Gospel of Mark
The Gospel According to Mark is one of the four canonical gospels and one of the three synoptic gospels. It tells of the ministry of Jesus from his baptism by John the Baptist to his death and burial and the discovery of the empty tomb – there is no genealogy of Jesus or birth narrative, nor, in the original ending at chapter 16, any post-resurrection appearances of Jesus, it portrays Jesus as a heroic man of action, an exorcist, a healer, a miracle worker. Jesus is the Son of God, but he keeps his identity secret, concealing it in parables so that most of the disciples fail to understand. All this is in keeping with prophecy; the gospel ends, in its original version, with the discovery of the empty tomb, a promise to meet again in Galilee, an unheeded instruction to spread the good news of the resurrection. Mark dates from AD 66–70. Most scholars reject the tradition which ascribes it to John Mark, the companion of the apostle Peter, regard it as anonymous, the work of an unknown author working with various sources including collections of miracle stories, controversy stories, a passion narrative.
Mark was traditionally placed second, sometimes fourth, in the Christian canon, as an inferior abridgement of what was regarded as the most important gospel, Matthew. The Church has derived its view of Jesus from Matthew, secondarily from John, only distantly from Mark, it was only in the 19th century that Mark came to be seen as the earliest of the four gospels, as a source used by both Matthew and Luke. The hypothesis of Marcan priority continues to be held by the majority of scholars today, there is a new recognition of the author as an artist and theologian using a range of literary devices to convey his conception of Jesus as the authoritative yet suffering Son of God; the Gospel of Mark is anonymous. It was written c. AD 66–70, during Nero's persecution of the Christians in Rome or the Jewish revolt, as suggested by internal references to war in Judea and to persecution; the author used a variety of pre-existing sources, such as conflict stories, apocalyptic discourse, collections of sayings.
It was written in Greek for a gentile audience, Rome, Galilee and southern Syria have all been offered as alternative places of composition. Early Christian tradition attributes it to John Mark mentioned in Acts, but scholars reject this as an attempt to link the gospel to an authoritative figureThe Gospels represent a form of Greco-Roman biography. Interpreters differ. Among some of the proposals include that Mark had a theological agenda, that Mark was written in order to distance Christianity from political connotations in light of the Roman-Jewish War, or that Mark was responding to imperial Flavian propaganda; the gospels of Matthew and Luke bear a striking resemblance to each other, so much so that their contents can be set side by side in parallel columns. The fact that they share so much material verbatim and yet exhibit important differences has led to a number of hypotheses explaining their interdependence, a phenomenon termed the Synoptic Problem. Traditionally, Mark was thought to be an epitome of Matthew: today, the most accepted hypothesis is that Mark was the first gospel and was used as a source by both Matthew and Luke, together with considerable additional material.
The strongest argument for this is the fact that Matthew and Luke agree with each other in their sequence of stories and events only when they agree with Mark. Mark appears as the second New Testament gospel because it was traditionally thought to be an epitome of Matthew, but most scholars now regard it as the earliest written gospel. In the 19th century this led to the belief; this conclusion was shaken by two works published in the early decades of the 20th century: in 1901 William Wrede argued that the "Messianic secret" motif in Mark was a creation of the early church rather than a reflection of the historical Jesus. The gospel is still seen as the most reliable of the four in terms of its overall description of Jesus's life and ministry. Christianity began within Judaism, with a Christian "church" that arose shortly after his death, when some of his followers claimed to have witnessed him risen from the dead. From the outset, Christians depended on Jewish literature, supporting their convictions through the Jewish scriptures.
Those convictions involved a nucleus of key concepts: the messiah, the son of God and the son of man, the Day of the Lord, the kingdom of God. Uniting these ideas was the common thread of apocalyptic expectation: Both Jews and Christians believed that the end of history was at hand, that God would soon come to punish their enemies and establish his own rule, that they were at the centre of his plans. Christians read the Jewish scripture as a figure or type of Jesus Christ, so that the goal of Christian literature became an experience of the living Christ; the new movement spread around the eastern Mediterranean and to Rome and further west, an
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the middle ages; the intellectual basis of the Renaissance was its version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, politics and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe: the first traces appear in Italy as early as the late 13th century, in particular with the writings of Dante and the paintings of Giotto.
As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, in science to an increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man"; the Renaissance began in the 14th century in Italy. Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time: its political structure, the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici, the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks.
Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Milan and Rome during the Renaissance Papacy. The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and, in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate among historians reacting to the 19th-century glorification of the "Renaissance" and individual culture heroes as "Renaissance men", questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation; the art historian Erwin Panofsky observed of this resistance to the concept of "Renaissance": It is no accident that the factuality of the Italian Renaissance has been most vigorously questioned by those who are not obliged to take a professional interest in the aesthetic aspects of civilization – historians of economic and social developments and religious situations, most natural science – but only exceptionally by students of literature and hardly by historians of Art. Some observers have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for classical antiquity, while social and economic historians of the longue durée, have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras, which are linked, as Panofsky observed, "by a thousand ties".
The word Renaissance meaning "Rebirth", first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word occurs in Jules Michelet's 1855 work, Histoire de France; the word Renaissance has been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, art, politics, science and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, searched for realism and human emotion in art. Renaissance humanists such as Poggio Bracciolini sought out in Europe's monastic libraries the Latin literary and oratorical texts of Antiquity, while the Fall of Constantinople generated a wave of émigré Greek scholars bringing precious manuscripts in ancient Greek, many of which had fallen into obscurity in the West.
It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th century, who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. In the revival of neo-Platonism Renaissance humanists did not reject Christianity. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion, reflected in many other areas of cultural life. In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were brought back from Byzantium to Western Europe and engaged Western scholars for the first time since late antiquity; this new engagement with Greek Christian works, the return to the original Greek of the Ne
Personal life of Leonardo da Vinci
The personal life of Leonardo da Vinci has been a subject of interest and speculation since the years following his death. Leonardo has long been regarded as the archetypal Renaissance man, described by the Renaissance biographer Giorgio Vasari as having qualities that "transcended nature" and being "marvellously endowed with beauty and talent in abundance". Interest in and curiosity about Leonardo has continued unabated for five hundred years. Modern descriptions and analysis of Leonardo's character, personal desires and intimate behavior have been based upon various sources: records concerning him, his biographies, his own written journals, his paintings, his drawings, his associates, commentaries that were made concerning him by contemporaries. Leonardo was born on 15 April 1452, "at the third hour of the night" in the Tuscan hill town of Vinci, in the lower valley of the Arno River in the territory of the Republic of Florence, he was the out-of-wedlock son of the wealthy Messer Piero Fruosino di Antonio da Vinci, a Florentine legal notary, an orphaned girl, Caterina di Meo Lippi.
His full birth name was "Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci", meaning "Leonardo, of ser Piero from Vinci". The inclusion of the title "ser" indicated. Leonardo spent his first five years in the hamlet of Anchiano in the home of his mother from 1457 lived in the household of his father and uncle, Francesco, in the small town of Vinci, his father had married a sixteen-year-old girl named Albiera. Leonardo's seven brothers were to argue with him over the distribution of his father's estate. At the age of about fourteen Leonardo was apprenticed by his father to the artist Andrea del Verrocchio. Leonardo was to become a paid employee of Verrocchio's studio. During his time there, Leonardo met many of the most important artists to work in Florence in the late fifteenth century including Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio and Pietro Perugino. Leonardo helped Verrocchio paint The Baptism of Christ, completed around 1475. According to Vasari, Verrocchio, on seeing the beauty of the angel that his young pupil had painted, never painted again.
Florence was at this time a republic, but the city was under the influence of a single powerful family, the Medici, led by Lorenzo de' Medici, who came to be known as "Lorenzo the Magnificent". In 1481 Leonardo commenced an important commission, the painting of a large altarpiece for the church of S. Donato a Scopeto; the work was never completed. Leonardo left Florence and travelled to Milan carrying a gift from Lorenzo to the regent ruler, Ludovico Sforza, he was employed by Ludovico from 1481 to 1499, during which time his most important works were the Virgin of the Rocks, the Last Supper and a huge model of a horse for an equestrian monument, never completed. Other important events during this time were the arrival in his studio of the boy Salai in 1490, in 1491 the marriage of Ludovico Sforza to Beatrice d'Este for which he organized the celebrations; when Milan was invaded by the French in 1499, Leonardo left and spent some time in Venice, Rome and Naples before returning to Florence. In Florence, Leonardo lived at premises of the Servite Community, at that time drew the large cartoon for the Madonna and Child and St Anne which attracted a lot of popular attention.
He is reported to have had a job to do for King Louis XII of France. Between 1506 and 1513 Leonardo was once again based in Milan. In 1507 Francesco Melzi joined his household as an apprentice, remained with him until his death. In 1513 Leonardo was employed by the Medici family. In 1516 he went to France as court painter to King Francis I; the king regarded him with great esteem. It is said. Leonardo is buried in the Chapel of Saint-Hubert adjacent to the Château d'Amboise in France. Descriptions and portraits of Leonardo combine to create an image of a man, tall for his time and place and handsome, he was at least 5 ft 8 in tall, the length of his skeleton. Portraits indicate that as an older man, he wore his hair long, at a time when most men wore it cropped short, or reaching to the shoulders. While most men were shaven or wore close-cropped beards, Leonardo's beard flowed over his chest, his clothing is described as being unusual in his choice of bright colours, at a time when most mature men wore long garments, Leonardo's preferred outfit was the short tunic and hose worn by younger men.
This image of Leonardo has been recreated in the statue of him that stands outside the Uffizi Gallery. According to Vasari, "In the normal course of events many men and women are born with various remarkable qualities and talents. Everyone acknowledged that this was true of Leonardo da Vinci, an artist of outstanding physical beauty who displayed infinite grace in everything he did and who cultivated his genius so brilliantly that all problems he studied were solved with ease, he possessed great dexterity. Leonardo's face is best known from a drawing in red chalk. However, there is some controversy over the identity of the subject, because the man represented appears to be of a greater age than the 67 years lived by Leonardo. A solution, put forward is that
The Galleria dell'Accademia di Firenze, or "Gallery of the Academy of Florence", is an art museum in Florence, Italy. It is best known as the home of Michelangelo's sculpture David, it has other sculptures by Michelangelo and a large collection of paintings by Florentine artists from the period 1300–1600, the Trecento to the Late Renaissance. It is more specialized than the Uffizi, the main art museum in Florence, it adjoins the Accademia di Belle Arti or academy of fine arts of Florence, but despite the name has no other connection with it. In 2016 it had 1,461,185 visitors, making it the second most visited art museum in Italy, after the Uffizi; the Galleria dell ` Accademia was founded in 1784 by Grand Duke of Tuscany. In 2001 the "Museo degli strumenti musicali" collection opened, it includes musical instruments made by Niccolò Amati and Bartolomeo Cristofori. The Galleria dell'Accademia has housed the original David by Michelangelo since 1873; the sculpture was brought to the Accademia for reasons of conservation, although other factors were involved in its move from its previous outdoor location on Piazza della Signoria.
The original intention was to create a'Michelangelo museum', with original sculptures and drawings, to celebrate the fourth centenary of the artist's birth. Today, the gallery's small collection of Michelangelo's work includes his four unfinished Prisoners, intended for the tomb of Pope Julius II, a statue of Saint Matthew unfinished. In 1939, these were joined by a Pietà discovered in the Barberini chapel in Palestrina, though experts now consider its attribution to Michelangelo to be dubious; the David in the Accademia is the original. There is a replica in the Piazza della Signoria. Other works on display are Florentine paintings from the 13th and 16th centuries, including works by Paolo Uccello, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Sandro Botticelli and Andrea del Sarto; as well as a number of Florentine Gothic paintings, the gallery houses the collection of Russian icons assembled by the Grand Dukes of the House of Lorraine, of which Leopoldo was one. Media related to Galleria dell'Accademia at Wikimedia Commons
The Mona Lisa is a half-length portrait painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci, described as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world." The Mona Lisa is one of the most valuable paintings in the world. It holds the Guinness World Record for the highest known insurance valuation in history at US$100 million in 1962; the painting is a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, the wife of Francesco del Giocondo, is in oil on a white Lombardy poplar panel. It had been believed to have been painted between 1503 and 1506. Recent academic work suggests that it would not have been started before 1513, it was acquired by King Francis I of France and is now the property of the French Republic, on permanent display at the Louvre Museum in Paris since 1797. The subject's expression, described as enigmatic, the monumentality of the composition, the subtle modelling of forms, the atmospheric illusionism were novel qualities that have contributed to the continuing fascination and study of the work.
The title of the painting, known in English as Mona Lisa, comes from a description by Renaissance art historian Giorgio Vasari, who wrote "Leonardo undertook to paint, for Francesco del Giocondo, the portrait of Mona Lisa, his wife." Mona in Italian is a polite form of address originating as "ma donna" – similar to "Ma’am", "Madam", or "my lady" in English. This became "madonna", its contraction "mona"; the title of the painting, though traditionally spelled "Mona", is commonly spelled in modern Italian as Monna Lisa, but this is rare in English. Vasari's account of the Mona Lisa comes from his biography of Leonardo published in 1550, 31 years after the artist's death, it has long been the best-known source of information on the provenance of the work and identity of the sitter. Leonardo's assistant Salaì, at his death in 1524, owned a portrait which in his personal papers was named la Gioconda, a painting bequeathed to him by Leonardo; that Leonardo painted such a work, its date, were confirmed in 2005 when a scholar at Heidelberg University discovered a marginal note in a 1477 printing of a volume written by the ancient Roman philosopher Cicero.
Dated October 1503, the note was written by Leonardo's contemporary Agostino Vespucci. This note likens Leonardo to renowned Greek painter Apelles, mentioned in the text, states that Leonardo was at that time working on a painting of Lisa del Giocondo. In response to the announcement of the discovery of this document, Vincent Delieuvin, the Louvre representative, stated "Leonardo da Vinci was painting, in 1503, the portrait of a Florentine lady by the name of Lisa del Giocondo. About this we are now certain. We cannot be certain that this portrait of Lisa del Giocondo is the painting of the Louvre." The model, Lisa del Giocondo, was a member of the Gherardini family of Florence and Tuscany, the wife of wealthy Florentine silk merchant Francesco del Giocondo. The painting is thought to have been commissioned for their new home, to celebrate the birth of their second son, Andrea; the Italian name for the painting, La Gioconda, means "jocund" or "the jocund one", a pun on the feminine form of Lisa's married name, "Giocondo".
In French, the title La Joconde has the same meaning. Before that discovery, scholars had developed several alternative views as to the subject of the painting; some argued that Lisa del Giocondo was the subject of a different portrait, identifying at least four other paintings as the Mona Lisa referred to by Vasari. Several other women have been proposed as the subject of the painting. Isabella of Aragon, Cecilia Gallerani, Costanza d'Avalos, Duchess of Francavilla, Isabella d'Este, Pacifica Brandano or Brandino, Isabela Gualanda, Caterina Sforza—even Salaì and Leonardo himself—are all among the list of posited models portrayed in the painting; the consensus of art historians in the 21st century maintains the long-held traditional opinion that the painting depicts Lisa del Giocondo. Leonardo da Vinci is thought to have begun painting the Mona Lisa in 1503 or 1504 in Florence, Italy. Although the Louvre states that it was "doubtless painted between 1503 and 1506", the art historian Martin Kemp says there are some difficulties in confirming the actual dates with certainty.
In addition, many Leonardo experts, such as Carlo Pedretti and Alessandro Vezzosi, are of the opinion that the painting is characteristic of Leonardo's style in the final years of his life, post-1513. Other academics argue that, given the historical documentation, Leonardo would have painted the work from 1513. According to Leonardo's contemporary, Giorgio Vasari, "after he had lingered over it four years, left it unfinished". Leonardo in his life, is said to have regretted "never having completed a single work". Circa 1504, Raphael executed a pen and ink sketch, today in the Louvre Museum, in which the subject is flanked by large columns. Experts universally agree. Other copies of the Mona Lisa, such as those in the National Museum of Art and Design in Oslo and The Walters Art Museum in Baltimore display large flanking columns; as a result, it was thought that the Mona Lisa in the Louvre had side columns and had been cut. However, as early as 1993, Zöllner observed; this was confirmed through a series of tests conducted in 2004.
Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting
Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting represents the 16th-century response to Italian Renaissance art in the Low Countries. These artists, who span from the Antwerp Mannerists and Hieronymus Bosch at the start of the 16th century to the late Northern Mannerists such as Hendrik Goltzius and Joachim Wtewael at the end, drew on both the recent innovations of Italian painting and the local traditions of the Early Netherlandish artists. Antwerp was the most important artistic centre in the region. Many artists worked for European courts, including Bosch, whose fantastic painted images left a long legacy. Jan Mabuse, Maarten van Heemskerck and Frans Floris were all instrumental in adopting Italian models and incorporating them into their own artistic language. Pieter Brueghel the Elder, with Bosch the only artist from the period to remain familiar, may seem atypical, but in fact his many innovations drew on the fertile artistic scene in Antwerp. Dutch and Flemish painters were instrumental in establishing new subjects such as landscape painting and genre painting.
Joachim Patinir, for example, played an important role in developing landscape painting, inventing the compositional type of the world landscape, perfected by Pieter Bruegel the Elder who, followed by Pieter Aertsen helped popularise genre painting. From the mid-century Pieter Aertsen followed by his nephew Joachim Beuckelaer, established a type of "monumental still life" featuring large spreads of food with genre figures, in the background small religious of moral scenes. Like the world landscapes, these represented a "Mannerist inversion" of the normal decorum of the hierarchy of genres, giving the "lower" subject matter more space than the "higher". Anthonis Mor was the leading portraitist of the mid-century, in demand in courts all over Europe for his reliable portraits in a style that combined Netherlandish precision with the lessons of Titian and other Italian painters. Italian Renaissance influences begin to show on Early Netherlandish painting around 1500, but in many ways the older style was remarkably persistent.
Antwerp Mannerism is a term for painters showing some Italian influence, but continuing the style and subjects of the older masters. Hieronymus Bosch is a individual artist, whose work is strange and full of irrational imagery, making it difficult to interpret. Most of all it seems modern, introducing a world of dreams that seems more related to Gothic art than the Italian Renaissance, although some Venetian prints of the same period show a comparable degree of fantasy; the Romanists were the next phase of influence, adopting Italian styles in a far more thorough way. After 1550 the Flemish and Dutch painters begin to show more interest in nature and beauty "in itself", leading to a style that incorporates Renaissance elements, but remains far from the elegant lightness of Italian Renaissance art, directly leads to the themes of the great Flemish and Dutch Baroque painters: landscapes, still lifes and genre painting - scenes from everyday life; this evolution is seen in the works of Joachim Patinir and Pieter Aertsen, but the true genius among these painters was Pieter Brueghel the Elder, well known for his depictions of nature and everyday life, showing a preference for the natural condition of man, choosing to depict the peasant instead of the prince.
The Fall of Icarus, although atypical in many ways, combines several elements of Northern Renaissance painting. It hints at the renewed interest for antiquity, but the hero Icarus is hidden away in the background; the main actors in the painting are nature itself and, most prominently, the peasant, who does not look up from his plough when Icarus falls. Brueghel shows man as an anti-hero and sometimes grotesque. Pieter Aertsen Simon Bening Hieronymus Bosch Pieter Brueghel the Elder Pieter Brueghel the Younger Joachim Beuckelaer Joos van Cleve Pieter Coecke van Aelst Hieronymus Cock Corneille de Lyon Hans Eworth Frans Floris Maarten van Heemskerck Caterina van Hemessen Jan Sanders van Hemessen Adriaen Isenbrant Jan Mabuse van Gosaert Anthonis Mor Lucas van Leyden Lambert Lombard Quentin Matsys Jan Mostaert Bernard van Orley Joachim Patinir Frans Pourbus the Elder Pieter Pourbus Jan Provoost Marinus van Reymerswaele Jan van Scorel Levina Teerlinc Jacob van Utrecht Renaissance in the Netherlands Northern Renaissance Snyder, James.
Northern Renaissance Art, 1985, Harry N. Abrams, ISBN 0-13-623596-4 Orenstein, Nadine M. ed.. Pieter Bruegel the Elder: Drawings and Prints; the Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-0-87099-990-1. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
John the Baptist
John the Baptist was a Jewish itinerant preacher in the early first century AD. Other titles for John include John the Forerunner in Eastern Christianity and "the prophet John" in Islam. To clarify the meaning of "Baptist", he is sometimes alternatively called John the Baptizer. John the Baptist is mentioned by the Jewish historian Josephus and revered as a major religious figure in Christianity, the Bahá'í Faith, Mandaeism, he is called a prophet by all of these faiths, is honored as a saint in many Christian traditions. According to the New Testament, John anticipated a messianic figure greater than himself and Christians refer to John as the precursor or forerunner of Jesus, since John announces Jesus' coming. John is identified as the spiritual successor of the prophet Elijah. According to the New Testament John the Baptist was Jesus Christ's cousin; some scholars maintain that John was influenced by the semi-ascetic Essenes, who expected an apocalypse and practiced rituals corresponding with baptism, although no direct evidence substantiates this.
John used baptism as the central sacrament of his messianic movement. Most scholars agree that John baptized Jesus and some scholars believe Jesus was a follower or disciple of John; the New Testament texts in which John is mentioned portray him as rejecting this idea, although several New Testament accounts report that some of Jesus' early followers had been followers of John. John was sentenced to death and subsequently beheaded by Herod Antipas sometime between 28 and 36 AD after John rebuked him for divorcing his wife and unlawfully taking Herodias, the wife of his brother Herod Philip I. John the Baptist is mentioned in all four canonical Gospels and the non-canonical Gospel of the Nazarenes; the Synoptic Gospels describe John baptising Jesus. The Gospel of Mark introduces John as a fulfilment of a prophecy from the Book of Isaiah about a messenger being sent ahead, a voice crying out in the wilderness. John is described as living on locusts and wild honey. John proclaims baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sin, says another will come after him who will not baptize with water, but with the Holy Spirit.
Jesus comes to John, is baptized by him in the river Jordan. The account describes how. A voice from heaven says, "You are my Son, the Beloved. In the gospel there is an account of John's death, it is introduced by an incident where the Tetrarch Herod Antipas, hearing stories about Jesus, imagines that this is John the Baptist raised from the dead. It explains that John had rebuked Herod for marrying Herodias, the ex-wife of his brother. Herodias demands his execution, but Herod, who'liked to listen' to John, is reluctant to do so because he fears him, knowing he is a'righteous and holy man'; the account describes how Herod's daughter Herodias dances before Herod, pleased and offers her anything she asks for in return. When the girl asks her mother what she should request, she is told to demand the head of John the Baptist. Reluctantly, Herod orders the beheading of John, his head is delivered to her, at her request, on a plate. John's disciples bury it in a tomb. There are a number of difficulties with this passage.
The Gospel refers to Antipas as'King' and the ex-husband of Herodias is named as Philip, but he is known to have been called Herod. Although the wording implies the girl was the daughter of Herodias, many texts describe her as "Herod's daughter, Herodias". Since these texts are early and significant and the reading is'difficult', many scholars see this as the original version, corrected in versions and in Matthew and Luke. Josephus says. Scholars have speculated about the origins of the story. Since it shows signs of having been composed in Aramaic, which Mark did not speak, he is to have got it from a Palestinian source. There are a variety of opinions about how much actual historical material it contains given the alleged factual errors. Many scholars have seen the story of John arrested and buried in a tomb as a conscious foreshadowing of the fate of Jesus; the Gospel of Matthew account begins with the same modified quotation from Isaiah, moving the Malachi and Exodus material to in the text, where it is quoted by Jesus.
The description of John is taken directly from Mark, along with the proclamation that one was coming who would baptise with the Holy Spirit "and fire". Unlike Mark, Matthew describes John as critical of Pharisees and Sadducees and as preaching "the kingdom of heaven is at hand" and a "coming judgment". Matthew shortens the account of the beheading of John, adds two elements: that Herod Antipas wants John dead, that the death is reported to Jesus by his disciples. Matthew's approach is to shift the focus away onto John as a prototype of Jesus. Where Mark has Herod killing John reluctantly and at Herodias' insistence, Matthew describes him