Assembly is a 2007 Chinese war film written by Liu Heng and directed by Feng Xiaogang. It starred Zhang Hanyu, Deng Chao, Yuan Wenkang, Tang Yan, Wang Baoqiang, Liao Fan, Hu Jun, Ren Quan, the film, ostensibly portraying an anti-war theme, was first released on 20 December 2007. It won the 2008 Hundred Flowers Awards and the 2009 Golden Rooster Awards for Best Film and they win the battle but sustain heavy casualties in the process. Gu is punished by confinement for three days and he quickly befriends his cellmate, Wang Jincun, a teacher and pacifist who is jailed for cowardice in battle. After Gu is released, he meets his superior, Colonel Liu Zeshui and they must not retreat until they hear the bugle call for assembly. With Lius permission, Wang becomes the 9th Companys new political commissar, almost immediately after fortifying their position, the 9th Company comes under heavy attack by NRA forces. After fending off a wave of infantry and destroying two enemy tanks, only a handful of them are left alive.
The mortally wounded adjutant claims that he heard a call in the distance. A few others say they heard it too, Gu, who has been temporarily deafened by an explosion, is reluctant to believe them so he orders them to fight to the death. The entire 9th Company, except Gu, is killed, PLA forces eventually find Gu, unconsciousness and heavily wounded. They mistake him for an enemy because he was wearing a NRA uniform, after being nursed back to health in a military hospital, Gu tries to convince the staff that he is from the PLA. However, when he was still in coma, the PLA was reorganised, the other patients scorn him because they think he is a deserter. Gu volunteers to fight in the Korean War as an enlisted soldier, during a spotting mission, he risks his life to save his commander, Lieutenant Zhao Erdou, from a landmine and loses his right eye after being hit by shrapnel. After the war ends, Gu travels back to the old battlefield and he is disappointed to see that the mine has been reactivated and the old entrance is now buried under coal.
He encounters Wangs widow and convinces her to marry Zhao, with Zhaos help, Gu manages to confirm his identity and the 9th Companys existence. He finds his way to Lius tomb, the tomb keeper, who turns out to be 139th Regiments bugler, explains that the assembly bugle call was never sounded. In fact, the 9th Company was sacrificed to cover the regiments retreat, Gu flies into a rage and curses and swears at Lius tombstone but calms down later. Gu starts camping at the mine and attempts to dig out his mens bodies with a shovel, when Wangs remains are found a month later, the PLA sends an official notice to the local government to honour the 9th Company
Sword of the Yue Maiden
Sword of the Yue Maiden, alternatively translated as Yue Maidens Sword, is a wuxia short story by Jin Yong. It was first serialised in 1970 in the Hong Kong newspaper Ming Pao Evening Supplement and this short story is the last of Jin Yongs works. However, its setting, in the Spring and Autumn period, is the earliest amongst Jin Yongs works. The story is set in the Spring and Autumn period against the backdrop of the conflict between the states of Wu and Yue in southern China, a swordsman from Wu challenges Yue. Fan Li, a Yue royal adviser, finds Qing, a young swordswoman, Qing defeats the Wu swordsman with ease. It is revealed that Qing learnt her skills while playing mock sword duels with a white gibbon, Fan Li allows Qing to train the soldiers of Yue in swordsmanship. Qing gradually falls in love with Fan Li, King Goujian of Yue finally defeats his rival King Fuchai of Wu after enduring hardship and humiliation. Fan Li is reunited with his lover Xishi, who has working as a spy in Wu. Qing feels that Xishi is a threat to her relationship with Fan Li, she is taken aback by Xishis beauty and hesitates.
Qing accidentally hurts Xishi with her energy while thrusting her sword towards Xishi. Xishi clutches her bosom in pain and the expression on her face is described as so beautiful that it will take away the soul of any man who looks upon her. This incident gave rise to the Chinese phrase Xizi clutching her bosom, Qing Fan Li Xishi In 1986, Hong Kongs ATV produced a television series based on the story, starring Moon Lee as Qing
Aftershock (2010 film)
Aftershock is a 2010 Chinese disaster-drama film directed by Feng Xiaogang and produced by Huayi Brothers, starring Xu Fan, Zhang Jingchu, Chen Daoming, Lu Yi, Zhang Guoqiang and Li Chen. The film depicts the aftermath of the 1976 Tangshan earthquake and it was released in China on 22 July 2010, and is the first big commercial film IMAX film created outside the United States. The film was a box office success, and has grossed more than US$100 million at the Chinese box office. Li Yuanni and her husband, Fang Daqiang, and their children, Fang Deng and Fang Da. One night in 1976, after putting their children to bed, an earthquake suddenly breaks out, causing buildings to crumble and disintegrate. While rushing back to save their children, Li is pulled back by her husband and their apartment block collapses and traps their children under a pile of rubble. In the aftermath of the earthquake, a rescue team informs Li that her twins are trapped under a slab of concrete. Lifting up the slab in any way will cause one of her children to die, feeling heartbroken, Li decides to save her son, Fang Da.
The girl, Fang Deng and regains consciousness to find herself among several dead bodies, assumed to be an orphan, Fang Deng is adopted by a military couple, Wang Deqing and Dong Guilan, who bring her back to their home in Beijing. She is renamed to Wang Deng after taking on her fathers surname. Ten years later, she moves away from home to study in a school in Hangzhou, where she meets a graduate student, Yang Zhi. In her third year, Fang Dengs adoptive mother becomes critically ill, before dying, she asks Fang Deng to use the money they saved to find her real family. Fang Deng finds out that she is pregnant later, despite being pressured by Yang Zhi to undergo an abortion, she refuses to abandon her child and secretly drops out of university and loses contact with Yang and her adoptive father. In the meantime, Fang Das grandmother and aunt had wanted him to live them in Jinan, Shandong Province. The earthquake had claimed his arm, rendering him physically disabled. He marries and has a son, with his wife, after a period of four years, Fang Deng brings along her daughter, named Diandian, and reunites with her adoptive father.
She apologises and reconciles with him, on Lunar New Years Eve, she tells her adoptive father that she is getting married to a foreigner and will be emigrating to Vancouver with her daughter. In 2008, Fang Deng sees the earthquake in Sichuan on television and she immediately volunteers to join rescuers and returns to China
A lady-in-waiting or Court Lady is a female personal assistant at a court, royal or feudal, attending on a royal woman or a high-ranking noblewoman. Historically, in Europe, a lady-in-waiting was often a noblewoman from a family in good society, although she may or may not have received compensation for the service she rendered, a lady-in-waiting was considered more of a companion to her mistress than a servant. In courts where polygamy was practiced, a lady was formally available to the monarch for sexual services. Lady-in-waiting or court lady is often a term for women whose relative rank, title. The development of the office of lady-in-waiting in Europe is connected to that of the development of a royal court, in the late 12th-century, the queens of France are confirmed to have had their own household, and noblewomen are mentioned as ladies-in-waiting. A number of tribes and cultural areas in the African continent, within certain traditional states of the Bini and Yoruba peoples in Nigeria, the queen mothers and high priestesses were considered ritually male due to their social eminence.
Due to this fact, they were often attended on by women who belonged to their harems in much the way as their actually male counterparts were served by women who belonged to theirs. This resulted in a mix of Burgundian and Spanish customs when the Austrian court model was created, the first rank of the female courtiers was the Obersthofmeisterin, who was second in rank after the empress herself, and responsible for all the female courtiers. Second rank belonged to the ayas, essentially governesses of the imperial children, the rest of the female noble courtiers consisted of the Hoffräulein, unmarried females from the nobility who normally served temporarily until marriage. The Hoffräulein could sometimes be promoted to Kammerfräulein, the Austrian court model was the role model for the princely courts in Germany. The German court model in turn became the model of the early modern Scandinavian courts of Denmark. The Kingdom of Belgium was founded in 1830, after which a court was founded. The ladies-in waiting have historically been chosen by the Queen herself from among the Catholic noble houses of Belgium, the chief functions at court were undertaken by members of the higher nobility, involving much contact with the royal ladies.
Belgian princesses were assigned a lady upon their 18th birthday, princess Clementine was given a Dame by her father, a symbolic act of adulthood. When the Queen entertains, the ladies welcome guests and assist the hostess in sustaining conversation and this system has formally remained roughly the same. However, in practice, many offices have since left vacant. For example, in recent times, Maids of Honour have only appointed for coronations. The duties of ladies-in-waiting at the Tudor court were to act as royal companions, Tudor queens often had wide personal latitude in selection of their ladies-in-waiting
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong. Currently, a number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both sets. In contrast, simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China, the debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of Mainland China, Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China primarily in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text. They are often retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. Taiwan has never adopted Simplified Chinese characters since it is ruled by the Republic of China, the use of simplified characters in official documents is even prohibited by the government in Taiwan.
Simplified characters are not well understood in general, although some stroke simplifications that have incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, similarly, in Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, because of the influx of mainland Chinese tourists, even government websites use simplified Chinese, as they answer to the Beijing government. This has led to concerns by residents to protect their local heritage. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification, while major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, and United Daily News still use traditional characters, on the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified.
Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores. In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub that is used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan and this is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters, overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the half of the 19th century. Therefore, the majority of Chinese language signage in the United States, including street signs, Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world
Wuxia, which literally means martial hero, is a genre of Chinese fiction concerning the adventures of martial artists in ancient China. Although wuxia is traditionally a form of literature, its popularity has caused it to spread to art forms such as Chinese opera, films, television series. It forms part of culture in many Chinese-speaking communities around the world. The word wuxia is a composed of the elements wu. A martial artist who follows the code of xia is often referred to as a xiake or youxia, in some translations, the martial artist is referred to as a swordsman or swordswoman even though he or she may not necessarily wield a sword. The heroes in wuxia fiction typically do not serve a lord and they often originate from the lower social classes of ancient Chinese society. A code of chivalry usually requires wuxia heroes to right and redress wrongs, fight for righteousness, remove oppressors, Chinese xia traditions can be compared to martial codes from other cultures such as the Japanese samurais bushido tradition.
Even though the term wuxia as the name of a genre is a recent coinage, Wuxia stories have their roots in some early youxia tales from 300–200 BCE. The Legalist philosopher Han Fei spoke disparagingly of youxias in his book Han Feizi in the chapter On Five Maggot Classes about five classes in the Spring. Some well-known stories include Zhuan Zhus assassination of King Liao of Wu and these assassins were known as cike. They usually rendered their loyalties and services to feudal lords and nobles in return for such as riches. In Volume 124 of the Shi Ji, Sima Qian detailed several embryonic features of xia culture from his period and these popular phenomena were documented in other historical records such as the Book of Han and the Book of the Later Han. Xiake stories made a point in the Tang dynasty and returned in the form of chuanqi. Stories from that era, such as Nie Yinniang, The Kunlun Slave, Thirteenth Madame Jing, Red String and The Bearded Warrior and they featured fantasies and isolated protagonists – usually loners – who performed daring heroic deeds.
During the Song dynasty, similar stories circulated in the huaben, the genre of the martial or military romance developed during the Tang dynasty. In the Ming dynasty, Luo Guanzhong and Shi Naian wrote Romance of the Three Kingdoms and Water Margin respectively, Romance of the Three Kingdoms is seen as a possible early antecedent, and contains classic close-combat descriptions that were borrowed by wuxia writers in their works. In the Qing dynasty, further developments were the gongan and related detective novels, the Justice Bao stories from Sanxia Wuyi and Xiaowuyi, incorporated much of social justice themes of wuxia stories. Xiayi stories of romance, which frequently featured female heroes and supernatural fighting abilities
Louis Cha Leung-yung, GBM, OBE, better known by his pen name Jin Yong, is a Chinese novelist and essayist based in Hong Kong. Having co-founded the Hong Kong daily Ming Pao in 1959, he was the newspapers first editor-in-chief, Chas fiction, which is of the wuxia genre, has a widespread following in Chinese-speaking areas, including Hong Kong, Taiwan, Southeast Asia, and the United States. His 15 works written between 1955 and 1972 earned him a reputation as one of the finest wuxia writers ever and he is currently the best-selling Chinese author alive, over 100 million copies of his works have been sold worldwide. Chas works have translated into English, Korean, Vietnamese, Burmese, Malay. He has many fans abroad as well, owing to the adaptations of his works into films, television series, comics. Asteroid 10930 Jinyong is named after him, Cha was named along with Gu Long and Liang Yusheng as the Three Legs of the Tripod of Wuxia. Cha was born in Haining City, Zhejiang Province in Republican China as the second of six children from the scholarly Zha family of Haining and his ancestral home, was in Wuyuan County, Shangrao City, Jiangxi Province.
He is purportedly a descendant of Zha Jizuo, a scholar who lived in the late Ming dynasty and his grandfather, Zha Wenqing, obtained the position of a tong jinshi chushen in the imperial examination during the Qing dynasty. Cha was a reader of literature from an early age, especially wuxia. He was once expelled from his school for openly criticising the Nationalist government as autocratic. He studied at Hangzhou High School in 1937 but was dismissed in 1941 and he studied in Jiaxing No.1 High School and was admitted to the Faculty of Foreign Languages of the Central School of Political Affairs in Chongqing Municipality. Cha dropped out of the school and he took the entrance exam and gained admission to the Faculty of Law at Soochow University, where he majored in international law with the intention of pursuing a career in the foreign service. When Cha was transferred to Hsin Wan Pao as Deputy Editor, he met Chen Wentong and Cha became good friends and it was under the formers influence that Cha began work on his first serialised martial arts novel, The Book and the Sword, in 1955.
In 1957, while working on wuxia serialisations, he quit his previous job and worked as a scenarist-director and scriptwriter at Great Wall Movie Enterprises Ltd. In 1959, Cha co-founded the Hong Kong newspaper Ming Pao with his school classmate Shen Baoxin. Cha served as its editor-in-chief for years, writing both serialised novels and editorials, amounting to some 10,000 Chinese characters per day and his novels earned him a large readership. Cha completed his last wuxia novel in 1972, after which he retired from writing novels. The first complete edition of his works appeared in 1979
World Film Festival of Bangkok
The World Film Festival of Bangkok is an annual international film festival held between October & November in Bangkok, Thailand. The 15th Annual World Film Festival of Bangkok will be held between 3–12 November 2017, Nation Multimedia Group, a media company based in Thailand, organised the first Bangkok Film Festival in the country in 1998. Various international films were screened to promote art and film appreciation in Thailand. The event was held annually until 2002, the Tourism Authority of Thailand became the main organizer and changed the name to the Bangkok International Film Festival. Since 2003, the World Film Festival of Bangkok has been annually in October by the Nation Multimedia Group with Mr Kriengsak Victor Silakong as the festival director. The 1st World Film Festival of Bangkok 2003 was held at the Grand EGV Theatre, the Retrospective presented the works of Fritz Lang, Satyajit Ray, Jean Cocteau and Werner Herzog along with screening of more than 10 Indian films. The Best Feature went to Swimming Pool from France, the jurors included Jiří Menzel, a Czech film legend and Naowarat Pongpaiboon, a Thai National Artist in Literature Art.
In 2004, the Lotus Award was given for the first time to people who had devoted their careers to the film industry, the first honouree was Thai comedy master Dokdin Kanyamarn. Additionally, Mr. Tui, Dokdins famous comedy, was remastered with English subtitles and it arranged a film rating system workshop that allowed the participants to categorize films shown at the festival. After the workshop, the system was introduced to all films shown at the 3rd World Film Festival of Bangkok 2005. It held a workshop on fund raising for new projects with the support of the Festival of Three Continents from Nantes, France. At the end of the workshop, the most interesting projects in Southeast Asia were selected to receive funds and were invited to the final selection in France. This was the 2nd Produire au Sud Bangkok, the 2005 festival featured the Tsunami Digital Short Films. Mr Kriengsak Silakong was a producer of the project. The short films were premiered at both this festival and many international film festivals around the world.
Highlights in 2005 included the special guest and Academy Award-winning Polish film director Roman Polanski and his film Oliver Twist was the opening film. Other highlights were the film screenings from the Czechoslovak New Wave and the Retrospective of the films of Ulrike Ottinger and Jean-Pierre Jeunet. War and Peace, an epic film based on the eponymous book, was shown
William Shakespeare was an English poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the worlds pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called Englands national poet, and the Bard of Avon and his extant works, including collaborations, consist of approximately 38 plays,154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright, Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children and twins Hamnet and Judith. Sometime between 1585 and 1592, he began a career in London as an actor, writer. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613, at age 49, Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were primarily comedies and histories, which are regarded as some of the best work ever produced in these genres.
He wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, in his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, known as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights. Many of his plays were published in editions of varying quality and it was prefaced with a poem by Ben Jonson, in which Shakespeare is hailed, presciently, as not of an age, but for all time. In the 20th and 21st centuries, his works have been adapted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship. His plays remain highly popular and are studied, performed. William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman and a successful glover originally from Snitterfield, and Mary Arden and he was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised there on 26 April 1564. His actual date of birth unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April. This date, which can be traced back to an 18th-century scholars mistake, has proved appealing to biographers because Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616 and he was the third child of eight and the eldest surviving son.
At the age of 18, Shakespeare married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway, the consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582. The next day, two of Hathaways neighbours posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed almost two years and were baptised 2 February 1585. Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August 1596, after the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592. The exception is the appearance of his name in the bill of a law case before the Queens Bench court at Westminster dated Michaelmas Term 1588 and 9 October 1589
Patrick Frater of Variety called it China’s largest private sector film conglomerate. In 2014, the company was the seventh-largest film distributor in China, the company was founded in 1994 as a film production company. It underwent an expansion into the media industry through investing and now produces and operates movies, TV shows, talent agencies, music labels. In February 2011, Huayi Brothers revealed their plans to create the largest TV, they announced that they aim to earn 10 billion yuan in the box office by 2016. As of April 2015, the company was worth US$7.9 billion, shanghai-based conglomerate Fosun International signed a deal to invest in Robinovs company instead. Six Aftershock Detective Dee and the Mystery of the Phantom Flame Women Who Flirt Personal Tailor Journey to the West, names including Xun Zhou, Kun Chen, Zhao Wei and Shu Qi have all appeared in Huayi productions
Cell Phone (film)
Cell Phone is an award-winning Chinese comedy-drama film directed by Feng Xiaogang and starring Ge You, Zhang Guoli, Xu Fan and Fan Bingbing. It was first released on 18 December 2003 in Mainland China and was screened at the Cleveland International Film Festival on 18 March 2005. With box office earnings of over ¥50 million, Cell Phone became the domestic film in 2003. Yan Shouyi is a TV host who has an affair with Wu Yue, Yan diligently erases all text messages and call records between him and Wu on his cellphone before he gets home everyday, in order to avoid detection by his wife Yu Wenjuan. One night, after telling Yu that he has a meeting with Fei Mo. Not being able to reach Yan a while later, Yu calls Fei, having achieved ¥50 million in box office within a month after release, the film became the best-selling domestic production in 2003. The film clinched all three top awards at the 2004 Hundred Flowers Awards, which is based on viewer voting, however, it failed to bag any award or even acquire nomination for any of the major awards at the jury-based Golden Rooster Awards in the same year.
According to Golden Roosters leading juror Zhong Chengxiang, albeit being popular among viewers, Cell Phone lacked class, producer Wang Zhongjun retorted that viewers approval is of the utmost importance and rejected the Golden Rooster as an award that has not a single bit of commercial driving force
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, called Five Dynasties, was an era of political upheaval in 10th-century imperial China. During this period, five states quickly succeeded one another in the Chinese Central Plain, while more than a dozen concurrent states were established elsewhere, mainly in south China. Traditionally, the era started with the fall of the Tang dynasty in 907 AD, many states were de facto independent kingdoms long before 907. After the Tang had collapsed, the kings who controlled the central plain crowned themselves as emperor, war between kingdoms occurred frequently to gain control of the central plain for legitimacy, and over whole China. The last of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms states, Northern Han, was not vanquished until 979, the Five Dynasties were, Later Liang Later Tang Later Jin Later Han Later Zhou. The Ten Kingdoms were, Wu Wuyue Min Chu Southern Han Former Shu Later Shu Jingnan Southern Tang Northern Han and this era led to the founding of the Liao dynasty in the north.
Other regimes during this period were Yan, Qi, Yiwu Jiedushi, Dingnan Jiedushi, Wuping Jiedushi, Qingyuan Jiedushi, Ganzhou, towards the end of the Tang, the imperial government granted increased powers to the jiedushi, the regional military governors. The Huang Chao Rebellion weakened the government, and by the early 10th century the jiedushi commanded de facto independence from its authority. Thus ensued the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, although he was originally a member of Huang Chaos rebel army, he took on a crucial role in suppressing the Huang Chao Rebellion. For this function, he was awarded the Xuanwu Jiedushi title, within a few years, he had consolidated his power by destroying neighbours and forcing the move of the imperial capital to Luoyang, which was within his region of influence. In 904, he executed Emperor Zhaozong of Tang and made his 13-year-old son a subordinate ruler, three years later, he induced the boy emperor to abdicate in his favour. He proclaimed emperor, thus beginning the Later Liang.
During the final years of the Tang Dynasty, rival warlords declared independence in their governing provinces — not all of whom recognized the emperors authority, Li Cunxu and Liu Shouguang fiercely fought the regime forces to conquer northern China, Li Cunxu succeeded. He defeated Liu Shouguang in 915, and declared himself emperor in 923, within a few months, thus began the Shatuo Later Tang — the first in a long line of conquest dynasties. After reuniting much of northern China, Cunxu conquered Former Shu in 925, the Later Tang had a few years of relative calm, followed by unrest. In 934, Sichuan again asserted independence, in 936, Shi Jingtang, a Shatuo jiedushi from Taiyuan, was aided by the Liao dynasty in a rebellion against the Later Tang. In return for their aid, Shi Jingtang promised annual tribute, the rebellion succeeded, Shi Jingtang became emperor in this same year. Not long after the founding of the Later Jin, the Khitans regarded the emperor as a ruler for China proper