The Amityville Horror
The Amityville Horror is a book by American author Jay Anson, published in September 1977. It is the basis of a series of films released from 1979 onwards; the book is claimed to be based on the paranormal experiences of the Lutz family, but has led to controversy and lawsuits over its truthfulness. On November 13, 1974, Ronald DeFeo Jr. shot and killed six members of his family at 112 Ocean Avenue, a large Dutch Colonial house situated in a suburban neighborhood in Amityville, on the south shore of Long Island, New York. He was convicted of second-degree murder in November 1975. In December 1975, George and Kathy Lutz and their three children moved into the house. After 28 days, the Lutzes left the house, claiming to have been terrorized by paranormal phenomena while living there; the book, purportedly based on a true story, describes the house at 112 Ocean Avenue as remaining empty for 13 months after the DeFeo murders. In December 1975, George and Kathleen Lutz bought the house for what was considered to be a bargain price of $80,000.
The five-bedroom house had a distinctive gambrel roof. It had a swimming pool and a boathouse, as it was located on a canal. George and Kathy married in July 1975 and each had their own homes, but they wanted to start fresh with a new property. Kathy had three children from a previous marriage: Daniel, 9, Christopher, 7, Melissa, 5, they owned a crossbreed Malamute/Labrador dog named Harry. During their first inspection of the house, the real estate broker told them about the DeFeo murders and asked if this would affect their decision. After discussing the matter, they decided; the Lutz family moved in December 19, 1975. Much of the DeFeo family's furniture was still in the house, because it was included for $400 as part of the deal. A friend of George Lutz insisted on having it blessed. At the time, George had no experience of what this would entail. Kathy explained the process. George knew a Catholic priest named Father Ray. Father Mancuso was a lawyer, judge of the Catholic Court and psychotherapist who lived at the local Sacred Heart Rectory.
He arrived to perform the blessing while George and Kathy were unpacking their belongings on the afternoon of December 18, 1975 and went into the building to carry out the rites. When he flicked the first holy water and began to pray, he heard a masculine voice demand that he "get out." When leaving the house, Father Mancuso did not mention this incident to either Kathy. On December 24, 1975, Father Mancuso called George Lutz and advised him to stay out of the second floor room where he had heard the mysterious voice, the former bedroom of Marc and John Matthew DeFeo that Kathy planned to use as a sewing room, but the call was cut short by static. Following his visit to the house, Father Mancuso developed a high fever and blisters on his hands similar to stigmata. At first George and Kathy experienced nothing unusual in the house. Talking about their experiences subsequently, they reported that it was as if they "were each living in a different house." Some of the experiences of the Lutz family at the house are described in the book as follows: George would wake up around 3:15 every morning and would go out to check the boathouse.
He would learn that this was the estimated time of the DeFeo killings. The house was plagued by swarms of flies despite the winter weather. Kathy had vivid nightmares about the murders and discovered the order in which they occurred and the rooms where they took place; the Lutz children began sleeping on their stomachs, in the same way that the dead bodies in the DeFeo murders had been found. Kathy would feel a sensation as if "being embraced" by an unseen force. George discovered a small hidden room behind shelving in the basement; the walls were painted red and the room did not appear in the blueprints of the house. The room came to be known as "The Red Room." This room had a profound effect on their dog Harry, who refused to go near it and cowered as if sensing something ominous. There were cold spots and odors of perfume and excrement in areas of the house where no wind drafts or piping would explain the source. While tending to the fire and Kathy saw the image of a demon with half his head blown out.
It was burned into the soot in the back of the fireplace. The Lutzes' 5-year-old daughter, developed an imaginary friend named "Jodie," a demonic pig-like creature with glowing red eyes. In the early morning hours of Christmas Day 1975, George looked up at the house after checking on the boathouse and saw Jodie standing behind Missy at her bedroom window; when he ran up to her room he found her fast asleep with her small rocking chair rocking back and forth. George would wake up to the sound of the front door slamming, he would race downstairs to find the dog sleeping soundly at the front door. Nobody else heard the sound. George would hear what was described as a "marching band tuning up" or what sounded like a clock radio playing not quite on frequency; when he went downstairs the noise would cease. George realized that he bore a strong resemblance to Ronald DeFeo, Jr. and began drinking at The Witches' Brew, the bar where DeFeo was once a regular customer. When closing Missy's window, which Missy said Jodie climbed out of, Kathy saw red eyes glowing at her.
While in bed, Kathy received red welts on her chest caused by an unseen force and was levitated two feet in the air. Locks, do
Boris Claudio "Lalo" Schifrin is an Argentine-American pianist, composer and conductor. He is best known for his large body of film and TV scores since the 1950s, including the "Theme from Mission: Impossible", Bullitt and Enter the Dragon, he has received five Grammy Awards and six Oscar nominations. Associated with the jazz music genre, Schifrin is noted for his collaborations with Clint Eastwood from the late 1960s to the 1980s the Dirty Harry films. Schifrin was born to a Jewish family, his father, Luis Schifrin, led the second violin section of the orchestra at the Teatro Colón for three decades. At the age of six, Schifrin began a six-year course of study on piano with Enrique Barenboim, the father of pianist and conductor Daniel Barenboim. At age 16, Schifrin began studying piano with the Greek-Russian expatriate Andreas Karalis, former head of the Kiev Conservatory, harmony with Argentine composer Juan Carlos Paz. During this time, Schifrin became interested in jazz. Although Schifrin studied sociology and law at the University of Buenos Aires, music captured his attention.
At age 20, he applied for a scholarship to the Paris Conservatoire. At night, he played jazz in the Paris clubs. In 1955, Schifrin played piano with Argente bandoneon giant Ástor Piazzolla, represented his country at the International Jazz Festival in Paris. After returning home to Argentina in his twenties, Schifrin formed a jazz orchestra, a 16-piece band that became part of a popular weekly variety show on Buenos Aires TV. Schifrin began accepting other film and radio assignments. In 1956, Schifrin met Dizzy Gillespie and offered to write an extended work for Gillespie's big band. Schifrin completed the work, Gillespiana, in 1958; that year, Schifrin began working as an arranger for Xavier Cugat's popular Latin dance orchestra. While in New York in 1960, Schifrin again met Gillespie, who had by this time disbanded his big band for financial reasons. Gillespie invited Schifrin to fill the vacant piano chair in his quintet. Schifrin accepted and moved to New York City. Schifrin wrote a second extended composition for Gillespie, The New Continent, recorded in 1962.
On 26 May 1963, he recorded an album, Buenos Aires Blues, with Duke Ellington’s alto saxophonist, Johnny Hodges. Schifrin wrote two compositions for the album. In the same year MGM, which had Schifrin under contract, offered the composer his first Hollywood film assignment with the African adventure Rhino!. Schifrin moved to Los Angeles and became a U. S. resident in 1963. He became a naturalized U. S. citizen in 1969. One of Schifrin's most recognizable and enduring compositions is the theme music for the long-running TV series Mission: Impossible, it is a distinctive tune written in the uncommon 5/4 time signature. Schifrin's theme for the hugely successful Mannix private eye TV show was composed a year in a 3/4 waltz time. Schifrin's "Tar Sequence" from his Cool Hand Luke score was the longtime theme for the Eyewitness News broadcasts on New York station WABC-TV and other ABC affiliates, as well as National Nine News in Australia. CBS Television used part of the theme of his St. Ives soundtrack for its golf broadcasts in the 1970s and early 1980s.
Schifrin's score for the 1968 film Coogan's Bluff was the beginning of a long association with Clint Eastwood and director Don Siegel. Schifrin's strong jazz blues riffs were evident in Dirty Harry. Schifrin's working score for 1973's The Exorcist was rejected by the film's director, William Friedkin. Schifrin had written six minutes of difficult and heavy music for the initial film trailer, but audiences were frightened by the combination of sights and sounds; as reported by Schifrin in an interview, Warner Bros. executives told Friedkin to instruct Schifrin to tone it down with softer music, but Friedkin did not relay the message. Schifrin said that working on the film was one of the most unpleasant experiences in his life. In 1976 he released a single called "Jaws", a version of the John Williams theme from the Universal Pictures film Jaws, on CTI records; the single spent nine weeks in the UK chart, peaking at number 14. In the 1990s, he wrote many of the arrangements for the Three Tenors concerts.
In the 1998 film Tango, Schifrin returned to the tango music, with which he had grown familiar while working as Ástor Piazzolla's pianist in the mid-1950s. He brought traditional tango songs to the film, as well as introducing compositions of his own, in which tango is fused with jazz elements. In 1997, the composer founded Aleph Records, he wrote the main theme for Splinter Cell: Pandora Tomorrow. Schifrin made a cameo appearance in Red Dragon as an orchestra conductor, he is widely sampled in hip-hop and trip-hop songs, such as Heltah Skeltah's "Prowl" or Portishead's "Sour Times". Both songs sample Schifrin's "Danube Incident", one of many themes he composed for specific episodes of the Mission: Impossible TV series. On April 23, 2007, Lalo Schifrin presented a concert of film music for the Festival du Film Jules Verne Aventures, at Le Grand Rex theatre in Paris, France – Europe's biggest movie theater; this was recorded by festival leaders for a 73-and-a-half-minute CD named Lalo Schifrin: Le Concert à Paris.
In 2010, a fictionalised account of Lalo Schifrin's creation of the "Theme from Mission: Impossible" tune was featured in a Lipton TV commercial aired in a number of countries around the world. Seattle-based alternative hip hop group Blue Scholars recorde
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term dioikesis meaning "administration". Today, when used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. In the organization of the Roman Empire, the subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. After Christianity was given legal status in 313, the Churches began to organize themselves into dioceses based on provinces, not on the larger regional imperial districts; the dioceses were smaller than the provinces since there were more bishops than governors. Christianity was declared the Empire's official religion by Theodosius I in 380. Constantine I in 318 gave litigants the right to have court cases transferred from the civil courts to the bishops; this situation must have hardly survived Julian, 361-363. Episcopal courts are not heard of again in the East until 398 and in the West in 408; the quality of these courts were low, not above suspicion as the bishop of Alexandria Troas found out that clergy were making a corrupt profit.
Nonetheless, these courts were popular. Bishops had no part in the civil administration until the town councils, in decline, lost much authority to a group of'notables' made up of the richest councilors and rich persons exempted from serving on the councils, retired military, bishops post-450 A. D; as the Western Empire collapsed in the 5th century, bishops in Western Europe assumed a larger part of the role of the former Roman governors. A similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division. For Gaul, Bruce Eagles has observed that "it has long been an academic commonplace in France that the medieval dioceses, their constituent pagi, were the direct territorial successors of the Roman civitates."Modern usage of'diocese' tends to refer to the sphere of a bishop's jurisdiction.
This became commonplace during the self-conscious "classicizing" structural evolution of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, but this usage had itself been evolving from the much earlier parochia, dating from the formalized Christian authority structure in the 4th century. Most archdioceses are metropolitan sees. A few are suffragans of a metropolitan are directly subject to the Holy See. While the terms "diocese" and "episcopal see" are applicable to the area under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of any bishop, a bishop in charge of an archdiocese thereby holds the rank of archbishop. If the title of archbishop is granted on personal grounds to a diocesan bishop, his diocese does not thereby become an archdiocese; as of January 2019, in the Catholic Church there are 2,886 regular dioceses: 1 papal see, 645 archdioceses and 2,240 dioceses in the world. In the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy; the Eastern Orthodox Church calls dioceses episkopē in the Greek tradition and eparchies in the Slavic tradition.
After the English Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as dioceses, not archdioceses: they are the metropolitan bishops of their respective provinces and bishops of their own diocese and have the position of archbishop. Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics; these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, the Church of Norway. From about the 13th century until the German mediatization of 1803, the majority of the bishops of the Holy Roman Empire were prince-bishops, as such exercised political authority over a principality, their so-called Hochstift, distinct, considerably smaller than their diocese, over which they only exercised the usual authority of a bishop.
Some American Lutheran church bodies such as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America have a bishop acting as the head of the synod, but the synod does not have dioceses and archdioceses as the churches listed above. Rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory; the Lutheran Church - International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure, with four dioceses in North America. Its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes; the Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States. In the COGIC, most states are divided into at least three or more dioceses that are each led by a bishop; these dioceses are called "jurisdictions" within COGIC. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the term "bishopric" is used to describe the bishop himself, together with his two counselors, not the ward or congregation of which a bishop has charge. In the United Methodist Church, a bishop is given oversight over a geographical area called an episcopal area; each episcopal area contains one or more an
The Amityville Horror (2005 film)
The Amityville Horror is a 2005 American horror film directed by Andrew Douglas and written by Scott Kosar. It is a based on the novel The Amityville Horror by Jay Anson and is a remake of the 1979 film The Amityville Horror, it is the ninth installment of the Amityville film series, which documents the alleged experiences of the Lutz family after they moved into a house on Long Island where Ronald DeFeo Jr. murdered six members of his family in 1974. In 1974, Ronald DeFeo Jr. murdered his family at their house at 112 Ocean Avenue in Amityville, New York. He claimed. One year married couple George and Kathy Lutz move into the house along with Kathy's three children from a previous marriage, Billy and Chelsea; the family soon begins experiencing paranormal events in the house. Chelsea claims that she has befriended a girl named Jodie, a name belonging to one of the murdered DeFeo children. One night the couple decide to go out, they hire a babysitter to watch the three kids; when the babysitter, arrives, they come to find out that she had been hired to babysit for the DeFeos.
Lisa tells them about the murders. When she goes to Chelsea's room, Chelsea tells her that she is a bad babysitter, claiming that Jodie told her so. Lisa begins to scold Jodie for being the reason behind her getting fired. Billy dares Lisa to go inside the closet, she gets locked inside. After a few seconds she encounters Jodie herself, begs to be let out, she goes into shock and the paramedics arrive to take her away. George's behavior towards Kathy and her children becomes abusive and the paranormal activity continues. Kathy asks priest Father Callaway to bless the house, as a protective measure to prevent any future paranormal incidents, but Father Callaway flees the house when he encounters such occurrences himself. Kathy discovers that the house once belonged to a cult preacher named Reverend Jeremiah Ketcham, whose evil actions towards Native Americans during his "mission" in 17th century Amityville are said to be the cause of the haunting at 112 Ocean Avenue. Meanwhile, George, as he is walking through the basement of the house, encounters the apparitions of the various Native Americans who were tortured and killed there by Ketcham centuries ago.
Entering a dimly-lit room, George encounters Ketcham himself, the ghostly figure of the evil missionary turns around, picks up a knife, slits his throat in an act of recreating his suicide, covering George with blood, causing him to become nearly possessed. Kathy becomes convinced. Following urgent advice from Father Callaway, Kathy tries to evacuate her children from the house and escort them to safety, but the possessed George attempts to kill her and the children. Subsequently, George is released from the spirit's control and the family permanently leaves the house. A title card states. Jodie is shown standing in the now empty house and screaming in terror while the house rearranges itself. Subsequently, she is pulled beneath the floor by a pair of disembodied hands. Melissa George as Kathy Lutz Ryan Reynolds as George Lutz Jesse James as Billy Lutz Jimmy Bennett as Michael Lutz Chloë Grace Moretz as Chelsea Lutz Rachel Nichols as Lisa Philip Baker Hall as Father Callaway Isabel Conner as Jodie DeFeo Brendan Donaldson as Ronald "Ronnie" DeFeo Jr.
Although the film is set on Long Island, it was shot in Chicago, Buffalo Grove, Fox Lake, in Salem and Silver Lake, Wisconsin. The house used is a real 1800's home, temporarily converted to add the famous "eye" windows; the house is in Salem at 27618 Silver Lake Road. The movie facade cost $60,000. After production the movie facade remained on the house for a while and was carefully removed; the famous "evil eye" windows were preserved in sections of the walls which still have the movie bedroom wallpaper on the inside and siding with old looking movie paint on the outside. The windows were "aged" to match the house using peeling paint. In 2017 an estate sale was held at the movie mansion and the famous "eye" windows, in the attic for more than a decade, were sold; the buyer has the windows on display. MGM claimed the remake was based on new information uncovered during research of the original events, but George Lutz claimed nobody spoke to him or his family about the project; when he heard it was underway, his attorney contacted the studio to find out what they had in the planning stages and to express Lutz's belief they didn't have the right to proceed without his input.
Three letters were sent and none was acknowledged. In June 2004, the studio filed a motion for declaratory relief in federal court, insisting they had the right to do a remake, Lutz countersued, citing violations of the original contract that had continued through the years following the release of the first film; the case remained unresolved when Lutz died in May 2006. The Amityville Horror opened on 3,323 screens in the United States on April 15, 2005 and earned $23,507,007 on its opening weekend, ranking first in the domestic box office, it grossed $65,233,369 domestically and $42,813,762 in foreign markets for a total worldwide box office of $108,047,131. The film received negative reviews, it holds a 24% score on review aggregator websit
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Eddie Barth was an American actor and voiceover artist. Barth earned the nickname "Mr. Gravel" for his raspy vocals in his voiceover work. Barth was born Edward Michael Bartholetti in Pennsylvania. Barth portrayed Myron Fowler, the owner of Peerless Detectives, a rival detective agency in 38 episodes of the CBS television series Simon & Simon between 1981 and 1989. Additionally, Barth portrayed a police lieutenant on Shaft, he appeared in regular roles on Night Court. Barth's most well-known voiceover commercial work was for the "Tastes Great... Less Filling" Miller Lite advertising campaign during the 1980s. Barth closed the Miller Lite television commercials by reading the slogan, "Lite Beer from Miller. Everything you always wanted in a beer, and less.". His other voiceover credits included Superman: The Animated Series, Osmosis Jones in 2001 and the 1998 film, Babe: Pig in the City. Eddie Barth died of heart failure at his home in Los Angeles on May 28, 2010, at the age of 78. Bananas - Paul Shaft - Tony Made for Each Other - Ronnie The Super Cops - Detroit Hitman / Driver It Couldn't Happen to a Nicer Guy - Sgt.
Riggs Thunder and Lightning - Rudi Volpone The Amityville Horror - Agucci Boardwalk - Eli Rosen The Man in the Santa Claus Suit - Babyskin Fame - Angelo Born in East L. A. - Lester Rover Dangerfield - Champ Twenty Dollar Star - Joe Hogan Mr. Write - Dad Killing Obsession - Limo Dispatcher Babe: Pig in the City - Nigel / Alan Osmosis Jones - Shaft - Lt. Al Rossi Rich Man, Poor Man - Papadakis Husbands, Wives & Lovers - Harry Bellini Alice - Rocky The Incredible Hulk - Sam Brandes Mickey Spillane's Mike Hammer - Ritchie Magnum P. I. - Harry Granger Perfect Strangers - Examiner Full House - Lou Simon & Simon - Myron Fowler / Max Doctor Doctor - Raymond Night Court - Morty Fleckman / Blacky Buzzlick Civil Wars - Charlie Howell, Sr. Murder, She Wrote - Richie Kanpinski / Bernie Gargoyles - Monster Tours Operator Eddie Barth on IMDb Eddie Barth at AllMovie
The Academy Awards known as the Oscars, are a set of awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership; the various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more referred to by its nickname "Oscar". The award was sculpted by George Stanley from a design sketch by Cedric Gibbons. AMPAS first presented it in 1929 at a private dinner hosted by Douglas Fairbanks in the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel; the Academy Awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now seen live worldwide, its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2018, was held on February 24, 2019, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, California.
The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,072 Oscar statuettes have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 90th ceremony, it was the first ceremony since 1988 without a host. The first Academy Awards presentation was held on 16 May 1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people; the post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period; the ceremony ran for 15 minutes. Winners were announced to media three months earlier; that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards; this method was used until an occasion when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began.
The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier. At that time, the winners were recognized for all of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on 27 March 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced; until foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor.
See § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in tall, weighs 8.5 lb, depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Directors and Technicians; the model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. Sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design; the statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy, plated in copper, nickel silver, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones; the only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base.
The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C. W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, which contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R. S. Owens & Company, it would take between four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes. In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry. While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology; the time required to produce 50 such statuettes is three months. R. S. Owens i