The Chronicles of Crazy Well. Plymouth, 1893 The Ocean Trail. Plymouth, 1894 Widey Court. Plymouth, 1895 A Hundred Years on Dartmoor. Plymouth 1901 The Western Gate of Dartmoor: Tavistock and its Surroundings.
London, 1903 Gems in a Granite Setting. Plymouth, 1905 From a Dartmoor Cot. London, 1906 Crossing's Guide to Dartmoor. Plymouth, 1909. Crossing's Guide to Dartmoor, the 1912 edition reprinted with new introd. by Brian Le Messurier. Dawlish: David & Charles, 1965 Folk Rhymes of Devon. London, 1911 Cranmere: The Legendary Story of Binjie Gear and other Poems. London, 1926Posthumous works Crossing's Dartmoor Worker. Newton Abbot, 1966. A collection of twenty newspaper articles published in The Western Morning News in 1903 under the title "Presentday Life on Dartmoor"; the book details the activities of a number of workers on the moor, such as the farmers, the dry-stone wall builders, the peat-cutters, the warreners, miners. Dartmoor's Medieval Remains. Brixham: Quay, 1987
Princetown is a village in the Dartmoor national park in the English county of Devon. It is the principal settlement of the civil parish of Dartmoor Forest; the village has its origins in 1785, when Sir Thomas Tyrwhitt, Secretary to the Prince of Wales, leased a large area of moorland from the Duchy of Cornwall estate, hoping to convert it into good farmland. He suggested that a prison be built there, he called the settlement Princetown after the Prince of Wales. Princetown is the site of Dartmoor Prison. At around 1,430 feet above sea level, it is the highest settlement on the moor, one of the highest in the United Kingdom, it is the largest settlement located on the high moor. The Princetown Railway, closed in 1956, was the highest railway line in England: its Princetown terminus was 1,430 feet above sea level. In 1780, a farm was reclaimed on the site of an ancient tenement near the Two Bridges, in 1785, Sir Thomas Tyrwhitt set about improving the moor at a place which he named Tor Royal, about 1 km south-east of Princetown.
The Plume of Feathers Inn bears this date on its sign. He made an estate and built a house in 1798; the road from Tavistock to Princetown was built, as well as the other roads that now cross the moor. He proposed that a prison be built on Dartmoor to house the thousands of captives of the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812, who had become too numerous to lodge in the prisons and prison-ships at Plymouth; the site was given by the Prince of Wales, who held the lands of the Duchy of Cornwall to which the whole moor belonged. This is. Dartmoor Prison was built in 1806 at a cost of £130,000. At one time it had a capacity of between 9,000 prisoners. A small town grew up near the prison. Two large inns were built during the war - the current Prince of Wales and the former Devil's Elbow / Railway Inn. Many of the prisoners had prize money to come from their own country. With the closing of the prison in 1816, the town collapsed, but the completion of the Princetown Railway in 1823 brought back many people to the granite quarries.
The prison remained derelict until 1851. It has since been extended, and was scheduled for closure, but this now appears to be in doubt The village is located on the B3212 road between Yelverton and Two Bridges and is surrounded by moorland. Several footpaths across the moor pass through the village, including one leading west to Sampford Spiney and one leading south to Nun's Cross and Erme Head. Tor Royal Lane is a dead end road which leads down from the village to the site of the disused Whiteworks tin mine, about 2 miles or 3 km to the south-east, which overlooks Fox Tor Mires, the presumed site of the Grimpen Mire to be found in Arthur Conan Doyle's tale The Hound of the Baskervilles. Conan Doyle stayed at the former Duchy Hotel whilst writing and researching the story with his friend, Bertram Fletcher Robinson; the hotel has long since closed and the building now houses the National Park Visitor Centre, an all-weather centre and activity hub, with interactive displays, inspiring exhibitions and a children's discovery area.
Other points of interest in the village include the prison museum. Behind the Prison are two cemeterys, one for French Prisoners of War and the other one for American Prisoners of War who died in the Prison when it was a War Depot during the Napoleonic War in the 19th century; the Cemetery around the Church of St Michael and All Angels includes the graves of convicts who died during their incarceration in the prison. The Church of St Michael has the distinction of being the only one in England constructed by POWs and is dedicated, as are many churches in high locations, to St. Michael, it was taken out of use due to structural problems and damp and is now maintained by the Churches Conservation Trust, although the building has been stabilised and made safe. Services are held nowadays in the Methodist chapel at the other end of the village; the village is overlooked from the north-west by North Hessary Tor upon, a tall transmitting mast that provides a useful guide point for walkers from miles around.
The village is made up of white British people living in a mix of social and private housing. There are 74 children enrolled at the primary school, rated'Requires Improvement by Ofsted in 2017 and a further 17 at the pre-school, contained within the Community Centre in its own purpose-built wing. In 2016 the official population estimate was 1447, with a further 640 inmates of the prison. Most people living in Princetown commute to work in Plymouth or Tavistock, but with the expansion of the brewery a few more jobs have been created locally; the population is projected to keep increasing in the future due to the improved amenities within the village itself and the high percentage of young people living there. Princetown is undergoing significant regeneration and expansion, with new private housing being built at several sites in the village and a football pitch being built behind the Community Centre. High Moorland Visitor Centre has been renamed as the National Park Visitor Centre, the area outside the centre altered to include artwork and new seating areas.
In terms of tourism, Princetown is a popular destination and hub for people traversing the moors, the sight of large groups of hikers and walkers is common during the summer months. A bunkhouse and breakfast and camping facilities are
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t