The Barb or Berber horse is a northern African breed with great hardiness and stamina. The Barb possesses a fiery temperament and an atypical sport-horse conformation, but has influenced modern breeds; the Barb is a light riding horse noted for its stamina. It has a powerful front end, high withers, short back, a sloping croup, carries its tail low, it is hardy with sound hooves. It does not have good gaits, but gallops like a sprinter, it was used as breeding stock to develop racing breeds such as the Thoroughbred, American Quarter Horse, Standardbred. The predominant color is gray, but bay, black and brown horses are found; the Barb stands 1.47–1.57 metres at the withers. It is not known. There is controversy over whether the Barb and Arabian horses share a common ancestor, or if the Arabian was a predecessor of the Barb. Native horses of the region may have been influenced by the crossing of "oriental" breeds, including the Arabian horse, Turkoman Horse or Akhal-Teke, Caspian horse, with Iberian horses brought back from Europe by the Berber invaders after they conquered southern Spain.
Today the several varieties of Barb include the Algerian and Tunisian. When imported to Europe, the Barbs were sometimes mistaken for Arabians, although they have distinctly different physical characteristics; the Europeans saw that their size was similar and their handlers were Berber Muslims who spoke Arabic. An example of such confusion is that the Godolphin Arabian, one of the foundation sires of the Thoroughbred, was an Arabian stallion but, due to his Moroccan origins, was referred to as the "Godolphin Barb."The Barb is now bred in Morocco, Algeria and southern France. Due to difficult economic times in North Africa, the number of purebred Barbs is decreasing; the World Organization of the Barb Horse, founded in Algeria in 1987, was formed to promote and preserve the breed. In 2014, the FEI recognized the Barb horse as their Horse of Honor at the World Equestrian Games in Normandy; the West African Barb is found in West Africa. It is small, most representatives are gray, the breed is used for both riding and draft work.
The Barb may have had more influence on the racing breeds throughout the world than any other horse except the Arabian. Berber invaders from North Africa took their horses, the forerunners of today's Barbs, to Europe from the early eighth century onwards. Once established with settlers on the Iberian peninsula, the Barb horse was bred with Spanish stock under 300 years of Umayyad patronage to develop the Andalusian; the Andalusian was prized and it was used for major development stock in horse breeding all over the world. Historical references to "Barbary" horses include Roan Barbary, owned by King Richard II of England in the 14th century; the Barb horses were valued by other Europeans, including the Italians, whose noble families established large racing stables. During the 16th century, Henry VIII purchased a number of Barbary horses from Federico Gonzaga of Mantua, importing seven mares and a stallion, he continued to buy other Andalusians. After the Royal Stables were sold off under Cromwell, private owners in England continued to value the Barbs and used them to develop the Thoroughbred.
The influence of the Barb is evident in the Argentinian Criollo, the Paso Fino, many other Western Hemisphere breeds, including the American Quarter Horse, the Mustang and the Appaloosa. Despite its importance as a progenitor of other breeds, the Barb has less renowned than the Arab because it was considered a less attractive-looking breed. In other important qualities, the Barb has the same stamina and endurance, the same ability to thrive on meager rations, the same sure-footedness and speed over short distances; the Barb was valued for its "strong, short-coupled body, perfect for collection— the posture that makes weight-bearing easiest for the horse—its eagerness to learn and its gentle nature." Because of these characteristics, beginning in the 16th century, the horses were trained for dressage, in Paris and other European capitals. Sixteenth-century and portraits of royalty on horses portrayed the latter in dressage positions. Andalusian horse Arabian horse Equine coat color genetics Spanish-Norman horse Spanish Barb Aramco World Article - The Barb "The Barb or The Berber".
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
The Doncaster Mile, registered as the Doncaster Handicap is an Australian Turf Club Group One Thoroughbred handicap race for horses three years old and older, held over 1,600 metres at Royal Randwick Racecourse, Australia. Although the race has traditionally been held on Easter Monday, the race is now run on the first day of the ATC Championships Carnival at Royal Randwick. Total prize money is A$3,000,000; the inaugural running of the Doncaster Handicap in 1866. The 1892 running of the race attracted a record 30 starters. In 1930 the race was marred by a tragic fall 1 1⁄2 furlongs from the winning post when one of the favourites fell and another was destroyed. Many great horses have won the race, including several who have won the spring equivalent, the Epsom Handicap, while Super Impose created history in 1990 and 1991 by becoming the only horse to win both races on two occasions. Legendary trainer T. J. Smith won the race seven times; the record time for the race was set by Belmura Lad in 1979 with a time of 1:33.70.
In 2005 trainer Guy Walter trained the trifecta in this race with Patezza, Courts In Session and Danni Martine. It was the first time. From 1879 to 1884 the distance of the race was 9 furlongs; the race name was change in 2010 to the Doncaster Mile although the race is not 1 mile although, the distance of the race before 1973 when the metric system was introduced in Australia. List of Australian Group races Group races The Doncaster Mile first three
The Metropolitan (ATC)
This article is about an Australian horse race. For the American horse race, see Metropolitan Handicap; the Metropolitan is an Australian Turf Club Group 1 Thoroughbred horse race held under open handicap conditions, for horses aged three years old and older, over a distance of 2,400 metres at Randwick Racecourse, Australia in early October. The total prize money for this race is A$750,000; the race when first run in 1863 was known as the Great Metropolitan Stakes. It is one of the main races in the Sydney Spring Carnival held in early October at Randwick Racecourse, along with the Epsom Handicap. Many great household names have won this race, but none have won the treble of The Metropolitan, Caulfield Cup and Melbourne Cup. Prior to 2004 the race was run on the first Monday in the Labour Day holiday. 1863–1888 - Great Metropolitan Stakes 1889–1897 - Metropolitan Stakes 1898–1978 - Metropolitan Handicap 1979 onwards - The Metropolitan 1863–1978 - Principle Race 1979 onwards - Group 1 1863–1891 - 2 miles 1891–1919 - 11⁄2 miles 1920–1971 - 15⁄8 miles 1972–1982 - 2600 metres 1983 - 2400 metres 1984–2000 - 2600 metres 2001 onwards - 2400 metres The race has been the major long distance event in the Sydney Spring Racing Carnival and has been run at Randwick Racecourse, with one exception in 1983 when the race was run at Warwick Farm Racecourse.
List of Australian Group races Group races
The Sydney Cup is an Australian Turf Club Group 1 Thoroughbred handicap horse race, for horses three years old and older, run over 3200 metres at Randwick Racecourse in Sydney, Australia in the autumn during the ATC Championships series and it is the longest race in the club. Total prize money is A$2,000,000; the origins of this race are associated with colonial Sydney and the growth of thoroughbred racing in the colony during the 1850s. The Australian Jockey Club initiated an Autumn race meet of two days and expanded it as horse racing became the most attended sport meeting; the inaugural running of the race was 1 May 1862 as part of the Metropolitan Autumn Meeting at Randwick. The race was known as Jockey Club Handicap and it was the third race on the card; the race attracted 9 runners over the famed 2 miles and was won by the odds on favourite Talleyrand in a time of 3 minutes 52 seconds. In 1863 the Randwick Autumn Meeting, the third race on the first day of the meet was the Randwick Grand Handicap.
The race was run by five entrants with the winner Traveller in a time of 3 minutes 42 seconds. By 1865 the race was called the Randwick Grand Handicap Sweepstakes. With influx of money, being offered by the Victoria Racing Club in Melbourne for the Melbourne Cup the AJC decided to change the name of the race in 1866 to the Sydney Gold Cup and move its scheduling to the second day of the meet. Of the more famous horses to win the race was dual winner of the race The Barb and winner of the Melbourne Cup and from the same era Carbine who won the race twice. In the 20th century the race held its prominence and although it never overtook the Melbourne Cup the race complemented the Australian Racing Calendar by being held in the autumn. Other dual winners include: Mosaic, Veiled Threat, Tie The Knot. In 1973 the race was set at a distance of 3,200 metres due to the metric conversion in Australia. Kingston Town was the first to win the Sydney Cup as a Group 1 race in 1980; the distinction for the fastest recorded time is 3 minutes and 19 seconds, set by'Apollo Eleven' in 1973 and equalled by Just A Dancer in 1991.
List of Australian Group races Group races
The Australian Derby is an Australian Turf Club Group 1 Thoroughbred horse race for three-year-olds at set weights held at Randwick Racecourse, Australia in April, during the Autumn ATC Championships Carnival. The race is considered to be the top ranked event for three-year-olds in Australian and New Zealand race classifications. Inaugurated in 1861 as the AJC Randwick Derby Stakes, the first race was won by Kyogle, a grandson of the Touchstone, a four-time Champion sire in Great Britain & Ireland. In 1865 the name of the race was changed to the AJC Australia Derby Stakes from 1873 through 1993 it was called the AJC Derby. Although the race became the AJC Australian Derby in 1994, it is still referred to as the AJC Derby; the official records show that Prince Humphrey won the 1928 Derby. It was a horse called Cragsman, with a different dam; this substitution came to light when Dick Tate of Toowoomba saw a picture of the Derby winner and was aware that Prince Humphrey had different markings, had photographs to prove it.
From 1932 to 1956, geldings were banned from competing in the Derby. Run at a distance of 1 1⁄2 miles, in 1972 the race was changed to 2,400 metres to conform to the metric system. In 1978 there was no race held and under a reorganisation, it was changed from a spring racing event to be run in the autumn beginning in 1979. Contested over 2,400 metres on a right-handed turf course, it has been won by some of the greats of the Australian turf, including Phar Lap and Kingston Town. Time record: 2:28.41 - Octagonal Largest winning margin: 10 lengths - Trident Most wins by a jockey: 6 - Thomas Hales Notes: Australian Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing List of Australian Group races Group racesThe premiere race for three-year-old Thoroughbreds in other countries: New Zealand Derby Derby Italiano Deutsches Derby Epsom Derby Kentucky Derby Prix du Jockey Club Queen's Plate First three placegetters Australian Derby
Mitta Mitta, New South Wales
Mitta Mitta is a farming community in the north eastern part of the Riverina. It is situated by road, about 30 kilometres south of Bethungra and 21 kilometres north east of Nangus. Mitta Mitta is locatable only by finding the old St Stephen's Anglican Church situated 8 kilometres along a corrugated dirt road that runs west from the Nangus to Bethungra road; the name Mitta Mitta is derived from the local Aboriginal words "mida-modunga" meaning "where reeds grow". Mitta Mitta Post Office opened on 1 January 1888, was reduced to a Telephone Office in 1931 and closed in 1936