Flavia Hall is a building on the now defunct Marylhurst University campus, in Marylhurst, United States. It was designed by architects Joseph Jacobberger and Alfred H. Smith, completed c. 1937. The building served as a dormitory, was converted into an office building; the university closed in late 2018. The university's Harry A. Merlo Science Center was unveiled in 1997 as part of the building's $3.2 million renovation. Media related to Flavia Hall at Wikimedia Commons
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
B.P. John Administrative Building
The B. P. John Administrative Building is a building on the now defunct Marylhurst University campus, in Marylhurst, United States, it was designed by Joseph Jacobberger and completed in 1929. The building housed the entire college, an included an auditorium, a bakery and cafeteria, a chapel, classrooms, a gymnasium, a library, a swimming pool; the second floor had living areas for the Sisters of the Holy Names. The 100-seat music venue Wiegand Hall was added during the 1990s. In 2013, the building's chapel was renovated; the university closed in late 2018. Media related to B. P. John Administrative Building at Wikimedia Commons
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts, expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual ideas, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, the aesthetic dissemination of art; the three classical branches of art are painting and architecture. Music, film and other performing arts, as well as literature and other media such as interactive media, are included in a broader definition of the arts; until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. In modern usage after the 17th century, where aesthetic considerations are paramount, the fine arts are separated and distinguished from acquired skills in general, such as the decorative or applied arts. Though the definition of what constitutes art is disputed and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency and creation.
The nature of art and related concepts, such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics. In the perspective of the history of art, artistic works have existed for as long as humankind: from early pre-historic art to contemporary art. One early sense of the definition of art is related to the older Latin meaning, which translates to "skill" or "craft," as associated with words such as "artisan." English words derived from this meaning include artifact, artifice, medical arts, military arts. However, there are many other colloquial uses of all with some relation to its etymology. Over time, philosophers like Plato, Aristotle and Kant, among others, questioned the meaning of art. Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the muses, is not rational, he speaks approvingly of this, other forms of divine madness in the Phaedrus, yet in the Republic wants to outlaw Homer's great poetic art, laughter as well.
In Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer. The dialogue Ion suggests that Homer's Iliad functioned in the ancient Greek world as the Bible does today in the modern Christian world: as divinely inspired literary art that can provide moral guidance, if only it can be properly interpreted. With regards to the literary art and the musical arts, Aristotle considered epic poetry, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music to be mimetic or imitative art, each varying in imitation by medium and manner. For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, poetry with language; the forms differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation—through narrative or character, through change or no change, through drama or no drama. Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals.
The more recent and specific sense of the word art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century. Fine art refers to a skill used to express the artist's creativity, or to engage the audience's aesthetic sensibilities, or to draw the audience towards consideration of more refined or finer work of art. Within this latter sense, the word art may refer to several things: a study of a creative skill, a process of using the creative skill, a product of the creative skill, or the audience's experience with the creative skill; the creative arts are a collection of disciplines which produce artworks that are compelled by a personal drive and convey a message, mood, or symbolism for the perceiver to interpret. Art is something that stimulates an individual's thoughts, beliefs, or ideas through the senses. Works of art can be explicitly made for this purpose or interpreted on the basis of images or objects. For some scholars, such as Kant, the sciences and the arts could be distinguished by taking science as representing the domain of knowledge and the arts as representing the domain of the freedom of artistic expression.
If the skill is being used in a common or practical way, people will consider it a craft instead of art. If the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way, it may be considered commercial art instead of fine art. On the other hand and design are sometimes considered applied art; some art followers have argued that the difference between fine art and applied art has more to do with value judgments made about the art than any clear definitional difference. However fine art has goals beyond pure creativity and self-expression; the purpose of works of art may be to communicate ideas, such as in politically, spiritually, or philosophically motivated art. The purpose may be nonexistent; the nature of art has been described by philosopher Richard Wollheim as "one of the most elusive of the traditional problems of human culture". Art has been defined as a vehicle for the expression or communication of emotions and ideas, a means for exp
Aquinas Hall is a building on the now defunct Marylhurst University campus in Marylhurst, United States. The building was designed by Joseph Jacobberger and Alfred Smith, completed c. 1930. Aquinas Hall exhibits the Mediterranean architectural style, was used as student housing, administrative offices until the university closed in late 2018. Media related to Aquinas Hall at Wikimedia Commons
A university is an institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education; the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which means "community of teachers and scholars". While antecedents had existed in Asia and Africa, the modern university system has roots in the European medieval university, created in Italy and evolved from cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages; the original Latin word universitas refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc". At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members.
In modern usage the word has come to mean "An institution of higher education offering tuition in non-vocational subjects and having the power to confer degrees," with the earlier emphasis on its corporate organization considered as applying to Medieval universities. The original Latin word referred to degree-awarding institutions of learning in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, from where the institution spread around the world. An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom; the first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the University of Bologna, which adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic freedom"; this is now recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988, 430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation.
The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, drawing from all parts of the world. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the earliest universities were founded in Asia and Africa, predating the first European medieval universities; the University of Al Quaraouiyine, founded in Morocco by Fatima al-Fihri in 859, is considered by some to be the oldest degree-granting university. Their endowment by a prince or monarch and their role in training government officials made early Mediterranean universities similar to Islamic madrasas, although madrasas were smaller, individual teachers, rather than the madrasa itself, granted the license or degree. Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasas became universities. However, scholars like George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman Daniel argue that the European university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world. Several other scholars consider the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics.
Darleen Pryds questions this view, pointing out that madaris and European universities in the Mediterranean region shared similar foundations by princely patrons and were intended to provide loyal administrators to further the rulers' agenda. Some scholars, including Makdisi, have argued that early medieval universities were influenced by the madrasas in Al-Andalus, the Emirate of Sicily, the Middle East during the Crusades. Norman Daniel, views this argument as overstated. Roy Lowe and Yoshihito Yasuhara have drawn on the well-documented influences of scholarship from the Islamic world on the universities of Western Europe to call for a reconsideration of the development of higher education, turning away from a concern with local institutional structures to a broader consideration within a global context; the university is regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian tradition. European higher education took place for hundreds of years in cathedral schools or monastic schools, in which monks and nuns taught classes.
The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and from cathedral schools. It is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception, they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools when these schools were deemed to have become sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by The residence of a religious community. Pope Gregory VII was critical in promoting and regulating the concept of modern university as his 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities; the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, the University of Oxford.
The University of Bologna began as a law school teach
Oregon College of Art and Craft
Oregon College of Art and Craft is a private art college in Portland, Oregon. The college grants Bachelor of Fine Arts and Master of Fine Arts degrees as well as art-focused certificates; the college offers an Artist-in-Residence program and provides continuing education in the arts to the local community. It was founded by Julia Christiansen Hoffman, a photographer, sculptor, metal worker and weaver, out of her desire to foster the Arts and Crafts movement through classes and exhibitions; the college is closing at the end of the spring 2019 semester. The college was founded in September 1907 as the Arts and Crafts Society. Initial classes were held in the homes of members of the society, included classes on sculpting, metal works, photography, among others; the school moved to a permanent site in Downtown Portland, the Kramer Building, in 1934 before merging with the Allied Art and Metal Guild in 1952. After the merger, the combined schools moved to Northwest Portland where in 1962 they moved into a larger space at a former hospital building.
The school grew and became known as the Oregon School of Arts & Crafts in 1978. That year, the school expanded its campus, adding 46,000 square feet of space at a cost of $1.5 million. Architect John Storrs designed the new campus; the college began offering a bachelor of fine arts degree in 1994. In 1996, the school changed its name to reflect its college status, from Oregon School of Art and Craft to the Oregon College of Art and Craft. About 2005 the school started a capital campaign in order to raise over $14 million to expand the campus and double the size of their facilities. Plans called for a new library and studios for their painting and photography programs that would add 55,000 square feet of space on campus. In September 2008, a groundbreaking ceremony was held for the 15,000 square feet studios building, with plans calling for completion in summer 2009; the building opened in September 2010 as the Jean Vollum Drawing and Photography Building. Plans for the new library, fell through for the time being.
OCAC announced a joint master's in fine art program for applied craft and design with the Pacific Northwest College of Art in October 2008. College president Bonnie Laing Malcolmson announced her resignation in December 2009, effective May 2010. Denise Mullen was named as president of the school in June 2010, with her taking office on August 23; the college added a masters in fine arts in applied craft and design offered in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest College of Art. in 2011. Starting in the fall 2013 OCAC started offering a Master in Fine Arts in craft. Throughout the 2010s, the college explored many restructuring options to address the rising costs of running a small art college. In late 2018, the college explored merging with the Pacific Northwest College of Art but they decided against the merger. A few months the college's board of trustees decided to close the college at the end of the spring 2019 semester. Enrollment in the BFA program ranges from 140-200 full-time students.
Most students are between 27 years old. The college's MFA program holds 10 full-time students and is expected to double with the upcoming second year of students; the Continuing Education and Art Adventures children's programs serve more than 2,000 students per year. The school is a member of the Association of Independent Colleges of Art and Design and is accredited by the National Association of Schools of Art and Design and the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities; the school's library has more than 9,000 books and is a member of the Washington County Cooperative Library Services. OCAC employs around 15 full-time faculty and 8 part-time faculty in the degree program, as well as a number of instructors in the Studio School continuing education program. OCAC is located on a wooded 9.5-acre campus 3 miles from Downtown Portland in unincorporated Washington County. The campus was designed by Barbara Fealy, a landscape architect, John Storrs, a Portland architect; the Centrum is the primary hub of the campus.
It houses the front desk, school shop, the Hoffman Gallery, the campus' IT office and computer lab, Nicoletta's Cafe. OCAC has long held a strong relationship with the Hands On Cafe, serving the campus gourmet comfort foods for many years. With the retirement of a family member, the family owning the café decided not to renew their contract with the college in late 2013. Beginning on January 20, 2014, Leather Storrs, son of architect John Storrs, took up a lease with the college for the café space, continuing his family's legacy and connection to OCAC. Storrs' Eight|Three|One Cafe serves styled food to the Hands On team, maintaining the rustic at-home feel the campus provides; the OCAC Library is located in the Yellow House, owned by the college. Residing in the basement level of the remodeled house, the library provides access to a unique collection of diverse resources that support curricular and research activities at OCAC; the library holds more than 10,000 materials, including books, student theses, media and more pertaining to fine art and craft.
The library houses a slide library made up of 28,000 slides. They subscribe to over 90 periodicals and four primary art databases for community use; the library is a participating member of the Washington County Cooperative Library Services, which gives OCAC students and staff access to over a million library resources and dozens of additional databases. Although the Library is dedicated to supporting the College community, it is open to the public for research and checkout; the library facility is cu