A hazard is an area of a golf course in the sport of golf which provides a difficult obstacle, which may be of two types: water hazards such as lakes and rivers. Special rules apply to play balls. For example, a player may not touch the ground with his club before playing a ball, not for a practice swing. A ball in any hazard may be played. If it cannot be played from the hazard, the ball may be hit from another location with a penalty of one stroke; the Rules of Golf govern from where the ball may be played outside a hazard. Bunkers are shallow pits filled with sand and incorporating a raised lip or barrier, from which the ball is more difficult to play than from grass. A bunker is a depression near the green or fairway, filled with sand, it is difficult to hit the ball out of the bunker and to enter it is therefore considered punitive to a golfer who misses the target with the previous shot. A club called a "sand wedge" is designed for extracting the ball from a bunker, a process requiring well-developed skill.
After a player is done using the bunker, it is the job of either the player or that player's caddie to rake the area of the sand disturbed during play. Specific rules of golf govern play from a bunker. For example, a player may not ground one's club in a bunker. There are three types of bunkers used in golf course architecture and all are designed to be impediments to the golfer's progress toward the green. Fairway bunkers are designed to gather up wayward tee shots on par 4 and par 5 holes. Greenside bunkers are designed to collect wayward approach shots on long holes and tee shots on par 3 holes. Waste bunkers are natural sandy areas very large and found on links courses. Water hazards, like bunkers, are natural obstacles designed to add both beauty and difficulty to a golf course. Water hazards are either streams or ponds, situated between the teeing ground and the hole. Two types of water hazards exist: water hazards. Lateral hazards are adjacent to the fairway being played, while water hazards cross the fairway being played forcing the player to hit over the water hazard.
United States Golf Association - water hazard rules
Moore Park, New South Wales
Moore Park is a small suburb located 3 kilometres southeast of the Sydney central business district, in the south-eastern suburbs of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is part of local government area of the City of Sydney. Moore Park is a large area of parkland, part of Centennial Parklands, a collective of three parks being Moore Park, Centennial Park and Queen's Park. Centennial Parklands is administered by the Centennial Park & Moore Park Trust, a NSW government agency; the only exception is the land on which the Sydney Cricket Ground and Sydney Football Stadium are sited. Moore Park has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Driver Avenue: Sydney Cricket Ground Members' Stand and Lady Members' Stand Moore Park is the former location of the Royal Agricultural Society's Sydney Showground, which hosted the annual Sydney Royal Easter Show until 1998, it moved to Homebush Bay. The old showgrounds have since been redeveloped as Fox Studios, a commercial venture designed at supporting Australia's film industry.
The Entertainment Quarter is a retail and entertainment precinct beside the studios. It contains cinemas, live venues, cafes and retailers of fashion and homewares; the Farmer's Market operates every Saturday in the old showground showing. The south-western corner of the suburb boasts a large shopping centre called the'Moore Park Supa Centre', on South Dowling Street, it specialises in showrooms for home furnishings and home renovations. This was the site of the former Dowling Street depot for trams; the Eastern Distributor and Anzac Parade are major arterial roads on the western border of the suburb. State Transit operate frequent services to Moore Park from the Sydney CBD and special services for sporting events run from Central railway station. On 13 December 2012, the NSW Government announced a commitment to build a $1.6 billion light rail from Circular Quay down George Street to Central station across to Moore Park and down Anzac Parade. South of Moore Park the line will spit into two branches - one continuing down Anzac Parade to the nine ways at Kensington, the second heading to Randwick via Alison Road.
Construction commenced in 2015. Moore Park is the location of two of Sydney's largest sporting venues, the Sydney Cricket Ground and Sydney Football Stadium; the Sydney Roosters Rugby league team in the National Rugby League, The Sydney Swans in the Australian Football League, Sydney FC A-League football team, NSW Waratahs rugby union team have their administration offices at Moore Park and Sydney Football Stadium is their home ground. The Moore Park Magpies are a local junior rugby league team; the Hordern Pavilion is a multipurpose entertainment venue, while next door the Royal Hall of Industries hosts a range of exhibitions and commercial events and shows. Moore Park houses Kippax Lake, the ES Marks Athletics Field, the Moore Park Golf, the Parklands Sports Centre and a number of sports fields. Moore Park, served by the Department of Education, is the location of Sydney Boys High School, Sydney Girls High School
Jack Falls "Jock" Hutchison was a Scottish-American professional golfer. Hutchison was born in St Andrews, Scotland, the son of William and Helen, his name was registered as Waters being the maiden name of William's mother. He appears in the 1901 census as golf caddie, he had an older brother, a golf player, Tom Hutchinson. Hutchison moved to the United States and became a naturalized citizen in 1920, he was known there as John Falls Hutchison. He won two major championships, the PGA Championship in 1920 and the Open Championship at St Andrews in 1921, his 1921 victory was the first by a U. S.-based player. S.-born winner. In 1937, Hutchison won the inaugural PGA Seniors' Championship at Augusta National Golf Club, in 1947 he won that event for a second time. Beginning in 1963, Hutchison was one of the two men who served as honorary starters for The Masters, until ailments prevented him from hitting one of the honorary tee shots in 1973, his death on September 27, 1977 came just two days before Masters co-founder Clifford Roberts' own death.
Hutchison died at the age of 93 in Illinois. He was inducted into the World Golf Hall of Fame in 2011. 1918 Florida West Coast Open 1920 West Baden Springs Hotel, Illinois Open, Western Open, PGA Championship 1921 White Sulphur Springs Open, The Open Championship and South Open 1922 Columbia Country Club Open, Northern California Open 1923 Western Open 1925 Illinois PGA Championship 1926 Illinois PGA Championship 1928 Florida West Coast Open 1916 Pennsylvania Open Championship 1921 Kinghorn Tournament 1923 Illinois PGA Championship 1937 PGA Seniors' Championship 1947 PGA Seniors' Championship 1 Hutchison defeated Wethered in a 36-hole playoff by nine strokes: Hutchison 74-6=150. Note: The PGA Championship was match play until 1958 NYF = Tournament not yet founded NT = No tournament DNP = Did not play WD = Withdrew CUT = missed the half-way cut R64, R32, R16, QF, SF = Round in which player lost in PGA Championship match play "T" indicates a tie for a place Green background for wins. Yellow background for top-10
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Jordan Alexander Spieth is an American professional golfer on the PGA Tour and former world number one in the Official World Golf Ranking. He is the 2015 FedEx Cup champion. In April 2016, Time magazine named Spieth to its list of the "100 Most Influential People", noting that he "exemplifies everything that's great about sports." Spieth's first major win came in the 2015 Masters Tournament, when he shot a 270 and pocketed $1.8 million. He tied the 72-hole record set by Tiger Woods in 1997 and became the second youngest golfer to win the Masters, he won the 2015 U. S. Open with a score of 5-under-par, he was the youngest U. S. Open champion since amateur Bobby Jones in 1923, he followed up with a win in the 2015 Tour Championship. Two years Spieth won his third major at the 2017 Open Championship, by three shots at 12 under-par. Spieth was born in 1993 in Texas, to Shawn Spieth and Mary Christine Spieth, he attended St. Monica Catholic School and graduated from Jesuit College Preparatory School in 2011.
He learned to play golf at Brookhaven Country Club. In 2009 and 2011, Spieth won the U. S. Junior joined Tiger Woods as the tournament's only two-time winners. Before turning 18 in July 2011, he was No. 1 in the AJGA Golf Rankings, which promotes the best junior golfers in the world. He finished second in the 2009 Junior PGA Championship; the American Junior Golf Association named him the Rolex Junior Player of the Year in 2009. Spieth accepted an exemption to play in the PGA Tour's HP Byron Nelson Championship in 2010, it was the event's first amateur exemption since 1995. The tournament's previous exemptions had included Trip Kuehne in 1995, Justin Leonard, Woods in 1993, he made the cut. Spieth was tied for seventh place after the third round, finished the tournament in a tie for 16th place, he was offered another exemption into the tournament in 2011, when he again made the cut and finished in a tie for 32nd. Spieth played college golf at the University of Texas. Spieth played in three of the four rounds.
In his freshman year at Texas, Spieth led the team in scoring average. He helped his team win the NCAA championship, was named to the All-Big 12 Team, Big 12 Freshman of the Year and Player of the Year, was a first-team All-American. In 2012, Spieth earned a spot as an alternate in the U. S. Open after Brandt Snedeker withdrew from the tournament, he became the number one amateur in the World Amateur Golf Ranking after his performance in the U. S. Open and Patrick Cantlay's decision to turn professional. In 2012, after failing to advance to the Final Stage of PGA Tour qualifying school, 19-year-old Spieth turned professional midway through his sophomore year at Texas, he partnered with Under Armour for sponsorship in January 2013 and with BioSteel Sports Supplements in March. In the 2013 season, Spieth played in his first tournament in January, where he missed the cut by two strokes at the Farmers Insurance Open at Torrey Pines. In March, Spieth made three cuts, finishing tied for second at the Puerto Rico Open and tied for seventh at the Tampa Bay Championship.
He earned Special Temporary Member status in March. He notched another top-10 finish in April at a tie for ninth. On July 14 Spieth won the John Deere Classic on the fifth hole of a three-way, sudden-death playoff against defending champion Zach Johnson and David Hearn, he became the fourth youngest PGA Tour winner and the first teenager to do so since Ralph Guldahl won the Santa Monica Open in 1931. Spieth holed out from a greenside bunker on the 72nd hole to make the playoff. With the victory, Spieth was granted full status as a PGA Tour member and became eligible for the FedEx Cup, entering in 11th place in the standings, it earned him entry into the next three majors: the 2013 Open Championship, PGA Championship, 2014 Masters. Five weeks after his first victory, Spieth played the Wyndham Championship, where he lost in a playoff to Patrick Reed. Spieth shot a final round 62 in the Deutsche Bank Championship. Just two days captain Fred Couples selected Spieth for the United States squad in the 2013 Presidents Cup.
On September 27, 2013, he was named PGA Tour Rookie of the Year. At the end of the 2013 season, he was ranked 10th on the PGA Tour money list and 22nd in the Official World Golf Ranking. Spieth shared the 54-hole lead with Bubba Watson. During the final round, Spieth at one point was the stand-alone leader by two strokes and in position to become the youngest Masters champion in history, but Watson retook the lead never relinquished it. Spieth finished in a tie for second with Jonas Blixt, becoming the youngest runner-up in Masters history. Spieth ended the tournament with no scores above even-par in any of his rounds, his finish moved him into the top 10 in the world rankings for the first time. Following the PGA Championship, Spieth earned selection to the 2014 Ryder Cup team, becoming the youngest American to play in the matches for 85 years since Horton Smith in 1929. In November, Spieth won his second tournament as a professional at the Emirates Australian Open on the PGA Tour of Australasia.
A week he complete
Augusta National Golf Club
Augusta National Golf Club, located in Augusta, Georgia, is one of the most famous golf clubs in the world. Founded by Bobby Jones and Clifford Roberts on the site of the former Fruitland Nursery, the course was designed by Jones and Alister MacKenzie and opened for play in January 1933, its first club professional was Ed Dudley, who served in the role until 1957. Since 1934, the club has played host to the annual Masters Tournament, one of the four major championships in professional golf, the only major played each year at the same course, it was the top-ranked course in Golf Digest's 2009 list of America's 100 greatest courses and was the number ten-ranked course based on course architecture on Golfweek Magazine's 2011 list of best classic courses in the United States. The club long held racist and sexist policies: Augusta National had no African American members until 1990 and women until 2012; the club, which long required all caddies to be black, barred black golfers from the Masters Tournament until Lee Elder participated in 1975.
In 1997, Tiger Woods became the first person of color to win the tournament. In 2019, the course began co-hosting the Augusta National Women's Amateur. In 2018, Augusta National Golf Club was voted the number one Platinum Club of the World, Golf & Country Clubs by the election conducted by Club Leaders Forum; the course was a plant nursery, each hole on the course is named after the tree or shrub with which it has become associated. Several of the holes on the first nine have been renamed, as well as hole #11. Lengths of the course for the Masters at the start of each decade: Unlike most other private or public golf courses in the US, Augusta National has never been rated. During the 1990 Masters Tournament, a team of USGA raters, organized by Golf Digest, evaluated the course and gave it an unofficial rating of 76.2. It was re-evaluated in 2009 and given an unofficial rating of 78.1. The golf course architecture website GolfClubAtlas.com has said, "Augusta National has gone through more changes since its inception than any of the world's twenty or so greatest courses.
To call it a MacKenzie course is false advertising as his features are long gone and his routing is all, left." The authors of the site add that MacKenzie and Jones were influenced by the Old Course at St Andrews, intended that the ground game be central to the course. From Augusta's opening, Roberts sought to make changes to minimize the ground game, got free rein to do so because MacKenzie died shortly after the course's opening and Jones went into inactivity due to World War II and a crippling illness; the authors add, "With the ground game gone, the course was vulnerable to changes in technology, this brought on a slew of changes from at least 15 different'architects'." Golf Course Histories has an aerial comparison of the architectural changes for Augusta National Golf Club for the year 1938 versus 2013. Among the changes to the course were several made by architect Perry Maxwell in 1937, including an important alteration involving the current 10th hole; when Augusta National opened for play in January 1933, the opening hole was a benign par 4 that played just in excess of 400 yards.
From an elevated tee, the hole required little more than a short wedge for the approach. Maxwell moved the green in 1937 to its present location – on top of the hill, about 50 yards back from the old site – and transformed it into the toughest hole in Masters Tournament history. Ben Crenshaw referred to Maxwell's work on the 10th hole as "one of the great strokes in golf architecture". For the 1999 tournament, a short rough was instated around the fairways. Referred to as the second cut, it is shorter than the comparable primary rough at other courses, with an average length of 1.625 inches. It is meant to reduce a player's ability to control the ball coming out of this lie, encourage better accuracy for driving onto the fairway; the second shot at the 11th, all of the 12th, the first two shots at the 13th hole at Augusta are nicknamed "Amen Corner". This term was first used in print by author Herbert Warren Wind in his April 21, 1958, Sports Illustrated article about the Masters that year. In a Golf Digest article in April 1984, 26 years Wind told about its origin.
He said he wanted a catchy phrase like baseball's "hot-corner" or football's "coffin-corner" to explain where some of the most exciting golf had taken place. Thus "Amen Corner" was born, he said it came from the title of a jazz record he had heard in the mid-1930s by a group led by Chicago's Mezz Mezzrow, Shouting in that Amen Corner. In a Golf Digest article in April 2008, writer Bill Fields added some new updated information about the origin of the name, he wrote that Richard Moore, a golf and jazz historian from South Carolina, tried to purchase a copy of the old Mezzrow 78 RPM disc for an "Amen Corner" exhibit he was putting together for his Golf Museum at Ahmic Lake, Ontario. After extensive research, Moore found; as Moore put it, himself a jazz buff, must have "unfortunately bogeyed his mind, 26 years later". While at Yale, he was no doubt familiar with, meant all along, the popular version of the song, recorded by the Dorsey Brothers Orchestra, vocal by Mildred Bailey in 1935. Moore told Fields that, being a great admirer of Wind's work over the years
Australian Open (golf)
The Australian Open and run by Golf Australia, is the oldest and most prestigious golf tournament on the PGA Tour of Australasia. The Open takes place toward the end of each year; the winner of the tournament receives the Stonehaven Cup, presented by Lord Stonehaven, the Governor-General of Australia from 1925 to 1930. It was first presented in 1930; the prize money is considered modest when compared to tournaments on the PGA Tour and the European Tour, however the Australian Open's position is one of the traditional golf powers. Winners between the mid-1950s to the late 1980s included many of the most distinguished international golfers, such as Jack Nicklaus, Arnold Palmer and Gary Player; the Australian Open is the "flagship tournament" of the PGA Tour of Australasia, having a special status in the Official World Golf Ranking's points system. This status awards a minimum 32 points to the winner regardless of the strength of the field; the tournament was part of the OneAsia Tour from 2009 to 2016.
Since the Open Qualifying Series was introduced for the 2014 Open Championship, the Australian Open has been the first of a number of qualifying tournaments, giving up to three non-exempt players entry into the Open Championship. The Australian Golf Union was formed from 1899 organised a championship meeting. From 1899 to 1902 this included the Australian Amateur championship contested over 72 holes of stroke play. In 1903 the format we revised, there being a 36-hole stroke-play stage after which the leading 8 played match-play with a 36-hole final. In 1904 the format was revised again, a 72-hole stroke-play open event with the leading 16 amateurs competing for the amateur championship; the Open championship was won by an English amateur, Michael Scott, with a score of 315. Two more amateurs Leslie Penfold Hyland and Dan Soutar finished second and third, while Carnegie Clark was the leading professional, tied for fourth place. In recent years American Jordan Spieth has dominated the event winning twice and finishing runner-up once.
England's Lee Westwood and Northern Ireland's Rory McIlroy are the only European golfers to have won the tournament. Denotes amateur The 1985 and 2002 events were reduced to 54 holes In 2016 Spieth won the playoff with a birdie at the first extra hole. In 2008 Clark won the playoff with a par at the first extra hole. In 1997 Westwood won the playoff with a par at the fourth extra hole. In 1990 Morse won the playoff with a par at the first extra hole. In 1972 Thomson won the 18-hole playoff 68 to 74. In 1964 Nicklaus won the 18-hole playoff 67 to 70. In 1948 Pickworth won the 18-hole playoff 71 to 74; as of the 2016 event, the following golfers have won the Australian Open more than once. Women's Australian Open Australian Amateur Australian Boys' Amateur Official tournament website from Golf Australia Coverage on the PGA Tour of Australasia official site