Reality television is a genre of television programming that documents purportedly unscripted real-life situations starring unknown individuals rather than professional actors. Reality television came to prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000s with the global successes of the series Survivor and Big Brother, all of which became global franchises. Reality television shows tend to be interspersed with "confessionals", short interview segments in which cast members reflect on or provide context for the events being depicted on-screen. Competition-based reality shows feature gradual elimination of participants, either by a panel of judges or by the viewership of the show. Documentaries, television news, sports television, talk shows, traditional game shows are not classified as reality television; some genres of television programming that predate the reality television boom are retroactively labeled reality television, including hidden camera shows, talent-search shows, documentary series about ordinary people, high-concept game shows, home improvement shows, court shows featuring real-life cases.
Reality television has faced significant criticism since its rise in popularity. Critics argue reality television shows do not reflect reality, in ways both implicit, deceptive; some have been accused of underdog to win. Other criticisms of reality television shows include that they are intended to humiliate or exploit participants. Television formats portraying ordinary people in unscripted situations are as old as the television medium itself. Producer-host Allen Funt's Candid Camera, in which unsuspecting people were confronted with funny, unusual situations and filmed with hidden cameras, first aired in 1948, is seen as a prototype of reality television programming. Precedents for television that portrayed people in unscripted situations began in the late 1940s. Queen for a Day was an early example of reality-based television; the 1946 television game show Carry sometimes featured contestants performing stunts. Debuting in 1948, Allen Funt's hidden camera show Candid Camera broadcast unsuspecting ordinary people reacting to pranks.
In 1948, talent search shows Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour and Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts featured amateur competitors and audience voting. In the 1950s, game shows Beat the Clock and Truth or Consequences involved contestants in wacky competitions and practical jokes. Confession was a crime/police show which aired from June 1958 to January 1959, with interviewer Jack Wyatt questioning criminals from assorted backgrounds; the radio series Nightwatch tape-recorded the daily activities of Culver City, California police officers. The series You Asked for It incorporated audience involvement by basing episodes around requests sent in by postcard from viewers. "You're Another", a science fiction short story by American writer Damon Knight, first appeared in the June 1955 issue of The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction and contains the earliest fictional depiction of what is now called reality television. First broadcast in the United Kingdom in 1964, the Granada Television documentary Seven Up!, broadcast interviews with a dozen ordinary 7-year-olds from a broad cross-section of society and inquired about their reactions to everyday life.
Every seven years, a film documented the life of the same individuals during the intervening period, titled the Up Series, episodes include "7 Plus Seven", "21 Up", etc.. The program was structured as a series of interviews with no element of plot. However, it did have the then-new effect of turning ordinary people into celebrities; the first reality show in the modern sense may have been the series The American Sportsman, which ran from 1965 to 1986 on ABC in the United States. A typical episode featured one or more celebrities, sometimes their family members, being accompanied by a camera crew on an outdoor adventure, such as hunting, hiking, scuba diving, rock climbing, wildlife photography, horseback riding, race car driving, the like, with most of the resulting action and dialogue being unscripted, except for the narration. In the 1966 Direct Cinema film Chelsea Girls, Andy Warhol filmed various acquaintances with no direction given; the 12-part 1973 PBS series An American Family showed a nuclear family going through a divorce.
In 1974 a counterpart program, The Family, was made in the UK, following the working class Wilkins family of Reading. Other forerunners of modern reality television were the 1970s productions of Chuck Barris: The Dating Game, The Newlywed Game, The Gong Show, all of which featured participants who were eager to sacrifice some of their privacy and dignity in a televised competition; the 1976-1980 BBC series The Big Time showed, in each of its 15 episodes, a different amateur in some field trying to succeed professionally in that field, with help from notable experts. The series is credited with starting the career of Sheena Easton, selected to appear in the episode showing an aspiring pop singer trying to enter the music business. In 1978, Living in the Past recreated life in an
James Andrew Innes Dee is an English stand-up comedian, actor and writer known for his sarcasm and deadpan humour. He is well known in the United Kingdom for writing and starring in the sitcom Lead Balloon and hosting the panel show I'm Sorry I Haven't A Clue, his numerous UK television appearances include being a team captain on Shooting Stars and hosting Jack Dee: Live at the Apollo, nominated for a BAFTA in 2006. He presented The Jack Dee Show, Jack Dee's Saturday Night and Jack Dee's Happy Hour, he won Celebrity Big Brother 1 in 2001. Jack Dee was the youngest of three children born to Rosemary A. and Geoffrey T. Dee, after Joanna Innes Dee and David Simon Innes Dee. Jack was born in Bromley and grew up in nearby Petts Wood before moving with his family to Winchester when he was young, his father, was a printer and his mother, was the daughter of two unsuccessful repertory actors, Henry Lionel Pope Stamper and Edna May Howard Innes. Dee was educated at both independent and state schools, his first school, The Pilgrims' School, a preparatory school in Winchester, was followed by the state Montgomery of Alamein School for his secondary education, for a period he attended Frensham Heights School.
He took his A-levels at Peter Symonds' College, left with a D and an F grade. Following this, he planned to attend drama college, but his plans were scuppered when his mother persuaded him to get a vocation, so he entered the catering industry and became a waiter. Dee's first public act was an open-mic gig in 1986 at The Comedy Store, which he went to one evening after work, he was encouraged to tour the circuit. Since the 1990s he has performed sell-out acts at many high-profile venues. After he scooped the British Comedy Award for Best Stage Newcomer in 1991, Dee was offered his own show, his combination of stand-up routines on television continued with Jack Dee's Saturday Night on ITV, Jack Dee's Happy Hour in 1997 and Jack Dee Live at the Apollo in 2004 on BBC One. In 1996, he starred alongside Jeremy Hardy in Jack and Jeremy's Real Lives, a collection of mockumentaries similar to their previous collaboration, Jack And Jeremy's Police 4; each episode would focus on the pair playing bizarre characters from a particular profession.
Shot on film and featuring no laugh track, the show failed to catch on. After three episodes it was moved to air after midnight; the pilot featured Sacha Baron Cohen being electrocuted. Aside from his successful stand-up career, Dee has played starring roles and guest appearances in television series, he played the part of Doug Digby in the Grimleys pilot before the role was recast for the series, made guest appearances on such programmes as Silent Witness and Pascoe and Jonathan Creek. In 2001, he won Celebrity Big Brother. During evictions, he dressed up in a tweed jacket and cap and held his packed suitcase, hoping to be voted out. During the eviction of another housemate he absconded to sneak a quick kiss with his wife, he escaped for several hours at night-time. He has subsequently said that he dislikes the treatment of the housemates by the show and its producers, has refused all permission for any of the clips to be shown again. In 2004, he played the role of Steven Sharples MP the self-styled'Deputy Home Secretary' alongside Warren Clarke and Dervla Kirwan in The Deputy.
Dee's performance was praised. That year he starred in another one-off drama, Tunnel of Love, he was the celebrity advocate in Britain's Best Sitcom for Fawlty Towers and presented an hour-long documentary about the series. In 2005, he co-hosted Comic Aid, a one-off gathering of comedians that aimed to raise money for the Asian Tsunami Appeal. In May of the same year he appeared on the "Star in a Reasonably-Priced Car" segment of the BBC Two series Top Gear, achieving a lap time of 1:53.5. His most recent series Lead Balloon, which he co-wrote, began on BBC Four on 4 October 2006. Described as "Britain's answer to Curb Your Enthusiasm", Lead Balloon sees Dee play the semi-biographical role of Rick Spleen. A second series of eight episodes was commissioned and was broadcast on BBC Two in 2007, with a third series debuting on Thursday 13 November 2008. A fourth series finished on the BBC on 5 July 2011, he starred as Harry in the 2005 film Short Order. In February 2009, it was announced that Dee would be one of a trio of hosts to replace the late Humphrey Lyttelton for the summer series of I'm Sorry I Haven't a Clue.
He subsequently became the permanent host from the 52nd series onwards. He is a frequent guest on QI and Have I Got News for You, which he has guest-presented ten times, he hosts segments of the BBC's biennial Comic Relief telethon, he starred in advertisements for John Smith's Bitter in the 1990s, becoming known as "the midget with the widget". He made his stage debut in 1998, playing Yvan in Yasmina Reza's Olivier award-winning'Art', he returned as Serge for a 13-week run at the request of the director. In 2008, Dee took part in the 15th anniversary special of Shooting Stars where he replaced Will Self as captain of Team A; the show aired on 30 December 2008 on BBC2. Dee returned as team captain in series 6 of Shooting Stars on 26 August 2009, again for the 7th series. Over Christmas 2009, Dee played the role of John Tweedledum in The News at Bedtime. In 2010, Dee took part in Channel 4's Comedy Gala, a
Mark Burnett is a British television producer, the current Chairman of MGM Worldwide Television Group. Burnett-produced TV series have been nominated for a total of 143 Emmys, he has won twelve Emmy Awards, five Producers Guild of America Awards, seven Critics' Choice Television Awards, six People's Choice Awards. As of late 2018, Burnett is the executive producer of six network television shows: Jamie Foxx's Beat Shazam, Kevin Hart's TKO, Shark Tank, The Voice, The World's Best with host James Corden and judges Drew Barrymore, RuPaul, Faith Hill. Burnett is the executive producer of the cable series Lucha Underground and The Contender. In 2017, Burnett had timeslot winning shows on six nights out of seven. Moreover, as Chairman of MGM Worldwide Television he oversees scripted television shows including Condor, Get Shorty, The Handmaid’s Tale, Vikings. Under Burnett's leadership, MGM has expanded its cable TV business through the acquisitions of Evolution Media and Big Fish Entertainment. Burnett additionally produced the faith-based series The Bible and A.
D. The Bible Continues, as well as the feature films Son of God, Little Boy and Ben-Hur. Burnett was born on 17 July 1960 in London, the only child of Archie and Jean Burnett, both Ford Motors factory workers, was raised in Dagenham, Essex, his father was a Roman Catholic and his mother was a Presbyterian. Aged 17, he enlisted in the British Army, became a Section Commander in the Parachute Regiment. From 1978 to 1982 he served with the 3rd Battalion, Parachute Regiment in C Company and saw action during the Falklands War and Northern Ireland. In October 1982, Burnett emigrated to the United States, where his friend Nick Hill, who had emigrated from the UK earlier, was working as a nanny and chauffeur. Hill knew of an open position for a live-in nanny with the Jaeger family in affluent Beverly Hills. Despite having no experience as a nanny, Burnett went on the interview; the Jaegers, realizing the advantage of having a security at the same time, hired him. After a year of working for the Jaegers, he moved on to another family in Malibu, taking care of two boys for $250 a week.
He was given a position in the insurance office owned by Burt, the father of the two boys. Two years Burnett rented a portion of a fence at Venice Beach in Los Angeles, sold T-shirts for $18 each during weekends. Realizing he made more money selling T-shirts, he left his insurance job. In 1991, four others joined a French adventure competition, the Raid Gauloises. Afterward, Burnett saw a business opportunity in holding similar competitions, he brought a similar competition, Eco-Challenge, to America. Eco-Challenge launched Burnett's career as a television producer. Burnett is best known for producing the hit reality show Survivor, which premiered in the summer of 2000 and was the most watched summer series since Sonny and Cher. Survivor was named the Number 1 reality series of all time by Entertainment Weekly in 2009. In 2004, NBC premiered The Apprentice, a reality television series in which contestants competed for a job under real estate magnate Donald Trump; the Apprentice spawned numerous licensed international versions of the show.
Burnett has produced several other television franchises including: Are You Smarter Than a 5th Grader?, Shark Tank, The Voice, Beat Shazam, TKO: Total Knock Out. He has maintained a strong presence in award show franchises, having produced the MTV Movie Awards, the annual People's Choice Awards, the Spike Video Game Awards and the 2011, 63rdPrimetime Emmy Awards. Burnett has produced more than 3,200 hours of television programming which airs in more than 70 countries. Past shows include Celebrity Apprentice, Bully Beatdown, Combat Missions, The Contender, The Contender Asia, Expedition Africa, Expedition Impossible, How'd You Get So Rich?, Martha Stewart, My Dad Is Better Than Your Dad, On the Lot, The Restaurant, Rock Star, Sarah Palin's Alaska, Stars Earn Stripes, Toughest Cowboy, Wedding Day. As well as his ongoing productions and his wife, actress Roma Downey, produced The Bible, a 10-hour History Channel drama based upon stories of the Bible; the Bible became the No. 1 new series on cable TV in 2013 and was the No. 1 series in Canada and Portugal.
In total, with subsequent airings, The Bible was seen by more than 100 million viewers. After the success of The Bible and Downey started developing more faith-based scripted series. A. D; the Bible Continues premiered on NBC on Easter Sunday 2015, The Dovekeepers miniseries aired on CBS in Spring 2015. In September 2014, MGM acquired a 55 percent interest in One Three LightWorkers Media; the two companies were consolidated into a new film and television company, United Artists Media Group, acquired by MGM in 2015. In December 2015, Burnett was named president of MGM Television and Digital Group, signing a five-year deal. Burnett's appointment was set up to occur with the closing of MGM's acquisition of the remaining 45 percent of Hearst's, Burnett's and Roma Downey‘s interests in United Artists Media Group, which will be absorbed under the MGM Television Group umbrella. MGM Television will now have numerous unscripted and scripted television shows airing on network and cable or in production including: The Voice.
Dara Ó Briain
Dara Ó Briain is an Irish comedian and television presenter based in the United Kingdom and Ireland. He is noted for hosting topical panel shows such as Mock the Week, The Panel, The Apprentice: You're Fired!. His TV work includes starring in and writing of television comedy and documentary series. Ó Briain has been a newspaper columnist, with pieces published in national papers in both Britain and Ireland. In 2009, the Irish Independent described Ó Briain as "Terry Wogan's heir apparent as Britain's'favourite Irishman'" and in 2010, Ó Briain was voted the 16th greatest stand-up comic on Channel 4's 100 Greatest Stand-Ups. Ó Briain was born in 1972 in Bray, County Wicklow, attended Coláiste Eoin secondary school, a Gaelcholáiste on Dublin's southside. He attended University College, where he studied mathematics and theoretical physics. In 2008, he remarked: "I haven't written it into my act, but it comes through. I could come on with a chalkboard and say:'Now you're all going to pay attention.'"While a student at UCD, he was both the auditor of the Literary and Historical Society and the co-founder and co-editor of The University Observer college newspaper.
In 1994, he won the Irish Times National Debating Championship and The Irish Times/Gael Linn National Irish language debating championship. After leaving university, Ó Briain began working at RTÉ as a children's TV presenter. At this time, he began performing his first stand-up gigs on the Irish comedy circuit, he admitted, "I did the trip from Dublin to Donegal to play to six people. I did about four years playing to a lot of bad rooms, but learning as I went. It's not bad when someone gives you £ 40 for telling jokes. I remember thinking:'This is the life.'" Ó Briain spent three years as a presenter on the bilingual children's programme Echo Island but came to prominence as a team captain on the topical panel show Don't Feed The Gondolas hosted by Seán Moncrieff. Ó Briain hosted RTÉ family entertainment gameshow It's A Family Affair. Dara would persuade Paul Merton to put children's television presenters into Room 101, on the television talk show of that name. Ó Briain's stand up international career took off around this time as he began to tour performing across Europe, Asia and North America, with gigs in Dubai, Adelaide and New York City.
He was a regular at the Kilkenny Cat Laughs and the Edinburgh Festival, as well as making one notable appearance at the Just For Laughs festival in Montreal in 2002, where he was offered a prestigious gala show because of his performances at the Irish showcase. Around this time, Ó Briain presented, it was the first time. They set up the production company Happy Endings Productions, together they produced the chat show Buried Alive and most famously in Ireland The Panel. In 2005, Ó Briain's show at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe was the biggest selling solo comedy show of the festival. In early 2006, Ó Briain conducted his third tour of Ireland; this included shows at the Theatre Royal, in London as well as nine nights in Dublin at Vicar Street. His second night in the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, in London was recorded for his first live DVD, his fourth multinational tour followed in late 2007, which as he says in his routine has "no title" but was entitled "You Had to Be There". He performed new tours across the UK and Ireland in 2008, 2010 and 2012.
His 2010 tour played for 150 dates, to over 225,000 people, including 37 nights in Vicar St. in Dublin, 9 nights at the Hammersmith Apollo in London and a first date in Dubai. Each of those three tours were recorded for DVD, the 2012 tour, entitled'Craic Dealer', was recorded during his shows at the Edinburgh Playhouse in May 2012. 2015 saw Dara on tour again with Crowd Tickler. On 12 March 2011, Ó Briain, Jack Whitehall and Jon Richardson set a new Guinness World Records title for hosting the'highest stand-up comedy gig in the world', on a British Airways flight in support of Comic Relief. In 2011, Ó Briain took part in two shows of the 16-date Uncaged Monkeys tour with Professor Brian Cox, Robin Ince, Ben Goldacre, Simon Singh and Chris Addison; the Panel was hosted by Ó Briain. Three times nominated for the Best Entertainment show IFTA the show has a rotating cast of panellists drawn from the world of Irish comedy, discussing the events of the week and interviewing guests; the most regular panellists have been Colin Murphy, Ed Byrne, Neil Delamere, Andrew Maxwell and Mairéad Farrell.
Around 2002, with his profile rising in the UK due to his one-man shows at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe, Ó Briain began making appearances on UK television shows such as Bring Me the Head of Light Entertainment and Never Mind the Buzzcocks. In early 2003, he hosted the second series of BBC Scotland's Live Floor Show, his big break in UK television came in 2003, when he appeared as a guest panellist on news quiz, Have I Got News for You, subsequently making several appearances as guest host of the show. In 2003, Ó Briain was nominated at the Chortle Comedy Awards for Live Comedy in the categories Best Compère and Best Headline Act. In 2004, he won the Best Headliner award again, as well as being nominated for Best Full-
Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev was a Russian Soviet composer and conductor. As the creator of acknowledged masterpieces across numerous musical genres, he is regarded as one of the major composers of the 20th century, his works include such heard pieces as the March from The Love for Three Oranges, the suite Lieutenant Kijé, the ballet Romeo and Juliet—from which "Dance of the Knights" is taken—and Peter and the Wolf. Of the established forms and genres in which he worked, he created – excluding juvenilia – seven completed operas, seven symphonies, eight ballets, five piano concertos, two violin concertos, a cello concerto, a symphony-concerto for cello and orchestra, nine completed piano sonatas. A graduate of the St Petersburg Conservatory, Prokofiev made his name as an iconoclastic composer-pianist, achieving notoriety with a series of ferociously dissonant and virtuosic works for his instrument, including his first two piano concertos. In 1915, Prokofiev made a decisive break from the standard composer-pianist category with his orchestral Scythian Suite, compiled from music composed for a ballet commissioned by Sergei Diaghilev of the Ballets Russes.
Diaghilev commissioned three further ballets from Prokofiev—Chout, Le pas d'acier and The Prodigal Son—which at the time of their original production all caused a sensation among both critics and colleagues. Prokofiev's greatest interest, was opera, he composed several works in that genre, including The Gambler and The Fiery Angel. Prokofiev's one operatic success during his lifetime was The Love for Three Oranges, composed for the Chicago Opera and subsequently performed over the following decade in Europe and Russia. After the Revolution of 1917, Prokofiev left Russia with the official blessing of the Soviet minister Anatoly Lunacharsky, resided in the United States Germany Paris, making his living as a composer and conductor. During that time, he married Carolina Codina, with whom he had two sons. In the early 1930s, the Great Depression diminished opportunities for Prokofiev's ballets and operas to be staged in America and western Europe. Prokofiev, who regarded himself as composer foremost, resented the time taken by touring as a pianist, turned to the Soviet Union for commissions of new music.
He enjoyed some success there – notably with Lieutenant Kijé, Peter and the Wolf and Juliet, above all with Alexander Nevsky. The Nazi invasion of the USSR spurred him to compose his most ambitious work, an operatic version of Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace. In 1948, Prokofiev was attacked for producing "anti-democratic formalism." He enjoyed personal and artistic support from a new generation of Russian performers, notably Sviatoslav Richter and Mstislav Rostropovich: he wrote his ninth piano sonata for the former and his Symphony-Concerto for the latter. Prokofiev was born in 1891 in Sontsovka, a remote rural estate in the Yekaterinoslav Governorate of the Russian Empire, his father, Sergei Alexeyevich Prokofiev, was an agronomist. Prokofiev's mother, came from a family of former serfs, owned by the Sheremetev family, under whose patronage serf-children were taught theatre and arts from an early age, she was described by Reinhold Glière as "a tall woman with beautiful, clever eyes … who knew how to create an atmosphere of warmth and simplicity about her."
After their wedding in the summer of 1877, the Prokofievs moved to a small estate in the Smolensk governorate. Sergei Alexeyevich found employment as a soil engineer, employed by one of his former fellow-students, Dmitri Sontsov, to whose estate in the Ukrainian steppes the Prokofievs moved. By the time of Prokofiev's birth, Maria—having lost two daughters—had devoted her life to music. Sergei Prokofiev was inspired by hearing his mother practising the piano in the evenings works by Chopin and Beethoven, wrote his first piano composition at the age of five, an "Indian Gallop", written down by his mother: it was in the F Lydian mode, as the young Prokofiev felt "reluctance to tackle the black notes". By seven, he had learned to play chess. Chess would remain a passion of his, he became acquainted with world chess champions José Raúl Capablanca, whom he beat in a simultaneous exhibition match in 1914, Mikhail Botvinnik, with whom he played several matches in the 1930s. At the age of nine, he was composing his first opera, The Giant, as well as an overture and various other pieces.
In 1902, Prokofiev's mother met Sergei Taneyev, director of the Moscow Conservatory, who suggested that Prokofiev should start lessons in piano and composition with Alexander Goldenweiser. Unable to arrange that, Taneyev instead arranged for composer and pianist Reinhold Glière to spend the summer of 1902 in Sontsovka teaching Prokofiev; the first series of lessons culminated, at the 11-year-old Prokofiev's insistence, with the budding composer making his first attempt to write a symphony. The following summer, Glière revisited Sontsovka to give further tuition. When, decades Prokofiev wrote about his lessons with Glière, he gave due credit to his teacher's sympathetic method but complained that Glière had introduced him to "square" phrase structure and conventional modulations, which he subsequently had to unlearn. Nonetheless, equipped with the n
The Apprentice (UK series 2)
Series two of The Apprentice, a British reality television series, was broadcast in the UK during 2006, from 22 February to 10 May on BBC Two. Following the success of the previous series, the BBC commissioned additional episodes of the programme, along with ordering the creation of a new companion discussion programme entitled The Apprentice: You're Fired!, aimed at being aired on BBC Three alongside the main programme's broadcast schedule. A special entitled "Tim in the Firing Line", focusing on Tim Campbell's life after winning the first series, aired on 19 February 2006 and preceded this series' premiere. Alongside the standard twelve episodes of the series, it is the only series to not feature any specials being aired alongside its broadcast. Fourteen candidates took part in the second series, with Michelle Dewberry becoming the overall winner. Excluding the special, the series averaged around 4.43 million viewers during its broadcast. Following favourable ratings and viewing figures for the first series, the BBC commissioned additional episodes of The Apprentice, with Alan Sugar, Nick Hewer and Margaret Mountford returning to assume their roles within the programme and aid in production of the second series.
One request made of production staff by the broadcaster was that a companion discussion show be created to air alongside it. This led to the creation of The Apprentice: You're Fired!, a sister show that would air on BBC Three and operate within a similar format to spin-off sister shows like Big Brother's Little Brother and Strictly Come Dancing: It Takes Two. The search for a host for this programme led to chief football presenter Adrian Chiles being offered the role, with his acceptance revealed prior to the second series' premiere episode; as with the first series, production staff and researchers went through applications made by those who sought to participate in the programme, until around fourteen candidates, consisting of the same balanced mix of genders, were informed in Summer 2005 that they had landed a place in the final line-up for the second series. Filming began that year in Autumn, with the first task seeing the men name their team Invicta, while the women named their team Velocity.
Although candidates faced a similar setup of tasks with only subtle changes to what these involved, one notable difference was that the Interviews stage was overseen by Paul Kemsley, Claude Littner, Bordan Tkachuk, who returned to assume their roles, as it was decided that Hewer and Mountford would supply feedback on observations over past tasks during discussions between Sugar and the interviewers. As with the previous series, the candidates faced a charity-based task, which this time featured a reward as done on similar tasks in the American original, before the use of it was discontinued following the conclusion of the series' broadcast; this series is the first in the show's history to feature the iconic sequence involving the winner departing in Sugar's personal Rolls Royce, giving a brief interview on their success, a sequence, created to purely emphasise their victory on the programme as the overall winner. Of those who took part, Michelle Dewberry would become the eventual winner of this series, go on to take up a post under Sugar following its conclusion, leaving in September 2006 following a series of personal problems.
Throughout its filming, prior to it being edited and prepared for broadcast, Sugar voiced issues to the production staff with the programme's format at the time – due to the number of candidates taking part against the number of episodes for the series, he was not allowed to fire more than one candidate in any task prior to the Interviews stage, despite the fact that two of the tasks featured outcomes where he felt more than one candidate deserved to be fired by him. Staff reviewed the format after the production and broadcast of the second series, which led to eventual changes when work began on the third series. Key: The candidate won this series of The Apprentice; the candidate was the runner-up. The candidate won as project manager for this task; the candidate lost as project manager for this task. The candidate was on the winning team for this task / they passed the Interviews stage; the candidate was on the losing team for this task. The candidate was brought to the final boardroom for this task.
The candidate was fired in this task. The candidate was fired. In 2007, a year after the second series had been aired, candidate Mani Sandher filed a complaint against the BBC. In his complaint, he criticised the broadcaster for allowing episodes to be edited in a manner that portrayed him unfairly on The Apprentice; the BBC Trust rejected the complaint after conducting an investigation, citing that: the show's editing had been acceptable and within the boundaries of broadcasting codes to ensure it did not mislead audiences. Sandher appealed against the Trust's rejection of his complaint, stating he had further evidence to back up his claim, but this was dismissed by the Editorial Complaints Unit. Official episode viewing figures are from BARB; the Apprentice at BBC Online Times Online interview with Alan Sugar Amstrad Site Blog of the 2nd series written by marketing expert Steve Gibson
BBC Two is the second flagship television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands. It covers a wide range of subject matter, but tends to broadcast more "highbrow" programmes than the more mainstream and popular BBC One. Like the BBC's other domestic TV and radio channels, it is funded by the television licence, is therefore free of commercial advertising, it is a comparatively well-funded public-service network attaining a much higher audience share than most public-service networks worldwide. Styled BBC2, it was the third British television station to be launched, from 1 July 1967, Europe's first television channel to broadcast in colour, it was envisaged as a home for less mainstream and more ambitious programming, while this tendency has continued to date, most special-interest programmes of a kind broadcast on BBC Two, for example the BBC Proms, now tend to appear on BBC Four instead. British television at the time of BBC2's launch consisted of two channels: the BBC Television Service and the ITV network made up of smaller regional companies.
Both channels had existed in a state of competition since ITV's launch in 1955, both had aimed for a populist approach in response. The 1962 Pilkington Report on the future of broadcasting noticed this, that ITV lacked any serious programming, it therefore decided that Britain's third television station should be awarded to the BBC. Prior to its launch, the new BBC2 was promoted on the BBC Television Service: the soon to be renamed BBC1; the animated adverts featured the campaign mascots "Hullabaloo", a mother kangaroo, "Custard", her joey. Prior to, several years after, the channel's formal launch, the channel broadcast "Trade Test Transmissions", short films made externally by companies such as Shell and BP, which served to enable engineers to test reception, but became cult viewing; the channel was scheduled to begin at 19:20 on 20 April 1964, showing an evening of light entertainment, starting with the comedy show The Alberts, a performance from Soviet comedian Arkady Raikin, a production of Cole Porter's Kiss Me, culminating with a fireworks display.
However, at around 18:45 a huge power failure, originating from a fire at Battersea Power Station, caused Television Centre, indeed much of west London, to lose all power. BBC1 was able to continue broadcasting via its facilities at Alexandra Palace, but all attempts to show the scheduled programmes on the new channel failed. Associated-Rediffusion, the London weekday ITV franchise-holder, offered to transmit on the BBC's behalf, but their gesture was rejected. At 22:00 programming was postponed until the following morning; as the BBC's news centre at Alexandra Palace was unaffected, they did in fact broadcast brief bulletins on BBC2 that evening, beginning with an announcement by the newsreader Gerald Priestland at around 19:25. There was believed to be no recording made of this bulletin, but a videotape was discovered in early 2003. By 11:00 on 21 April, power had been restored to the studios and programming began, thus making Play School the first programme to be shown on the channel; the launch schedule, postponed from the night before, was successfully shown that evening, albeit with minor changes.
In reference to the power cut, the transmission opened with a shot of a lit candle, sarcastically blown out by presenter Denis Tuohy. To establish the new channel's identity and draw viewers to it, the BBC decided that a promoted, lavish series would be essential in its earliest days; the production chosen was The Forsyte Saga, a no-expense-spared adaptation of the novels by John Galsworthy, featuring well-established actors Kenneth More and Eric Porter. Critically for the future of the fledgling channel, the BBC's gamble was hugely successful, with an average of six million viewers tuning in per episode: a feat made more prominent by the fact that only 9 million were able to receive the channel at the time. Unlike BBC1 and ITV, BBC2 was broadcast only on the 625 line UHF system, so was not available to viewers still using sets on the 405-line VHF system; this created a market for dual standard receivers. Set manufacturers ramped up production of UHF sets in anticipation of a large market demand for the new BBC2, but the market did not materialise.
The early technical problems, which included being unable to transmit US-recorded videotapes due to a lack of system conversion from the US NTSC system, were resolved by a committee headed by James Redmond. On 1 July 1967, during the Wimbledon Championships, BBC2 became the first channel in Europe to begin regular broadcasts in colour, using the PAL system; the thirteen part series Civilisation was created as a celebration of two millennia of western art and culture to showpiece the new colour technology. BBC1 and ITV joined BBC2 on 625-line UHF band, but continued to simulcast on 405-line VHF until 1985. BBC1 and ITV introduced PAL colour on UHF on 15 November 1969, although they both had broadcast some programmes in colour "unofficially" since September 1969. In 1979, the station adopted the first computer-generated channel identification in Britain, with its use of the double striped, orange'2' logo; the ident, created in house by BBC engineers, lasted until March 1986 and heralded the start of computer-generated logos.
As the switch to digital-only terrestrial transmission progressed, BBC Two was the first analogue TV channel to be replaced with the BBC multiplex, at first four two weeks ahead of the other four channels. This was required for those relay transmitters that had no current Freeview service giving vie