Andrew Murray (journalist)
Andrew Murray was an Australian journalist. Andrew Murray was born in Scotland, educated at the Andersonian University in Glasgow, winning prizes as an essayist, he emigrated to Adelaide in 1839, founded a drapery business in Hindley Street with George Greig as Murray, Greig, & Co. Murray married Jessie Spence, sister of Catherine Helen Spence, in 1841. In 1841, the business failed, Murray was able to find employment as a journalist with the Southern Australian, the second newspaper to be established in South Australia. In 1844, he purchased the Southern Australian from the proprietor, Richard Blackham, was its editor and proprietor till the exodus of workers to the gold-fields of Victoria strained South Australia's economy, the South Australian, as Murray had renamed it, reverted from bi-weekly to weekly in July 1851 was forced to fold, he was responsible for printing at least one other newspaper, the German-language Suedaustralische Zeitung and its successor Adelaider Deutsche Zeitung. Murray migrated to Victoria, worked as commercial editor with The Argus, acted as editor in 1855 and 1856.
He was subsequently the proprietor of the Economist. He published Murray's Prices Current and an almanac book, traded in wines, but was forced to declare insolvency in 1874. In the late 1850s, Murray bought land in 10 km East of Melbourne, he named his house'Balwyn' from the Gaelic bal and the Saxon wyn, meaning'the home of the vine'. Balwyn Road and the suburb of Balwyn were named after it; the house was located on the site now occupied by Fintona Girls' School. He died at Waterloo, Gippsland and is buried in Boroondara General Cemetery
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism in opposition to social hierarchy. It involves a concern for those in society whom its adherents perceive as disadvantaged relative to others as well as a belief that there are unjustified inequalities that need to be reduced or abolished; the term left-wing can refer to "the radical, reforming, or socialist section of a political party or system". The political terms "Left" and "Right" were coined during the French Revolution, referring to the seating arrangement in the French Estates General: those who sat on the left opposed the monarchy and supported the revolution, including the creation of a republic and secularization, while those on the right were supportive of the traditional institutions of the Old Regime. Use of the term "Left" became more prominent after the restoration of the French monarchy in 1815 when it was applied to the "Independents"; the word "wing" was appended to Left and Right in the late 19th century with disparaging intent and "left-wing" was applied to those who were unorthodox in their religious or political views.
The term was applied to a number of movements republicanism during the French Revolution in the 18th century, followed by socialism, communism and social democracy in the 19th and 20th centuries. Since the term left-wing has been applied to a broad range of movements including civil rights movements, feminist movements, anti-war movements and environmental movements, as well as a wide range of parties. According to former professor of economics Barry Clark, " claim that human development flourishes when individuals engage in cooperative, mutually respectful relations that can thrive only when excessive differences in status and wealth are eliminated". In politics, the term "Left" derives from the French Revolution, as the anti-monarchist Montagnard and Jacobin deputies from the Third Estate sat to the left of the presiding member's chair in parliament, a habit which began in the French Estates General of 1789. Throughout the 19th century in France, the main line dividing Left and Right was between supporters of the French Republic and those of the monarchy.
The June Days Uprising during the Second Republic was an attempt by the Left to assert itself after the 1848 Revolution, but only a small portion of the population supported this. In the mid-19th century, socialism and anti-clericalism became features of the French Left. After Napoleon III's 1851 coup and the subsequent establishment of the Second Empire, Marxism began to rival radical republicanism and utopian socialism as a force within left-wing politics; the influential Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, published in 1848, asserted that all human history is the history of class struggle. They predicted that a proletarian revolution would overthrow bourgeois capitalism and create a classless, post-monetary communist society, it was in this period that the word "wing" was appended to both Right. In the United States, many leftists, social liberals and trade unionists were influenced by the works of Thomas Paine, who introduced the concept of asset-based egalitarianism, which theorises that social equality is possible by a redistribution of resources.
The International Workingmen's Association, sometimes called the First International, brought together delegates from many different countries, with many different views about how to reach a classless and stateless society. Following a split between supporters of Marx and Mikhail Bakunin, anarchists formed the International Workers' Association; the Second International became divided over the issue of World War I. Those who opposed the war, such as Vladimir Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg, saw themselves as further to the left. In the United States after Reconstruction, the phrase "the Left" was used to describe those who supported trade unions, the civil rights movement and the anti-war movement. More in the United States, left-wing and right-wing have been used as synonyms for Democratic and Republican, or as synonyms for liberalism and conservatism respectively. Since the Right was populist, both in the Western and the Eastern Bloc anything viewed as avant-garde art was called leftist in all Europe, thus the identification of Picasso's Guernica as "leftist" in Europe and the condemnation of the Russian composer Shostakovich's opera in Pravda as follows: "Here we have'leftist' confusion instead of natural, human music".
The following positions are associated with left-wing politics. Leftist economic beliefs range from Keynesian economics and the welfare state through industrial democracy and the social market to nationalization of the economy and central planning, to the anarcho-syndicalist advocacy of a council- and assembly-based self-managed anarchist communism. During the industrial revolution, leftists supported trade unions. At the beginning of the 20th century, many leftists advocated strong government intervention in the economy. Leftists continue to criticize what they perceive as the exploitative nature of globalization, the "race to the bottom" and unjust lay-offs. In the last quarter of the 20th century, the belief that government ought to be directly involved in the day-to-day workings of an economy declined in popularity amongst the center-left social democrats who became influenced by "Third Way" ideology. Other leftists believe in Marxian economics; some distinguish Marx's economic theories from his political philos
Frederick William Haddon
Frederick William Haddon, was an Australian journalist and newspaper editor. Haddon was born at Croydon, the son of Richard Haddon, a schoolmaster and landscape artist, his wife Mary Caroline, née Wykes. Haddon was educated at private schools and in 1859 became assistant-secretary of the Statistical Society of London and of the Institute of Actuaries. Haddon resigned these positions in 1863 to accept an engagement with The Melbourne. Haddon arrived in Melbourne in December 1863 was soon made sub-editor; when the new weekly The Australasian was established in 1864, Haddon became its first editor, in January 1867 was made editor of The Argus at 27 years of age. It was a period of great developments in Victoria, under Haddon's editorship the Argus, while distinctly conservative served a most useful purpose in advocating the claims of the primary producers, endeavouring to keep protective duties within reasonable bounds, it fought with success for non-political control of government departments and purity of administration, with the result that Victoria set a high standard among the colonies in these matters.
Richard Twopeny, described The Argus as'the best daily paper published out of England'. When Graham Berry and Charles Henry Pearson went as an embassy to the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 1879, visiting England in that year, was asked by some of their opponents to set the facts of the controversy before the "government and press of Great Britain", he compiled a pamphlet, printed in London, The Constitutional Difficulty in Victoria. This was sent to the press. Haddon personally interviewed leading statesmen and editors, was a strong influence on the non-success of the mission. There was not however, a strong case for British interference. On his return from Britain, Haddon went back to his editorial chair, he set a high standard in the discussion of public matters. The Argus fought well for federation, which had become certain when Haddon in 1898 resigned his editorship to take up the important task of representing the Edward Wilson Estate on the management of the Argus and Australasian. Haddon was Melbourne correspondent for The Times in 1895–1903, was president of the Victorian Poultry and Kennel Club.
Haddon died at Melbourne on 7 March 1906. Haddon was married twice: firstly to Annie Jane King and secondly to Alice Annie Good on 31 January 1883 who survived him with a daughter by the first marriage. Haddon was always ready to encourage it; as an editor, he refused to be affected by popular excitement, though his paper was on occasions criticized for not taking a stronger stand, he did all that could be done when it is remembered how strong the remarkable personality of David Syme had made The Age, which for a great part of the period was issued at a lower price than the Argus, had a much larger circulation. Carole Woods,'Haddon, Frederick William', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 4, MUP, 1972, pp 313–314. Retrieved on 1 January 2009 Serle, Percival. "Haddon, Frederick William". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. Retrieved 2009-01-01
Australian Football League
The Australian Football League is the pre-eminent professional competition of Australian rules football. Through the AFL Commission, the AFL serves as the sport's governing body, is responsible for controlling the laws of the game; the league was founded as the Victorian Football League as a breakaway from the previous Victorian Football Association, with its inaugural season commencing in 1897. Comprising only teams based in the Australian state of Victoria, the competition's name was changed to the Australian Football League for the 1990 season, after expanding to other states throughout the 1980s; the league consists of 18 teams spread over five of Australia's six states. Matches have been played in all states and mainland territories of Australia, as well as in New Zealand and China to promote the sport abroad; the AFL season consists of a pre-season competition, followed by a 23-round regular season, which runs during the Australian winter. The team with the best record after the home-and-away series is awarded the "minor premiership."
The top eight teams play off in a four-round finals series, culminating in the AFL Grand Final, held at the Melbourne Cricket Ground each year. The grand final winner is termed the "premiers", is awarded the premiership cup; the current premiers are the West Coast Eagles. The Victorian Football Association was established in 1877 and went on to become Victoria's major Australian rules football competition. During the 1890s, an off-field power struggle occurred between the VFA's stronger and weaker clubs, the former seeking greater administrative control commensurate with their relative financial contribution to the game; this came to a head in 1896 when it was proposed that gate profits, which were always lower in matches involving the weaker clubs, be shared amongst all teams in the VFA. After it was intimated that the proposal would be put to a vote, six of the strongest clubs—Collingwood, Fitzroy, Geelong and South Melbourne—seceded from the VFA, invited Carlton and St Kilda to join them in founding a new competition, the Victorian Football League.
The remaining VFA clubs—Footscray, North Melbourne, Port Melbourne and Williamstown—were given the opportunity to compete as a junior sides at a level beneath the VFL, but rejected the offer and remained for the 1897 VFA season. The VFL's inaugural season occurred in 1897, it made several innovations early on to entice the public's interest, including an annual finals tournament, rather than awarding the premiership to the team with the best record through the season. Although the VFL and the VFA continued to compete for spectator interest for many years, the VFL established itself as the premier competition in Victoria. In 1908, the league expanded to ten teams, with Richmond crossing from the VFA and University Football Club from the Metropolitan Football Association. University, after three promising seasons, finished last each year from 1911 until 1914, including losing 51 matches in a row; as a result, the club withdrew from the VFL at the end of 1914. Beginning sporadically during the late 1890s and from 1907 until World War I, the VFL premier and the premier of the South Australian Football League met in a playoff match for the Championship of Australia.
South Australia's Port Adelaide was the most successful club of the competition winning three titles during the period along with an earlier victory. In 1925, the VFL expanded from nine teams to twelve, with Footscray and North Melbourne each crossing from the VFA. North Melbourne and Hawthorn remained weak in the VFL for a long period. Although North Melbourne would become the first of the 1925 expansion sides to reach a Grand Final in 1950 it was Footscray that adapted to the VFL with the most ease of the three clubs, by 1928 were well off the bottom of the ladder. Between the years of 1927 and 1930, Collingwood became the first, only VFL team, to win four successive Premierships. In 1952, the VFL hosted ` National Day'. Matches were played at the Sydney Cricket Ground, Brisbane Exhibition Ground, North Hobart Oval, Albury Sports Ground and Victorian country towns Yallourn and Euroa. Footscray became the first of the 1925 expansion teams to win the premiership in 1954. Melbourne became a powerhouse during the 1950s and early 1960s under coach Norm Smith and star player Ron Barassi.
The club contested seven consecutive grand finals from 1954 to 1960, winning five premierships, including three in a row from 1955 to 1957. Television coverage began with direct telecasts of the final quarter permitted. At first, several channels competed through broadcasting different games. However, when the VFL found that television was reducing crowds, it decided that no coverage was to be allowed for 1960. In 1961, replays were introduced although direct telecasts were permitted in Melbourne. In 1959, the VFL planned the first purpose built mega-stadium, VFL Park, to give it some independence from the Melbourne Crick
GTV (Australian TV station)
GTV is a commercial television station in Melbourne, owned by the Nine Network. The station is based at a new high-tech, purpose-built studio at 717 Bourke Street, Docklands. GTV-9 was amongst the first television stations to begin regular transmission in Australia. Test transmissions began on 27 September 1956, introduced by former 3DB radio announcer Geoff Corke, based at the Mt Dandenong transmitter, as the studios in Richmond were not yet ready; the station covered the 1956 Summer Olympics. The 1956 Carols By the Davis Cup tennis as part of its test transmissions; the station was opened on 19 January 1957 by Victorian Governor Sir Dallas Brooks from the studios in Bendigo Street, Richmond. A clip from the ceremony has featured in a number of GTV-9 retrospectives, in which the Governor advises viewers that if they did not like the programs, they could just turn off; the Richmond building, bearing the name Television City, had been converted from a Heinz tinned food factory occupied in the past by the Wertheim Piano Company.
A cornerstone, now visible from the staff canteen courtyard, was laid when construction of the Piano factory began. Eric Pearce was appointed senior newsreader in the late 1960s, after having been the first newsreader at rival station HSV-7, he held that position for twenty years. In 1957, GTV-9's first large-scale production was the nightly variety show In Melbourne Tonight, hosted by Graham Kennedy. Kennedy was a radio announcer at 3UZ in Melbourne before being'discovered' by GTV-9 producer Norm Spencer, when appearing on a GTV-9 telethon. Bert Newton moved from HSV-7 to join Kennedy. IMT continued for thirteen years, it set a precedent for a number of subsequent live variety programmes from the station. Ownership has changed over the decades; the station was first licensed to the General Television Corporation Ltd. a consortium of two newspapers, The Argus and The Age, together with cinema chains Hoyts, Greater Union, Sir Arthur Warner's Electronic Industries, JC William's Theatres, Cinesound Productions, radio stations 3XY, 3UZ, 3KZ.
In early 1957 The Argus was acquired by The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, the paper was closed on the same day that GTV-9 opened. The Herald in turn sold its interests in the station to Electronic Industries acquired by UK television manufacturer Pye, in 1960; because of the restriction on foreign ownership of television stations, GTV-9 was sold to Frank Packer's Australian Consolidated Press, which owned TCN-9 in Sydney, resulting in the formation of the country's first commercially owned television network. Prior to this GTV-9 was affiliated with ATN-7 in Sydney. Son Clyde Packer ran the network for some time, until a falling out led to a handover to younger son Kerry Packer. In the 1980s the network was sold to Alan Bond, but bought back at a much lower price. Following the death of Kerry Packer, his son James Packer progressively sold down his stake in the network. Along with most Australian TV stations, GTV-9 commenced colour test transmissions in October, 1974; the official changeover took place at 12.00am on Saturday 1 March 1975.
In 1976, GTV-9 became the first Australian television station to commence permanent 24-hour transmission. In 2001 the station commenced digital television broadcasting, in line with most other metropolitan stations. GTV-9 continued broadcasting in analogue on VHF9, with a digital simulcast on VHF8. In 2010 it was announced to public and staff, that after 54 years at Bendigo Street, GTV-9 would move day-to-day operations including News and commercial sales to 717 Bourke Street, Docklands. On 25 October 2010, it was announced that GTV-9 would begin producing larger scale studio productions, such as The Footy Show, Hey Hey its Saturday, Millionaire Hotseat from the new Docklands Studios Melbourne. On 28 February 2011, GTV-9 broadcast its final live program – the 6pm edition of Nine News – from the Richmond Television City studios, the following day began broadcasting news bulletins from 717 Bourke Street. While their new fiber link to their transmission site was being completed, a temporary DVB-S2 link was put up on Optus D1, which ceased at the end of the year.
In 2012, no new programming has been produced out of the new studios. The network opted to move its host Tracy Grimshaw to TCN-9 in Sydney. In May, 2012, a lower powered permanent backup DVB-S2 link for their transmission site was re-established on Optus D1, which requires at least a two-metre solid receiving dish. Locally produced programs with GTV-9 Melbourne. Nine News Melbourne Nine Afternoon News Melbourne Nine News: First at Five Nine's National Newsbreak Nine News Victoria Kids' WB Australia TAC Cup Future Stars The AFL Sunday Footy Show Footy Classified The Footy Show *previously filmed in Studio 9 Millionaire Hot Seat *previously filmed in Studio 9 The Block House Husbands Postcards Carols by Candlelight The Logies 2010s Underbelly A Current Affair This Is Your Life The Million Dollar Drop Between the Lines Ben Elton Live From Planet Earth 2000s 20 to 1 (2005–
The Argus Building on the corner of La Trobe and Elizabeth streets in Melbourne, Australia, is notable as the former premises of The Argus newspaper for 30 years. It is listed on the Victorian Heritage Register. In 2012 it was assessed as one of Australia's top ten endangered heritage buildings. An 1855 map shows St John's school at this location. Documents from 1880 and 1905 show an enlarged church and a row of two-storey shops along Elizabeth Street; the site was acquired by the publishers of The Argus and The Australasian for the development of a six-storey purpose-built building to accommodate the numerous workers and massive composing and printing plant deployed in producing high-circulation letterpress newspapers, as expounded in a special supplement, "Entering the New Home", published on 9 September 1926. The last issue of The Argus emerged from the building on Saturday 19 January 1957, it was announced that the company's other activities would continue, including The Australasian Post, Your Garden and other operations in radio and commercial printing.
In 1991, an award-winning office building designed by Nonda Katsalidis was built next door and named the Argus Centre. In 2004 La Trobe University bought the Argus Building with the intention to redevelop and house legal and business schools in the building, as well as a ground floor shopping precinct. Due to the emerging costs associated with renovating the building, La Trobe University sold the site for $15 million in 2010 to Shesh Ghale, owner of the Melbourne Institute of Technology, who intends to convert the site into an educational facility