2 Live Crew
The 2 Live Crew is an American rap music group from Miami, which had its greatest commercial success in the late 1980s to the early 1990s. Fronted by Luke Campbell, they were controversial in the U. S. due to the pornographic content in their songs on their 1989 album As Nasty As They Wanna Be. The 2 Live Crew, although seen as a main fixture in the Miami hip-hop scene got their start in California and was created by DJ Mr. Mixx with fellow rappers Fresh Kid Ice, Amazing Vee; the group released its first single, "Revelation", on its own label "Fresh Beat Records" in 1984. The A-side of "Revelation" contained a song by the same where the only rapper featured was Amazing Vee, on the B-Side it contained a song named "2 Live" where Fresh Kid Ice was the only rapper featured. "Revelation" was popular in Florida. Luke Skyywalker, who at the time was local DJ and promoter, invited The 2 Live Crew to relocate to Miami. Due to the subsequent success of 2 Live Crew, this made Fresh Kid Ice the first rapper to be noted in Asian American in hip hop, the first Asian rapper to gain notoriety.
For their second single "What I Like", Fresh Kid Ice was the only rapper featured. Amazing Vee was only credited as writer, left the group shortly after; the single "Throw The D" released in January 1986 gave a permanent blueprint to how future Miami bass songs were written and produced. The song was produced DJ Mr. Mixx. Rapper Brother Marquis joined The 2 Live Crew. Luke Skyywalker worked as the group's manager, he joined the group as its hype-man and spoke person in their subsequent controversies. The 2 Live Crew's debut album, The 2 Live Crew Is What We Are, was released in 1986. Alex Henderson of Allmusic commented that the album "did take sexually explicit rap lyrics to a new level of nastiness", with tracks such as "We Want Some Pussy" and "Throw the'D'". With word-of-mouth attention, the album was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America. Bob Rosenberg of Will to Power was billed "King of Edits" by Luke Skyywalker. In 1987, a Florida store clerk was acquitted of felony charges for selling the album to a 14-year-old girl.
In 1988, the group released their second album, Move Somethin' It was certified Gold and featured the singles "Move Somethin'" and "Do Wah Diddy Diddy". The album improved on the charts from the previous album, making in to #68 on the Billboard 200 and #20 on the Top R&B/Hip Hop Albums chart. Campbell decided to sell a separate clean version in addition to the explicit version of the album, Move Somethin', produced by Mr. Mixx. A record store clerk in Alexander City, was cited for selling a copy to an undercover police officer in 1988, it was the first time in the United States that a record store owner was held liable for obscenity over music. The charges were dropped. In 1989, the group released their third album, As Nasty As They Wanna Be, which became the group's most successful album. A large part of its success was due to the single "Me So Horny", popular locally with heavy radio rotation on Miami's WPOW-Power 96 FM; the American Family Association did not think the presence of a "Parental Advisory" sticker was enough to adequately warn listeners of what was inside the case.
Jack Thompson, a lawyer affiliated with the AFA, met with Florida Governor Bob Martinez and convinced him to look into the album to see if it met the legal classification of obscenity. In 1990, action was taken at the local level and Nick Navarro, Broward County sheriff, received a ruling from County Circuit Court judge Mel Grossman that probable cause for obscenity violations existed. In response, Luther Campbell maintained that people should focus on issues relating to hunger and poverty rather than on the lyrical content of their music. Navarro warned record store owners. 2 Live Crew filed a suit against Navarro. That June, U. S. district court Judge Jose Gonzalez ruled the album illegal to sell. Charles Freeman, a local retailer, was arrested two days after selling a copy to an undercover police officer; this was followed by the arrest of three members of 2 Live Crew after they performed the As Nasty As They Wanna Be album at Club Futura in Hollywood, hosted by radio personality Tony the Tiger from Power 96 FM, one of the few radio stations in the U.
S. that continued airplay. After international exposure with support from freedom of speech advocates like SCREW magazine's Al Goldstein and many others, they were acquitted soon after, as professor Henry Louis Gates, Jr. testified at their trial in defense of their lyrics. Freeman's conviction was overturned on appeal as well."A lot of people have gotten the impression that I'm this rude, sexual deviant or something," Campbell told journalist Chuck Philips. "But contrary to what has been printed about me in the papers, I'm no moral threat to anybody. I'm just a hard-working guy marketing a new product."In 1992, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit overturned the obscenity ruling from Judge Gonzalez, the Supreme Court of the United States refused to hear Broward County's appeal. As in the Freeman case, Gates testified on behalf of 2 Live Crew, arguing that the material that the county alleged was profane had important roots in African-American vernacular and literary traditions and should be protected.
As a result of the controversy, sales of As Nas
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Calvin Cordozar Broadus Jr. known professionally as Snoop Dogg, is an American rapper, record producer, television personality and actor. His music career began in 1992 when he was discovered by Dr. Dre and featured on Dre's solo debut, "Deep Cover", on Dre's solo debut album, The Chronic, he has since sold over 35 million albums worldwide. Snoop's debut album, produced by Dr. Dre, was released in 1993 by Death Row Records. Bolstered by excitement driven by Snoop's featuring on The Chronic, the album debuted at number one on both the Billboard 200 and Billboard Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums charts. Selling a million copies in the first week of its release, Doggystyle became certified quadruple platinum in 1994 and spawned several hit singles, including "What's My Name?" and "Gin & Juice". In 1994 Snoop released a soundtrack on Death Row Records for the short film Murder Was the Case, starring himself, his second album, Tha Doggfather debuted at number one on both charts, with "Snoop's Upside Ya Head" as the lead single.
The album was certified double platinum in 1997. After leaving Death Row Records, Snoop signed with No Limit Records, where he recorded his next three albums, Da Game Is to Be Sold, Not to Be Told, No Limit Top Dogg, Tha Last Meal. Snoop signed with Priority/Capitol/EMI Records in 2002, where he released Paid tha Cost to Be da Boss, he signed with Geffen Records in 2004 for his next three albums, R&G: The Masterpiece, Tha Blue Carpet Treatment, Ego Trippin'. Malice'n Wonderland, Doggumentary were released on Priority. Snoop Dogg has starred in motion pictures and hosted several television shows, including Doggy Fizzle Televizzle, Snoop Dogg's Father Hood, Dogg After Dark, he coaches a youth football league and high school football team. In September 2009 Snoop was hired by EMI as the chairman of a reactivated Priority Records. In 2012, after a trip to Jamaica, Snoop announced a conversion to Rastafarianism and a new alias, Snoop Lion; as Snoop Lion he released a reggae album, a documentary film of the same name, about his Jamaican experience, in early 2013.
His 13th studio album, was released in May 2015 and marked a return of the Snoop Dogg name. His 14th solo studio album, was released in July 2016. Snoop has 17 Grammy nominations without a win. In March 2016, the night before WrestleMania 32 in Arlington, Texas, he was inducted into the celebrity wing of the WWE Hall of Fame, having made several appearances for the company, including as Master of Ceremonies during a match at WrestleMania XXIV. In 2018, he released Bible of Love. On November 19, 2018, Snoop Dogg was given a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Calvin Cordozar Broadus Jr. was born in Long Beach, the second of three sons. He was named after Calvin Cordozar Broadus Sr.. His mother is Beverly Broadus, his father, Vernell Varnado, was a Vietnam veteran and mail carrier, absent from his life. As a boy, Broadus's parents nicknamed him "Snoopy" because of his appearance and love of the cartoon character from Peanuts, but addressed him as Calvin at home, his mother and stepfather divorced in 1975.
When he was young, Broadus began singing and playing piano at Golgotha Trinity Baptist Church. In sixth grade, he began rapping. Broadus's father left the family. A DNA test read by George Lopez on Lopez Tonight revealed Broadus to be of 71% African, 23% Native American, 6% European descent; as a teenager, Broadus ran into trouble with the law. He was a member of the Rollin' 20 Crips gang in the Eastside area of Long Beach, although he stated in 1993 that he never joined a gang. Shortly after graduating from high school, he was arrested for possession of cocaine, for the next three years was in and out of jail or prison. With his cousins Nate Dogg and Lil' ½ Dead and friend Warren G, Snoop recorded homemade tapes as a group called 213, named after the Long Beach area code. One of his early solo freestyles over En Vogue's "Hold On" made it to a mixtape, heard by influential producer Dr. Dre, who called to invite him to an audition. Former N. W. A associate The D. O. C. Taught him how to structure his lyrics and separate the thematics into verses and chorus.
When he began recording, Broadus took the stage name Snoop Doggy Dogg. Dr. Dre began working with Snoop Dogg, first on the theme song of the 1992 film Deep Cover, on Dr. Dre's debut solo album The Chronic with the other members of his former starting group, Tha Dogg Pound; the huge success of Snoop Dogg's debut Doggystyle was because of this intense exposure. Fueling the ascendance of West Coast G-funk hip hop, the singles "Who Am I?" and "Gin and Juice" reached the top ten most-played songs in the United States, the album stayed on the Billboard charts for several months. Gangsta rap became the center of arguments about censorship and labeling, with Snoop Dogg used as an example of violent and misogynistic musicians. Unlike much of the harder-edged gangsta rap artists, Snoop Dogg seemed to show his softer side, according to music journalist Chuck Philips. Rolling Stone music critic Touré asserted that Snoop had a soft vocal delivery compared to other rappers: "Snoop's vocal style is part of what distinguishes him: where many rappers scream, figuratively and he speaks softly."
Doggystyle, much like The Chronic, featured a host of rappers signed to or affiliated with the Death Row label including Daz Dillinger, Nate Dogg, others. A short film about Snoop Dogg'
No Limit Records
No Limit Records was an American record label founded by rapper, entrepreneur and CEO Percy "Master P" Miller. The label's albums were distributed by Universal Music Group and Koch Records; the label included artists such as Snoop Dogg, Silkk the Shocker, Mia X, Mac, C-Murder, Short Circuit, Lil Soldiers, Romeo Miller, Kane & Abel, Soulja Slim, among others. Percy "Master P" Miller began his career by distributing his records through a small San Francisco Bay Area record label, "No Limit Record Shop", which started out in Richmond, where his mother resided, he maintained connections to rival gang friends despite rivalries. During the early 1990s, Master P released many solo albums with little success. However, Miller was able to garner notoriety for himself and the fledgling No Limit label on the West Coast by collaborating with various artists on compilation albums such as West Coast Bad Boyz 1 & 2. By 1994, the label was on the rise, Master P decided the time was right to expand the product.
After signing Oakland rapper Dangerous Dame, who released the EP Escape from the Mental Ward through No Limit, he began working with New Orleans-based talent, starting with Kane & Abel and Mystikal, while TRU's third album, achieved gold status. In 1995, Master P relocated No Limit to New Orleans, while keeping his brothers and several California rappers like TRU member Big Ed, King George and Calli G on board, he added local talent to his roster such as Mystikal, Mia X, Kane & Abel, Tre-8 and Mr. Serv-On. No Limit signed a distribution deal with Priority Records, while Master P maintained ownership of his master recordings and recording studio, he became the label's main artist, released Ice Cream Man in 1996 and Ghetto D a little bit more than a year later. By 1997, No Limit had gained momentum with bestselling, if not critically acclaimed, releases from TRU, Mia X's Unlady Like, which went gold despite producing no hit singles, Mystikal's platinum-selling Unpredictable; the label acquired their first marquee name in Snoop Dogg, on the heels of his acrimonious split from Death Row Records.
His debut album for No Limit, Da Game Is to Be Sold, Not to Be Told, was the most successful release in the label's history at the time, as it sold over half a million copies in its first week and was certified double platinum in less than three months. As No Limit's popularity and mainstream coverage increased, so did its roster; the label signed individual producers DJ Daryl, Randy Jefferson, K-Lou & Dez as well as Master P's main production team, Beats by the Pound and Carlos Stephens, in addition to solo artists Mac, Soulja Slim, Full Blooded, Magic, Skull Duggery, plus groups such as R&B quartet Sons of Funk, Short Circuit, Oakland-based pair Steady Mobb'n, Ghetto Commission, Prime Suspects, Gambino Family. Together they would put out a combined 23 albums in 1998, in some instances their lone releases with the label. Master P's own LP that year, MP Da Last Don, which featured him on a lenticular cover, reached number one on the Billboard 200 after moving 495,000 copies in its first week, sold 4.5 million units overall, making it the best-selling album of his career.
At the peak of its popularity, No Limit became notorious for producing lengthy albums that consisted of up to twenty tracks and numerous cameo appearances by the label's other artists, in addition to the cheap packaging of its CDs in cases that consisted of cardboard stock and a small amount of plastic, as well as spearheading the movement of garish Pen & Pixel-designed album covers. Master P began to expand his horizons beyond music, he wrote and acted in the underground movie I'm Bout It and contributed to the soundtrack, as well as two high-budget theatrical releases, 1998's I Got the Hook Up and 1999's Foolish. Meanwhile, World Championship Wrestling president Eric Bischoff, attempting to capitalize on the rapper's popularity while searching for a quick fix to boost sagging television ratings, signed Master P to a contract at a reported $200,000 per TV appearance, he and his stable, The No Limit Soldiers, which included some of Master P's lackeys and midcard wrestlers Brad Armstrong and Chase Tatum, feuded with Curt Hennig and The West Texas Rednecks, who had recorded a single called "Rap is Crap."
Bischoff hoped the Soldiers would be embraced by fans as faces and the Rednecks as heels, but he achieved the exact opposite result and the Soldiers were gone after a year. Master P tried to make it as an NBA player with a brief but ill-fated tryout with the Charlotte Hornets and Toronto Raptors; as for No Limit, while Silkk the Shocker's 1999 release, Made Man, debuted at #1 on the US Billboard 200 fewer releases featured cameos from the label's marquee artists, leading their fans to the correct conclusion that they had left the label. 1999 saw the arrivals of Lil Italy and kid duo Lil Soldiers. In 2000 504 Boyz album Goodfellas made it big on the Billboard peaking at #2 on the Billboard 200 making No Limit a small factor in the 2000s, but in 2000 only Master P, Snoop Dogg, C-Murder, Magic and Mia X remained from their most celebrated artists. Other performers such as Short Circuit, former Gambino Family members D. I. G. and Young Gunz, Baby Soulja, Black Felon, Samm, Currensy and Krazy were brought aboard from 1999 to 2000, but some failed to create interest in themselves or in No Limit Records.
Gambino crime family
The Gambino crime family is one of the "Five Families" that dominate organized crime activities in New York City, United States, within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia. The group, which went through five bosses between 1910 and 1957, is named after Carlo Gambino, boss of the family at the time of the McClellan hearings in 1963, when the structure of organized crime first gained public attention; the group's operations extend from the eastern seaboard to California. Its illicit activities include labor and construction racketeering, loansharking, money laundering, fraud, pier thefts, fencing; the family was one of the five families that were founded in New York after the Castellammarese War of 1931. For most of the next quarter-century, it was a minor player in organized crime, its most prominent member during this time was its underboss Albert Anastasia, who rose to infamy as the operating head of the underworld's enforcement arm, Inc. He remained in power after Murder, Inc. was smashed in the late 1940s, took over his family in 1951—by all accounts, after murdering the family's founder Vincent Mangano.
The rise of what was the most powerful crime family in America for a time began in 1957, when Anastasia was assassinated while sitting in a barber chair at the Park Sheraton Hotel in Manhattan. Experts believe that Anastasia's underboss Carlo Gambino helped orchestrate the hit to take over the family. Gambino partnered with Meyer Lansky to control gambling interests in Cuba; the family's fortunes grew through 1976, when Gambino appointed his brother-in-law Paul Castellano as boss upon his death. Castellano infuriated upstart capo John Gotti, who orchestrated Castellano's murder in 1985. Gotti's downfall came in 1992, when his underboss Salvatore "Sammy Bull" Gravano decided to cooperate with the FBI. Gravano's cooperation brought down Gotti, along with most of the top members of the Gambino family. Beginning in 2015, the family was headed by Frank Cali until his murder outside his Staten Island home on March 13, 2019; the origins of the Gambino crime family can be traced back to the faction of newly transplanted mafiosi from Palermo, Sicily who were led by Ignazio Lupo.
When he and his partner by business and marriage, Giuseppe Morello, were sent to prison for counterfeiting in 1910, Salvatore "Toto" D'Aquila, one of Lupo's chief captains, took over. D'Aquila was an influential emigrant from Palermo. Founded in the 1900s, the Lupo Mano Nera gang was one of the first Italian criminal groups in New York. Lupo was partner in many ventures with Morello, the original capo di tutti capi, a title that would be coveted by D'Aquila; as other gangs formed in New York, they acknowledged Morello as their boss of bosses. In 1906, D'Aquila's name first appeared on police records for running a confidence scam. In 1910, Giuseppe Morello and Ignazio Lupo were sentenced to 30 years in prison for counterfeiting. With the Morello family weakened, D'Aquila used the opportunity to establish the dominance of what was now his own Palermitani family in East Harlem. D'Aquila used his ties to other Mafia leaders in the United States to create a network of influence and connections and was soon a powerful force in New York.
By 1910, more Italian gangs had formed in New York City. In addition to the original Morello gang in East Harlem and D'Aquila's own, now growing gang in East Harlem, there were other organizations forming. In Brooklyn, Nicolo "Cola" Schirò established a second gang of Sicilian mafiosi from Castellammare del Golfo, west of Palermo, in Sicily. A third Sicilian gang was formed by Alfred Mineo in Brooklyn. Another Morello captain, Gaetano Reina, had broken away in the Bronx, ruling that area with impunity. In south Brooklyn, first Johnny Torrio Frankie Yale were leading a new and rising organization. There were two allied Neapolitan Camorra gangs, one on Coney Island and one on Navy Street in Brooklyn, that were run by Pellegrino Morano and Alessandro Vollero. In 1916 the Camorra had assassinated head of the Morello gang. In response, D'Aquila allied with the Morellos to fight the Camorra. In 1917, both Morano and Vollero were sentenced to life in prison. With their leadership gone, the two Camorra gangs disappeared and D'Aquila and the Schiro family in Brooklyn took over many of their rackets in Brooklyn.
Soon after, D'Aquila absorbed the Mineo gang. D'Aquila now controlled the largest and most influential Italian gang in New York City, it was about this time that Joe Masseria, another former Morello captain, began asserting his influence over the Lower East Side's Little Italy and began to come into conflict with D'Aquila's operations there, as Prohibition approached. In 1920, the United States outlawed the production and sale of alcoholic beverages, creating the opportunity for an lucrative illegal racket for the New York gangs. By 1920, D'Aquila's only significant rival was Giuseppe "Joe the Boss" Masseria. Masseria had taken over the Morello family interests, by the mid-1920s, had begun to amass power and influence to rival that of D'Aquila. By the late 1920s, D'Aquila and Masseria were headed for a showdown. On October 10, 1928, Masseria gunmen assassinated Salvatore D'Aquila outside his home. D'Aquila's second-in-command, Alfred Mineo, his right-hand man, Steve Ferrigno, now commanded the largest and most influential Sicilian gang in New York City.
In 1930, the Castellammarese War started between Masseria and Salvatore Maranzano, the new leader of Cola Schirò's C
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis