Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, colloquially the Met, is located in New York City and is the largest art museum in the United States, and is among the most visited art museums in the world. Its permanent collection contains two million works, divided among seventeen curatorial departments. The main building, on the edge of Central Park along Manhattans Museum Mile, is by area one of the worlds largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains a collection of art, architecture. On March 18,2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer museum at Madison Avenue in the Upper East Side, it extends the museums modern, the Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian, Byzantine and Islamic art. The museum is home to collections of musical instruments and accessories, as well as antique weapons. Several notable interiors, ranging from first-century Rome through modern American design, are installed in its galleries, the Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870.
The founders included businessmen and financiers, as well as leading artists and thinkers of the day and it opened on February 20,1872, and was originally located at 681 Fifth Avenue. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian, the museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments and accessories, and antique weapons and armor from around the world. A number of interiors, ranging from 1st century Rome through modern American design, are permanently installed in the Mets galleries. In addition to its permanent exhibitions, the Met organizes and hosts traveling shows throughout the year. The director of the museum is Thomas P. Campbell, a long-time curator and it was announced on February 28th,2017 that Campbell will be stepping down as the Mets director and CEO, effective June. On March 1st,2017 the BBC reported that Daniel Weiss shall be the acting CEO until a replacement is found, Beginning in the late 19th century, the Met started to acquire ancient art and artifacts from the Near East.
From a few tablets and seals, the Mets collection of Near Eastern art has grown to more than 7,000 pieces. The highlights of the include a set of monumental stone lamassu, or guardian figures. The Mets Department of Arms and Armor is one of the museums most popular collections. Among the collections 14,000 objects are many pieces made for and used by kings and princes, including armor belonging to Henry VIII of England, Henry II of France, Rockefeller donated his more than 3, 000-piece collection to the museum. The Mets Asian department holds a collection of Asian art, of more than 35,000 pieces, the collection dates back almost to the founding of the museum, many of the philanthropists who made the earliest gifts to the museum included Asian art in their collections
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
The Geographer is a painting created by Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer in 1668–1669, and is now in the collection of the Städelsches Kunstinstitut museum in Frankfurt, Germany. It is closely related to Vermeers The Astronomer, for using the same model in the same dress. A2017 study indicated that the canvas for the two came from the same bolt of material. This is one of three paintings Vermeer signed and dated. Details of the face are slightly blurred, suggesting movement. His eyes are narrowed, perhaps squinting in the sunlight or an indication of intense thinking, Carr asserts that the painting depicts a flash of inspiration or even revelation. The drawn curtain on the left and the position of the carpet on the table—pushed back—are both symbols of revelation. He grips a book as if hes about to snatch it up to corroborate his ideas, the globe was published in Amsterdam in 1618 by Jodocus Hondius. The globe is turned toward the Indian Ocean, where the Dutch East India Company was active, Vermeer used an impasto technique to apply pointillé dots, not to indicate light reflected more strongly on certain points but to emphasize the dull ochre cartouche frame printed on the globe.
Since the globe can be identified, we know the decorative cartouche includes a plea for information for future editions—reflecting the theme of revelation in the painting, the sea chart on the wall of all the Sea coasts of Europe has been identified as one published by Willem Jansz Blaeu. This accuracy indicates Vermeer had a source familiar with the profession, the Astronomer, which seems to form a pendant with this painting, shows a similar, sophisticated knowledge of cartographic instruments and books, and the same young man modeled for both. That man himself may have been the source of Vermeers correct display of surveying and geographical instruments and others assert the model/source was probably Anthonie van Leeuwenhoek, a contemporary of Vermeer who was born in Delft. The families of men were in the textile business, and both families had a strong interest in science and optics. A microscopist, van Leeuwenhoek was described after his death as being so skilled in navigation, mathematics and that one can certainly place him with the most distinguished masteres of the art.
Another image of van Leeuwenhoek about 20 years shows a face and straight nose. At the time Vermeer painted the two works, the scientist would have been about 36 years old and he would have been actively studying for his examination for surveyor, which he passed on February 4,1669. There is no evidence for any kind of relationship between the two men during Vermeers lifetime, although in 1676, van Leeuwenhoek was appointed a trustee for Vermeers estate. The pose of the figure in Vermeers painting takes up precisely the position of Faust in Rembrandts famous etching, according to Lawrence Gowing, similar arrangements can be found in drawings by Nicolaes Maes
Johannes, Jan or Johan Vermeer was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life. Vermeer was a successful provincial genre painter in his lifetime. He evidently was not wealthy, leaving his wife and children in debt at his death, Vermeer worked slowly and with great care, and frequently used very expensive pigments. He is particularly renowned for his treatment and use of light in his work. Vermeer painted mostly domestic interior scenes and he was recognized during his lifetime in Delft and The Hague, but his modest celebrity gave way to obscurity after his death. He was barely mentioned in Arnold Houbrakens major source book on 17th-century Dutch painting, since that time, Vermeers reputation has grown, and he is now acknowledged as one of the greatest painters of the Dutch Golden Age. Relatively little was known about Vermeers life until recently and he seems to have been devoted exclusively to his art, living out his life in the city of Delft. Until the 19th century, the sources of information were some registers, a few official documents.
John Michael Montias added details on the family from the city archives of Delft in his Artists and Artisans in Delft, Johannes Vermeer was baptized in the Reformed Church on 31 October 1632. His father Reijnier Janszoon was a worker of silk or caffa. As an apprentice in Amsterdam, Reijnier lived on fashionable Sint Antoniesbreestraat, in 1615, he married Digna Baltus. The couple moved to Delft and had a daughter named Geertruy who was baptized in 1620, in 1625, Reijnier was involved in a fight with a soldier named Willem van Bylandt who died from his wounds five months later. Around this time, Reijnier began dealing in paintings, in 1631, he leased an inn, which he called The Flying Fox. In 1635, he lived on Voldersgracht 25 or 26, in 1641, he bought a larger inn on the market square, named after the Flemish town Mechelen. The acquisition of the inn constituted a financial burden. When Vermeers father died in October 1652, Vermeer took over the operation of the art business. In April 1653, Johannes Reijniersz Vermeer married a Catholic girl, the blessing took place in the quiet nearby village of Schipluiden.
Vermeers new mother-in-law Maria Thins was significantly wealthier than he, according to art historian Walter Liedtke, Vermeers conversion seems to have been made with conviction
Diana and Her Companions
Diana and Her Companions is a painting by Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer completed in the early to mid-1650s, now at the Mauritshuis museum in The Hague. Although the exact year is unknown, the work may be the earliest painting of the artist still extant, with art historians placing it before Christ in the House of Martha and Mary. Rather than directly illustrating one of the moments in well-known episodes from myths about Diana. The theme of a woman in a private, reflective moment would grow stronger in Vermeers paintings as his career progressed, the painting depicts the Greek and Roman goddess Diana with four of her companions. She wears a loose fitting, yellow dress with a sash and, on her head. As she sits on a rock, a nymph washes her left foot, behind Diana, sits with her partially bare back to the viewer, a third nymph, sitting at Dianas left, holds her own left foot with her right hand. A fourth stands in the rear, somewhat apart from the rest of the group and facing them and the viewer at an angle, her eyes cast down, her fists in front of her.
A dog sits in the lower left-hand corner near Diana, its back to the viewer as it faces the goddess, her attendants and, immediately in front of it, a thistle. Except for the woman whose face is turned away from the viewer, all of the other faces in the painting are to one degree or another in shadow. None of the look at each other, each seemingly absorbed in their own thoughts. In 1999-2000, when the painting underwent restoration work and was cleaned, numerous reproductions up to that time had included the blue sky. Restorers covered over the patch with foliage to approximate the original image, the canvas had been trimmed, particularly on the right, where about 15 cm was removed. The painting is signed on the left, on the rock between the thistle and the dog. The canvas is a plain weave linen with a count of 14.3 by 10 per square centimeter. Vermeer first outlined the composition with dark brown brushwork (some of which shows through as pentimenti in the skirt of the woman washing Dianas foot, hairs on the dogs ear were scratched in with the handle of the artists brush.
Paint has been lost in vertical lines left of the paintings center, according to Arthur K. Wheelock Jr. the painting has no visual precedent. Nor does the artist show Dianas hot temper or her reactions to those episodes. The goddesss ability as a huntress is not signalled by dead game or bows and arrows, even the dog is depicted as a gentle animal, not like the fast hounds normally seen in paintings of Diana
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
The Concert (Vermeer)
The Concert is a painting by Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer. The 72. 5-by-64. 7-centimetre picture depicts a man and two women playing music and it belongs to the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston, but was stolen in 1990 and remains missing. It is thought to be the most valuable unrecovered stolen painting ever, the picture shows three musicians, a young woman sitting at a harpsichord, a man playing a lute, and a woman who is singing. The harpsichords upturned lid is decorated with an Arcadian landscape, its bright colouring stands in contrast to the two paintings hanging on the wall to the right and left, a viola da gamba can be seen lying on the floor. The painting on the left is a pastoral landscape. The musical theme in Dutch painting in Vermeers time often connoted love and seduction, the location of the painting was unknown for a long time. Sold in Amsterdam in 1696, it did not reappear until 1780 and it was acquired by Isabella Stewart Gardner in an 1892 auction in Paris for $5,000 and subsequently displayed in the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, beginning in 1903.
On the night of March 18,1990, thieves disguised as policemen stole 13 works out of the museum, to this day the painting has not resurfaced. In an episode of The Colbert Report, Stephen Colbert claims to be in possession of the work, in a 1964 episode of The Alfred Hitchcock Hour called Ten Minutes from Now, an art thief is shown stealing this painting from a museum. In the 2003 movie Girl with a Pearl Earring, Vermeer is shown painting The Concert at the time that he is painting Girl with a Pearl Earring. In an episode of the television series Gallery Fake, Duet. In an episode of the television series The Venture Brothers, the Concert along with The Storm on the Sea of Galilee and several other noted works, are displayed among Phantom Limbs collection of stolen art. Stolen, a film about the theft of The Concert, was produced in 2006 by Persistence of Vision Films. An Object of Beauty, a novel by Steve Martin, includes a plot line involving the theft of The Concert from the Stewart Gardner Museum.
In an episode of The Simpsons, American History X-cellent, Mr. Burns is jailed after he is discovered to have The Concert among his collection, in the 2011 novel The 39 Clues, The Medusa Plot the painting is found by Amy and Dan Cahill in Italy. In the NCIS, Los Angeles television series episode Active Measures the character Anatoli Kirkin claims that The Concert has been stolen from him
Girl Interrupted at Her Music
Girl Interrupted at Her Music is a painting by the Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer. It was painted in the style, probably between the years 1658 and 1659, using oil on canvas. In this painting, Vermeer depicts a woman at her music with an older gentleman. This painting shows the typical courtship during the 17th century in Europe and it focuses on the importance of music when it comes to love. The room that they are shown in is one of higher class, the painting is very reminiscent of Vermeer’s other works. The wine glass, discreetly shown on the table behind the songbook, is tied with both joyfulness and seduction, in the 17th century it was popular to paint scenes that depicted feasts that included drinking and playing music. Later on, these large gatherings became smaller and more exclusive with two or three people shown, drinking wine was associated with love during this time period. You can see that the glass is full and untouched, which symbolizes the slow moving relationship between the man and the woman, on the left side of the painting is a multi-paned window, from which the light source is provided for the scene.
Vermeer used the same design in eight of his other works. Some experts questioned whether this painting was by Vermeer, the precision of the lighting from the window was thought to prove that it was in fact an original Vermeer. The chairs depicted in the painting are thought to have been from Spain and they are some of the few objects in the painting that were not damaged by heavy restoration. You can see the minute details including the lion head carving, the studs. The hazy painting in the background of the scene is of Cupid, the painting within a painting was discovered after its restoration in 1907, it had been covered up by a wall and a hanging violin. The reason for Vermeer including the miniature Cupid painting may never be revealed due to the damaged condition. On the table sits a vase made of porcelain and silver, one of the main centers for porcelain in the Netherlands was and still is Delft, although they had limited success in recreating Chinese porcelain. The man in the painting is likely upper class, due to his fashionable attire and music often went hand in hand in the 17th century, especially with the presence of a musical duet between a man and a woman.
Playing music with one another was one of the few activities where young people of the opposite sex could socialize. The two in the painting were likely part of the bourgeoisie, which meant that they were worldly and educated when it came to music
Lady Writing a Letter with her Maid
Lady Writing a Letter with her Maid is a painting by the Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer, completed in 1670–1671 and held in the National Gallery of Ireland. The work shows a middle-class woman attended by a housemaid who is acting as messenger and go-between for the lady. The work is seen as a bridge between the quiet restraint and self-containment of Vermeers work of the 1660s and his relatively cooler work of the 1670s and it may have been partly inspired by Ter Borchs painting Woman Sealing a Letter. The paintings canvas was almost certainly cut from the bolt used for Woman with a Lute. Lady Writing a Letter with her Maid is the first of the experiments with centrifugal composition. In addition, it is his work in which the drama. The maid is shown standing in the mid-ground, behind her lady, with her hands crossed, the positions of their bodies indicates that the two women are disconnected. The folded arms of the maid seem outwardly as an attempt to display a sense of self-containment, the maids gaze towards the half-visible window indicates an inner restlessness and boredom, as she waits impatiently for the messenger to carry her ladys letter away.
Vermeer had experimented with this painterly device earlier in his career, notably in his View of Delft, The Lacemaker and The Art of Painting. Lady Writing was stolen on 27 April 1974, along with a Goya, led by the British heiress Dr. Rose Dugdale, the thieves used screwdrivers to cut the paintings from their frames. However, the Vermeer and other works were recovered eight days at a cottage in County Cork, the work was again taken in 1986 by a gang led by the Dublin gangster Martin Cahill. Along with a number of other art-works, Cahill held the painting for a ransom of £20 million, the money was not paid, and Cahill lacked contacts or knowledge to otherwise pass it on to international art thieves. The painting was recovered during an August 1993 exchange at Antwerp airport which turned out to be a sting operation organised by the Irish police. It had already been donated in absentia to the National Gallery in Dublin, new York, Konecky & Konecky,1992. Vermeer and Plato, Painting the Ideal, ISBN 0-415-06699-9 Wheelock, Arthur K.
Vermeer, The Complete Works. New York, Harry N. Abrams,1997, ISBN 0-8109-2751-9 Liedtke, Walter A. Vermeer and the Delft School
Girl with a Flute
Girl with a Flute is a small painting attributed to the Dutch Golden Age painter Johannes Vermeer, executed 1665–1670. The work is in possession of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C. just as Woman Holding a Balance, A Lady Writing a Letter and it is contested whether the painting can be attributed to Johannes Vermeer. Possibly another painter finished the painting after a start by Vermeer. The composition is comparable to Girl with a Red Hat, the other work Vermeer painted on panel. Just like Girl with a Red Hat and Girl with a Pearl Earring the model wears a glass, Girl with a Flute is a so-called tronie, a study of a remarkable facial expression or a stock character in costume. This was a genre in Dutch Golden Age painting. Tronies were produced for the market, not for specific patrons. Unlike with portraits the models were always anonymous, Girl with a Flute was in possession of the family of Pieter van Ruijven and was sold at the 1696 Dissius auction in Amsterdam. The work was one of the three tronies with catalogue numbers 38,39 and 40.
In the 19th century the painting was owned by the Van Son family in Brabant, in 1923 the American art collector Joseph E. Widener bought the painting. Widener donated his extensive and valuable art collection in 1939 to the National Gallery of Art, een biografie van Johannes Vermeer Amsterdam, Uitgeverij Bert Bakker Wheelock, Arthur K. Vermeer, The Complete Works. New York, Harry N. Abrams National Gallery of Art Essential Vermeer
Lady Standing at a Virginal
Lady Standing at a Virginal is a genre painting created by the Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer in about 1670–1672, now in the National Gallery, London. The identities of the paintings on the wall are not certain, according to the National Gallery, the second painting, showing Cupid holding a card, is attributed to Caesar van Everdingen, Allarts brother. The painting has been dated on stylistic grounds and on the evidence of the costume and this work can be related to another Vermeer in the collection, Lady Seated at a Virginal, on a canvas of almost exactly the same size, with which it may form a pair. A recent study has shown that the canvas for the two came from the same bolt. In addition, the applied to the canvas of each painting appears to be identical. The painting is depicted in David Hockneys 1977 oil painting Looking at Pictures on a Screen, Young Woman Seated at a Virginal List of paintings by Johannes Vermeer Dutch Golden Age painting Gaskell, Ivan. Vermeers Wager, Speculations on Art History and Art Museums, structured around detailed discussion of Lady Standing at a Virginal Liedtke, Walter A.
Vermeer and the Delft School. Essential Vermeer website web page on the painting
Adriaan Adriaanszoon, called Metius, was a Dutch geometer and astronomer born in Alkmaar. The name Metius comes from the Dutch word meten, and therefore something like measurer or surveyor. Adriaan Metius was born in Alkmaar, North Holland and his father, Adriaan Anthonisz, was a mathematician, land-surveyor and military engineer who from 1582 served as burgomaster of Alkmaar. Metius brother, Jacob Metius, worked as an instrument-maker and a specialist in grinding lenses, born in Alkmaar, Jacob died between 1624 and 1631. Adriaan Metius attended a Latin school in Alkmaar and studied philosophy in 1589 at the recently founded University of Franeker and he continued his studies at Leiden in 1594, where he studied under Rudolph Snellius. He worked for a time under Tycho Brahe on the island of Hven. He was permitted to teach in the vernacular instead of Latin and he served as rector of the university in 1603 and 1632. With his father and brother he established an instrument making business which specialised in optical instruments, the family business seems to have manufactured the precision Jacobs staffs used by Tycho Brahe for his star sightings.
Though he scoffed at astrology, Metius is said to have spent a lot of time pursuing alchemy, Metius published treatises on the astrolabe and on surveying. His works include Arithmeticæ et geometriæ practica, Institutiones Astronomicae Geographicae, Metius manufactured astronomical instruments and developed a special form of Jacobs staff. In 1585, his father had estimated the ratio of a circumference to its diameter, called pi. Metius published his fathers results, and the value 355/113 is traditionally referred to as Metius number, the lunar crater Metius is named after him. In Vermeers painting The Astronomer, the book lying on the table has been identified as a 1621 second edition of Metiuss Institutiones Astronomicae Geographicae. It is opened to Book III, where inspiration from God is recommended for astronomical research along with knowledge of geometry, galileo Project, Metius Metius Imago Mundi, Metius Metius Family