Deception is a 1990 novel by Philip Roth. The novel marks the first time Roth uses his own name as the name of the protagonist within a fictional work. "Roth" would be narrator of the novels Operation Shylock and The Plot Against America. At the center of the book are conversations between a married American named Philip, living in London, a married Englishwoman—trapped with a small child in a loveless upper-middle-class household; the lives of both characters are revealed as they talk before and after making love. Writing in the New York Times Book Review, the writer and critic Fay Weldon called the novel, "extraordinary, disturbing," adding that she had found it, "exhilarating." She continues: "Mr. Roth throws down a gauntlet, he is brave. Is this novel a portrait of Mr. Roth or non-Roth in hateful literary London, having it off with the wives of his friends? What conceit, to think we're interested, yet he gets away with it as he angers us. How skillful this lover, he who started out as the grubby, impetuous Portnoy, has become.
How delicately within this'text without exposition et cetera' he delineates lines of plot, event, desire. How he seduces the reluctant, soothes the aggravated." Deception is included in the fifth volume of Philip Roth's collected works Novels and Other Narratives 1986–1991, published by the Library of America
Goodbye, Columbus is a 1959 collection of fiction by the American novelist Philip Roth, comprising the title novella "Goodbye, Columbus"—which first appeared in The Paris Review—and five short stories. It was published by Houghton Mifflin. In addition to the title novella, set in New Jersey, Columbus contains the five short stories "The Conversion of the Jews", "Defender of the Faith", "Epstein", "You Can't Tell a Man by the Song He Sings", "Eli, the Fanatic"; each story deals with the concerns of second and third-generation assimilated American Jews as they leave the ethnic ghettos of their parents and grandparents and go on to college, to white-collar professions, to life in the suburbs. The book was a critical success for Roth and won the 1960 U. S. National Book Award for Fiction; the book was not without controversy, as people within the Jewish community took issue with Roth's less than flattering portrayal of some characters. The short story Defender of the Faith, about a Jewish sergeant, exploited by three shirking, coreligionist draftees, drew particular ire.
When Roth in 1962 appeared on a panel alongside the distinguished black novelist Ralph Ellison to discuss minority representation in literature, the questions directed at him became denunciations. Many accused Roth of being a label that stuck with him for years; the title novella was made into the 1969 film Goodbye, starring Ali MacGraw and Richard Benjamin. Roth wrote in the preface to the book's 30th anniversary edition: "With clarity and with crudeness, a great deal of exuberance, the embryonic writer, me wrote these stories in his early 20s, while he was a graduate student at the University of Chicago, a soldier stationed in New Jersey and Washington, a novice English instructor back at Chicago following his Army discharge... In the beginning it amazed him that any literate audience could be interested in his story of tribal secrets, in what he knew, as a child of his neighborhood, about the rites and taboos of his clan—about their aversions, their aspirations, their fears of deviance and defection, their embarrassments and ideas of success."
The title story of the collection, Columbus, was an irreverent look at the life of middle-class Jewish Americans, according to one reviewer, their "complacency and materialism." It was controversial with reviewers, who were polarized in their judgments. The story is told by the narrator, Neil Klugman, working in a low-paying position in the Newark Public Library, he lives with his Aunt Uncle Max in a working-class neighborhood of Newark, New Jersey. One summer, Neil meets and falls for Brenda Patimkin, a student at Radcliffe College, from a wealthy family living in the affluent suburb of Short Hills; the novella explores the classism which afflicts the relationship, despite the fact that Brenda's father, came from the same environment as Neil. The issue of ethnic assimilation is intrinsic; the title “Goodbye, Columbus” is a quote from a song, sung by the departing seniors, including Brenda's brother, Ron, at their graduation from the Ohio State University at Columbus. Ron dearly enjoys listening to a record of the song that evokes his years as a varsity athlete on a campus where sports are big.
By listening to the record for a few years and having Neil listen along, he is given continuing proof of the Patimkins' success at assimilation. As the story proceeds, Neil finds. Thus, the alma-mater nostalgia of the novella's title can be heard as a choral parallel to Neil's saying goodbye to the affluent, assimilated world of the Patimkins and, in his unreported future, remembering, re-evaluating and in low moments or periods, missing it and them. A New York Yiddish theater song of 1926 includes lyrics whose translation is “I’m going home.... I’m going to Palestine.... Goodbye, Columbus.” The rhythm of this Jewish song is that of a march. The novella’s title restates or points at the proud and emotional rejection of assimilation, belted out in this song by an East-European Jew who had immigrated to the U. S; this song's Columbus is not a campus but rather the man who induced Europeans to follow him to America, its "Goodbye" is neither a sentimental summation nor a grateful or admiring one. The title functions as a trick: to tempt and enable a reader to hear the point, made by "Goodbye" in each of the two songs, while watching Neil ambivalently and uncomfortably tip back and forth between the two of them, to feel those attitudes and Roth's attitudes toward them, in order to see, among other things, the incompleteness and distortedness of each of the three goodbye-sayers' view of what he is saying goodbye to.
It is a magic trick, though not of the kind that stops the members of a magician's audience from glimpsing what is happening two feet away from what they have all fixed their gaze on. Quite the contrary: The trick illuminates what is unconscious; this short story, which first appeared in The Paris Review in 1958, deals with the themes of questioning religion and being violent to one another because of it. Ozzie Freedman, a Jewish-American boy about thirteen years old, confronts his Hebrew school teacher, Rabbi Binder, with challenging questions: whether it is possible that God gave the Virgin Mary a child without having intercourse. Rabbi Binder interprets Ozzie's question about the virgin birth as impertinent, though Ozzie sincerely wishes to better understand God and his faith; when Ozzie continues to ask challenging questions
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Plot Against America
The Plot Against America is a novel by Philip Roth published in 2004. It is an alternative history in which Franklin D. Roosevelt is defeated in the presidential election of 1940 by Charles Lindbergh; the novel follows the fortunes of the Roth family during the Lindbergh presidency, as antisemitism becomes more accepted in American life and Jewish-American families like the Roths are persecuted on various levels. The narrator and central character in the novel is the young Philip, the care with which his confusion and terror are rendered makes the novel as much about the mysteries of growing up as about American politics. Roth based his novel on the isolationist ideas espoused by Lindbergh in real life as a spokesman for the America First Committee, on his own experiences growing up in Newark, New Jersey; the novel depicts the Weequahic section of Newark which includes Weequahic High School from which Roth graduated. The novel is told from the point of view of Philip Roth as a child, it begins with aviation hero Charles Lindbergh criticized for his praise of Hitler's government, joining the America First Party.
As the party's spokesman, he speaks against U. S. intervention in World War II, criticizes the "Jewish race" for trying to force U. S. involvement. After making a surprise appearance on the last night of the 1940 Republican National Convention, he is nominated as the Republican Party's candidate for President. Although criticized from the left, hated by most Jewish-Americans, Lindbergh musters a strong tide of popular support from the South and Midwest, is endorsed by conservative rabbi Lionel Bengelsdorf. Lindbergh wins the election over incumbent president Franklin D. Roosevelt in a landslide under the slogan'Vote for Lindbergh, or vote for war.' He nominates Burton K. Wheeler as his vice president, Henry Ford as Secretary of the Interior. With Lindbergh as president, the Roth family begins to feel like outsiders in U. S. society. Lindbergh's first act is to sign a treaty with Nazi Germany and Adolf Hitler, promising that the United States will not interfere with German expansion in Europe, with Imperial Japan, promising non-interference with Japanese expansion in Asia.
The new presidency begins to take a toll on Philip's family. Philip's cousin Alvin joins the Canadian Army to fight in Europe, he loses his leg in combat, comes home with his ideals destroyed. He becomes a racketeer. A new government program begins to take Jewish boys to spend a period of time living with exchange families in the South and Midwest in order to "Americanize" them. Philip's brother Sandy is one of the boys selected, after spending time on a farm in Kentucky he comes home showing contempt for his family, calling them "ghetto Jews". Philip's aunt Evelyn marries Lionel Bengelsdorf and becomes a frequent guest of the Lindbergh White House being invited to a dinner party for German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop; this causes further strain in the family. A new government act is instituted relocating whole Jewish families to the western United States. Many of Philip's neighbors move to Canada. Philip's shy and innocent school friend Seldon Wishnow, an only child, is moved to Kentucky with his mother.
In protest against the new act, radio broadcaster Walter Winchell criticizes the Lindbergh administration and is fired from his station. He decides to run for President and begins a speaking tour, his candidacy causes anger and antisemitic rioting in southern and Midwestern states, mobs begin targeting him. Making a speech in Louisville, Kentucky he is shot to death. Winchell's funeral in New York City is presided over by Mayor Fiorello La Guardia, who praises Winchell for his opposition to fascism, criticizes President Lindbergh for his silence over the riots and Winchell's death. After making a short speech, Lindbergh's personal plane goes missing. Body hunts turn up no results and Vice President Wheeler assumes command; the German State Radio discloses "evidence" that Lindbergh's disappearance, as well as the kidnapping of his son, were part of a major Jewish conspiracy to take control of the U. S. government. This announcement causes further antisemitic rioting. Wheeler and Ford, acting on this evidence, begin arresting prominent Jewish citizens, including Henry Morgenthau, Jr. Herbert Lehman and Bernard Baruch, as well as Mayor LaGuardia.
Seldon calls the Roths. They discover that Seldon's mother was killed by Ku Klux Klan members who beat and robbed her before setting fire to her car with her in it; the Roths call Sandy's exchange family in Kentucky and have them keep Seldon safe until Philip's father and brother drive there and bring him back to Newark. Months he is taken in by his mother's sister; the rioting stops when first lady Anne Morrow Lindbergh makes a statement asking for the country to stop the violence and move forward. With the body searches called off, former president Franklin D. Roosevelt runs as an emergency presidential candidate, is reelected. Months the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor, the U. S. enters the war. As an epilogue, Philip's aunt Evelyn confides a theory of Lindbergh's disappearance. According to her, after Lindbergh's son Charles was kidnapped, his murder was faked, he was raised in Germany by the Nazis as a Hitler Youth member; the Nazis' price for the boy's life was Charles Lindbergh's full cooperation with a Nazi-organized Presidential campaign, by which they hoped to bring the Final Solution to the U.
S. When Lindbergh informed them that the United States would never permit such a thing, he was kidnapped, the Jewish conspiracy theory was put forward hoping to
Philip Milton Roth was an American novelist and short-story writer. Roth's fiction set in his birthplace of Newark, New Jersey, is known for its intensely autobiographical character, for philosophically and formally blurring the distinction between reality and fiction, for its "sensual, ingenious style" and for its provocative explorations of American identity. Roth first gained attention with the 1959 novella Goodbye, for which he received the U. S. National Book Award for Fiction, he became one of the most awarded American writers of his generation. His books twice received the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle award, three times the PEN/Faulkner Award, he received a Pulitzer Prize for his 1997 novel American Pastoral, which featured one of his best-known characters, Nathan Zuckerman, a character in many of Roth's novels. The Human Stain, another Zuckerman novel, was awarded the United Kingdom's WH Smith Literary Award for the best book of the year. In 2001, in Prague, Roth received the inaugural Franz Kafka Prize.
Philip Roth was born in Newark, New Jersey, on March 19, 1933, grew up at 81 Summit Avenue in the Weequahic neighborhood. He was the second child of an insurance broker. Roth's family was Jewish, his parents were second-generation Americans. Roth's father's parents came from Kozlov near Lviv / Lemberg in Galicia, he graduated from Newark's Weequahic High School in or around 1950. As Arnold H. Lubasch wrote in the New York Times in 1969, "It has provided the focus for the fiction of Philip Roth, the novelist who evokes his era at Weequahic High School in the acclaimed Portnoy's Complaint.... Besides identifying Weequahic High School by name, the novel specifies such sites as the Empire Burlesque, the Weequahic Diner, the Newark Museum and Irvington Park, all local landmarks that helped shape the youth of the real Roth and the fictional Portnoy, both graduates of Weequahic class of'50." The Weequahic Yearbook describes Roth as "A boy of real intelligence, combined with wit and common sense." He was known as a comedian during his time at school.
Roth attended Rutgers University in Newark for a year transferred to Bucknell University in Pennsylvania, where he earned a B. A. magna was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. He received a scholarship to attend the University of Chicago, where he earned an M. A. in English literature in 1955 and worked as an instructor in the university's writing program. That same year, rather than wait to be drafted, Roth enlisted in the army, but he suffered a back injury during basic training and was given a medical discharge, he dropped out after one term. Roth taught creative writing at the University of Princeton University, he continued his academic career at the University of Pennsylvania, where he taught comparative literature before retiring from teaching in 1991. Between the end of his studies and the publication of his first book in 1959, Roth served two years in the United States Army and wrote short fiction and criticism for various magazines, including movie reviews for The New Republic. Roth's work first appeared in print in the Chicago Review while he was studying, teaching, at the University of Chicago.
His first book, Columbus, contains the novella Goodbye and four short stories. It won the National Book Award in 1960, he published his first full-length novel, Letting Go, in 1962. In 1967 he published, it is based in part on the life of Margaret Martinson Williams, whom Roth married in 1959. The publication in 1969 of his fourth and most controversial novel, Portnoy's Complaint, gave Roth widespread commercial and critical success, causing his profile to rise significantly. During the 1970s Roth experimented in various modes, from the political satire Our Gang to the Kafkaesque The Breast. By the end of the decade Roth had created his alter ego Nathan Zuckerman. In a series of self-referential novels and novellas that followed between 1979 and 1986, Zuckerman appeared as either the main character or an interlocutor. Sabbath's Theater may have Roth's most lecherous protagonist, Mickey Sabbath, a disgraced former puppeteer. In complete contrast, American Pastoral, the first volume of his so-called second Zuckerman trilogy, focuses on the life of virtuous Newark star athlete Swede Levov, the tragedy that befalls him when Levov's teenage daughter becomes a domestic terrorist during the late 1960s.
I Married a Communist focuses on the McCarthy era. The Human Stain examines identity politics in 1990s America; the Dying Animal is a short novel about eros and death that revisits literary professor David Kepesh, protagonist of two 1970s works, The Breast and The Professor of Desire. In The Plot Against America, Roth imagines an alternative American history in which Charles Lindbergh, aviator hero and isolationist, is elected U. S. president in 1940, the U. S. negotiates an understanding with Hitler's Nazi Germany and embarks on its own program of anti-Semitism. Roth's novel Everyman, a meditation on illness, aging and death, was published in May 2006. For Everyman Roth won his third PEN/Faulkner Award. Exit Ghost, which again features Nathan Zuckerman, was released in October 2007, it was the last Zuckerman novel. Indignation, Roth's 29th book, was published on September 16, 2008. Set in 1951, during the Korean War, it follows Marcus Messner's departure from Newark to Ohio's Wines
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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