RPM was a Canadian music industry publication that featured song and album charts for Canada. The publication was founded by Walt Grealis in February 1964, supported through its existence by record label owner Stan Klees. RPM ceased publication in November 2000. RPM stood for "Records, Music"; the magazine was reported to have variations in its title over the years such as RPM Weekly and RPM Magazine. RPM maintained several format charts, including Top Singles, Adult Contemporary, Urban, Rock/Alternative and Country Tracks for country music. On 21 March 1966, RPM expanded its Top Singles chart from 40 positions to 100. On December 6, 1980 the main chart became a Top 50 chart and remained this way until August 4, 1984 whereupon it returned to being a Top 100 Singles chart. For the first several weeks of its existence, the magazine did not compile a national chart, but printed the current airplay lists of several major market Top 40 stations. A national chart was introduced beginning with the June 22, 1964 issue, with its first-ever national #1 single being "Chapel of Love" by The Dixie Cups.
Prior to the introduction of RPM's national chart, the CHUM Chart from Toronto radio station CHUM was considered the de facto national chart. The final #1 single in the magazine was "Music" by Madonna; the modern Juno Awards had their origins in an annual survey conducted by RPM since its founding year. Readers of the magazine were invited to mail in survey ballots to indicate their choices under various categories of people or companies; the RPM Awards poll was transformed into a formal awards ceremony, The Gold Leaf Awards in 1970. These became the Juno Awards in following years; the RPM Awards for 1964 were announced in the 28 December 1964 issue: Top male vocalist: Terry Black Top female singer: Shirley Matthews Most promising male vocalist: Jack London Most promising female vocalist: Linda Layne Top vocal instrumental group: The Esquires Top female vocal group: Girlfriends Top instrumental group: Wes Dakus & The Rebels Top folk group: The Courriers Top country male singer: Gary Buck Top country female singer: Pat Hervey Industry man of the year: Johnny Murphy of Cashbox Canada Top record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top Canadian Content record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top national record promoter: Paul White, Capitol Records of Canada Top regional record promoter: Ed Lawson, Quality Records Top album of the year: That Girl by Phyllis MarshallA column on page 6 of that issue noted that the actual vote winner for Top Canadian Content record company was disqualified due to a conflict of interest involving an employee of that company, working for RPM.
Therefore, runner-up Capitol Records was declared the category's winner. The Annual RPM Awards for 1965 were announced in the 17 January 1966 issue, with more country music categories than the previous year: Top male vocalist: Bobby Curtola Top female singer: Catherine McKinnon Most promising male vocalist: Barry Allen Most promising female vocalist: Debbie Lori Kaye Top vocal/instrumental group: The Guess Who Top female vocal group: Girlfriends Top instrumental group: Wes Dakus & The Rebels Top folk group: Malka and Joso Top folk singer: Gordon Lightfoot Best produced single: "My Girl Sloopy", Little Caesar and the Consuls Best produced album: Voice of an Angel by Catherine McKinnon Top country male singer: Gary Buck Top country female singer: Dianne Leigh Most promising country male singer: Angus Walker Most promising country female singer: Sharon Strong Top country instrumental vocal group: Rhythm Pals Top country instrumentalist: Roy Penney Top country radio personality: Al Fisher, CFGM Toronto Top Canadian disc jockey: Chuck Benson, CKYL Peace River Top record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top Canadian Content record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top national record promoter: Paul White, Capitol Records of Canada Top regional record promoter: Charlie Camilleri, Quality Records The winners were: Top male vocalist: Barry Allen Top female singer: Catherine McKinnon Most promising male vocalist: Jimmy Dybold Most promising female vocalist: Lynda Lane Top vocal/instrumental group: Staccatos Top female vocal group: Allan Sisters Top instrumental group: Wes Dakus & The Rebels Top folk group: 3's a Crowd Top folk singer: Gordon Lightfoot Best produced single: "Let's Run Away", Staccatos Top country male singer: Gary Buck Top country female singer: Dianne Leigh Most promising country male singer: Johnny Burke Most promising country female singer: Debbie Lori Kaye Top country instrumental vocal group: Mercey Brothers Top country instrumentalist: Roy Penney Top country radio personality: Ted Daigle Top country radio station: CFGM Top record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top Canadian Content record company: Red Leaf Records Top national record promoter: Paul White, Capitol Records of Canada Top regional record promoter: Al Nair Top Canadian music industry man of the year: Stan Klees List of number-one singles in Canada List of RPM number-one alternative rock singles List of RPM number-one country singles List of RPM number-one dance singles RPM archive charts RPM Library and Archives Canada: "The RPM Story" The Canadian Encyclopedia: RPM Charts archive from 1964 to 1999 on worldcharts.co.uk Megan Thow.
"Critical Miss". Ryerson Review of Journalism. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 15 September 2007
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
Party Mix! is a 1981 remix album by The B-52's, released in between their second album Wild Planet and the Mesopotamia EP. On the original vinyl, this six-song collection contained songs from their first two albums remixed and sequenced to form two long tracks, one on each side. On the CD version, all the songs feature their own tracks. In the US, Party Mix! and a 1990 remix version of Mesopotamia were combined onto one CD, released in 1991. In Europe, both albums were made available on separate CDs, with Mesopotamia retaining the original US mix. However, Party Mix! is no longer in print in Europe. "Party Out of Bounds" - 5:11 "Private Idaho" - 4:03 "Give Me Back My Man" - 7:04 "Lava" - 6:02 "Dance This Mess Around" - 2:58 "52 Girls" - 3:05 Daniel Coulombe, Harold Dorsett, Steven Stanley - remixing Tony Wright - cover art Lynn Goldsmith - photography
Music recording certification
Music recording certification is a system of certifying that a music recording has shipped, sold, or streamed a certain number of units. The threshold quantity varies by nation or territory. All countries follow variations of the RIAA certification categories, which are named after precious materials; the threshold required for these awards depends upon the population of the territory where the recording is released. They are awarded only to international releases and are awarded individually for each country where the album is sold. Different sales levels, some 10 times lower than others, may exist for different music media; the original gold and silver record awards were presented to artists by their own record companies to publicize their sales achievements. The first silver disc was awarded by Regal Zonophone to George Formby in December 1937 for sales of 100,000 copies of "The Window Cleaner"; the first gold disc was awarded by RCA Victor to Glenn Miller and His Orchestra in February 1942, celebrating the sale of 1.2 million copies of single "Chattanooga Choo Choo".
Another example of a company award is the gold record awarded to Elvis Presley in 1956 for one million units sold of his single "Don't Be Cruel". The first gold record for an LP was awarded by RCA Victor to Harry Belafonte in 1957 for the album Calypso, the first album to sell over 1,000,000 copies in RCA's reckoning. At the industry level, in 1958 the Recording Industry Association of America introduced its gold record award program for records of any kind, albums or singles, which achieved one million dollars in retail sales; these sales were restricted to U. S.-based record companies and did not include exports to other countries. For albums in 1968, this would mean shipping 250,000 units; the platinum certification was introduced in 1976 for the sale of one million units for albums and two million for singles, with the gold certification redefined to mean sales of 500,000 units for albums and one million for singles. No album was certified platinum prior to this year. For instance, the recording by Van Cliburn of the Tchaikovsky Piano Concerto from 1958 would be awarded a platinum citation, but this would not happen until two decades after its release.
In 1999, the diamond certification was introduced for sales of ten million units. In the late 1980s, the certification thresholds for singles were dropped to match that of albums; the first official designation of a "gold record" by the Recording Industry Association of America was established for singles in 1958, the RIAA trademarked the term "gold record" in the United States. On 14 March 1958, the RIAA certified its first gold record, Perry Como's hit single "Catch a Falling Star"; the Oklahoma! Soundtrack was certified as the first gold album four months later. In 1976, RIAA introduced the platinum certification, first awarded to the Eagles compilation album Their Greatest Hits on 24 February 1976, to Johnnie Taylor's single "Disco Lady" on 22 April 1976; as music sales increased with the introduction of compact discs, the RIAA created the Multi-Platinum award in 1984. Diamond awards, honoring those artists whose sales of singles or albums reached 10,000,000 copies, were introduced in 1999.
In the 20th century, for a part of the first decade of the 21st, it was common for distributors to claim certifications based on their shipments – wholesale to retail outlets – which led to many certifications which outstripped the actual final retail sales figures. This became much less common once the majority of retail sales became paid digital downloads and digital streaming. In most countries certifications no longer apply to physical media but now include sales awards recognizing digital downloads. In June 2006, the RIAA certified the ringtone downloads of songs. Streaming from on-demand services such as Apple Music, Spotify and Napster has been included into existing digital certification in the U. S since 2013 and the U. K. and Germany since 2014. In the U. S. and Germany video streaming services like YouTube, VEVO, Yahoo! Music began to be counted towards the certification, in both cases using the formula of 100 streams being equivalent to one download. Other countries, such as Denmark and Spain, maintain separate awards for digital download singles and streaming.
The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry was founded in 1996, grants the IFPI Platinum Europe Award for album sales over one million within Europe and the Middle East. Multi-platinum Europe Awards are presented for sales in subsequent multiples of one million. Eligibility is unaffected by time, is not restricted to European-based artists; the Independent Music Companies Association was founded in 2000 to grow the independent music sector and promote independent music in the interests of artistic and cultural diversity. IMPALA sales awards were launched in 2005 as the first sales awards recognising that success on a pan-European basis begins well before sales reach one million; the award levels are Silver, Double Silver, Double Gold, Diamond and Double Platinum. Below are certification thresholds for the United States, United Kingdom and France; the numbers in the tables are in terms of "units", where a unit represents one sale or one shipment of a given medium. Certific
British Phonographic Industry
The BPI Limited known as the British Phonographic Industry or BPI, is the British recorded music industry's trade association. Its membership comprises hundreds of music companies including all three "major" record companies in the UK, hundreds of independent music labels and small to medium-sized music businesses, it has represented the interests of British record companies since being formally incorporated in 1973 when the principal aim was to promote British music and fight copyright infringement. In 2007, the association's legal name was changed from British Phonographic Industry Limited, it founded the annual BRIT Awards for the British music industry in 1977, The Classic BRIT Awards. The organizing company, BRIT Awards Limited, is a owned subsidiary of the BPI. Proceeds from both shows go to the BRIT Trust, the charitable arm of the BPI that has donated £15m to charitable causes nationwide since its foundation in 1989. In September 2013, the BPI presented the first BRITs Icon Award to Sir Elton John.
The BPI endorsed the launch of the Mercury Prize for the Album of the Year in 1992. The recorded music industry's Certified Awards program, which attributes Platinum and Silver status to singles and music videos based on their sales performance, has been administered by the BPI since its inception in 1973. In September 2008, the BPI became one of the founding members of UK Music, an umbrella organisation representing the interests of all parts of the industry; the charitable arm of the BPI, the trust was conceived in 1989 by a collection of leading music industry individuals with a mission to give young people a chance to express their musical creativity regardless of race, sex or ability. The BRIT Trust is the only music charity supporting all types of education across the entire spectrum of music. Through the projects it supports, which include Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy and the BRIT School, the Trust offers young people the opportunity to enhance their lives through music. Proceeds from the BRIT Awards and the Classic BRITs shows go to the BRIT Trust, which has donated £15m to charitable causes nationwide since its foundation.
Opened in September 1991, the BRIT School is a joint venture between The BRIT Trust and the Department for Education and Skills. Based at Selhurst in Croydon, the school is the only non fee-paying performing arts school in the UK, it teaches up to 1,100 students each year aged from 14–19 years in music, drama, musical theatre, production and art & design. Students are from diverse backgrounds and are not required to stick to their own discipline. Nor do students have to work/perform in the evening to pay for the tuition; the BPI administers the BRIT Certified Platinum, Gold and Bronze awards scheme for music releases in the United Kingdom. The level of the award varies depending on the format of the release and the level of sales achieved. Although the awards program was for many years based on the level of shipments by record labels to retailers, since July 2013, certifications have been automatically allocated by the BPI upon the relevant sales thresholds being achieved. Member companies do, still have the option to certify titles based on shipment levels if they choose to.
Since July 2014, audio streaming has been included for singles at a ratio of 100 streams equivalent to 1 unit. From June 2015, audio streams were added to album certifications. According to BPI, they would take the 12 most-streamed tracks from the standard version of an album, with the top two songs down-weighted in line with the average of the rest; the total of these streams will be divided by 1,000 and added to the physical and digital sales of the album. On 6 April 2018, the BPI announced changes to its certifications. A new Bronze certification was introduced, which will be awarded to an artist's first album to reach 30,000 units. Additionally, the program was re-branded as BRIT Certified, with public promotion of the programme being assumed by the BRIT Awards' social media outlets and digital properties. Chief executive Geoff Taylor justified the change by stating that it was part of an effort to cross-promote the certifications with "the UK's biggest platform for artistic achievement".
Adam Barker – Universal Music UK Mike Batt LVO – Deputy chairman, BPI - Dramatico Entertainment John Craig OBE – First Night Records Jonathan Cross – Warner Music UK Nick Gatfield – Sony Music Entertainment Nick Hartley – PIAS David Joseph – Universal Music UK Max Lousada – Warner Music UK Korda Marshall – Infectious Music Iain McNay – Cherry Red Records Emma Pike – Sony Music Entertainment Peter Stack – Union Square Music Geoff Taylor – Chief executive officer, BPI and BRIT Awards Limited Tony Wadsworth CBE – Chairman, BPI and BRIT Awards Limited Kiaron Whitehead – General counsel, BPISource: BPI The BPI have developed bespoke software and automated crawling tools created in-house by the BPI search for members repertoire across more than 400 known infringing sites and generate URLs which are sent to Google as a DMCA Notice for removal within hours of receipt. Additionally, personnel are seconded to the City of London Police Intellectual Property Crime Unit to support anti-"piracy" operations.
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