Along with Londons West End theatres, Broadway theatres are widely considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. The Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City, the great majority of Broadway shows are musicals. They presented Shakespeare plays and ballad operas such as The Beggars Opera, in 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager. They established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice, the company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida. The Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the Bowery Theatre opened in 1826, followed by others. Blackface minstrel shows, a distinctly American form of entertainment, became popular in the 1830s, by the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in lower Manhattan.
In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblos Garden opened, the 3, 000-seat theatre presented all sorts of musical and non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmos Opera House opened and presented opera for four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burtons Theatre. The Astor Opera House opened in 1847, booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, and would revive the role at his own Booths Theatre. Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, lydia Thompson came to America in 1868 heading a small theatrical troupe, adapting popular English burlesques for middle-class New York audiences. Thompsons troupe called the British Blondes, was the most popular entertainment in New York during the 1868–1869 theatrical season, the six-month tour ran for almost six extremely profitable years. Theatre in New York moved from downtown gradually to midtown beginning around 1850, in 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, and by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square.
Broadways first long-run musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857, New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keenes musical burletta The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keenes troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, the production was a staggering five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a musical comedy, Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of repute who had starred in earlier musical forms. Plays could run longer and still draw in the audiences, leading to better profits, as in England, during the latter half of the century, the theatre began to be cleaned up, with less prostitution hindering the attendance of the theatre by women
Short Eyes (play)
Short Eyes is a 1974 drama written by playwright Miguel Piñero. The play premiered off-Broadway at the Joseph Papp Public Theater on 28 February 1974, short Eyes, prison slang for a child molester, was written for a prisoners writing workshop during Pineros incarceration for armed robbery. Clark Davis, a white man in his mid-twenties accused of raping a young girl. While it is never stated whether he committed the crime he is accused of. Juan Otero, A Puerto Rican man in his early thirties and he is liked and respected by his fellow prisoners and the guards alike. Cupcakes, A Puerto Rican pretty boy of 21 who is coveted by many of the Houses convicts, paco, A Puerto Rican drug addict with predatory designs on Cupcakes. Longshoe, A tough, hip Irishman in his mid-thirties, ice, A tough, angry African-American man in his late twenties. El Raheem, A Black Muslim who preaches the word of Allah to his fellow prisoners, omar, An African-American amateur boxer in his mid-twenties. Mr. Nett, An old-line prison guard who takes a dislike to Davis.
Imposing and macho, he has little patience for the prisoners, the play is set in an unnamed House of Detention in New York City, the prisoners of which are predominantly black or Hispanic. One day, a new prisoner is brought in, Clark Davis and his fellow prisoners immediately turn on him — child molesters are considered the lowest form of prison life — except for Juan, one of the institutions older prisoners, who treats him with dignity. While Davis insists he doesnt remember raping the girl, he admits that he has molested several other children and it is eventually revealed that the polices case against Davis is weak, and he will likely be released. Before he can decide what to do, Davis is attacked and killed by the other prisoners, in 1974, the play was presented at Riverside Church in Manhattan. Theater impresario Joseph Papp saw the play and was so impressed that he moved the production to Broadway, the play was nominated for six Tony Awards. It won the New York Critics Circle Award and an Obie Award for the best play of the year, the play was a success in Europe, and catapulted Piñero to literary fame.
Short Eyes was published in form by the editorial house Hill & Yang. Walter Kerr of The New York Times said the play was promising, in 1977, the play was adapted for a film, directed by Robert M. Young from a script by Piñero. The film starred an unknown cast, but it featured a few actors who became successful Hollywood character actors
Rent is a rock musical with music and book by Jonathan Larson, loosely based on Giacomo Puccinis opera La Bohème. The musical was first seen in a production at New York Theatre Workshop in 1993. This same Off-Broadway theatre was the initial home following its official 1996 opening. The shows creator, Jonathan Larson, died suddenly of a dissection, believed to have been caused by undiagnosed Marfan syndrome. The show won a Pulitzer Prize, and the production was a hit, the musical moved to Broadways larger Nederlander Theatre on April 29,1996. On Broadway, Rent gained critical acclaim and won a Tony Award for Best Musical among other awards, the Broadway production closed on September 7,2008 after a 12-year run of 5,123 performances. On February 14,2016, the musical Wicked surpassed Rents number of performances with a 2pm matinee, the production grossed over $280 million. The success of the led to several national tours and numerous foreign productions. In 2005, it was adapted into a picture featuring most of the original cast members.
In 1989, Jonathan Larson, a 29-year-old composer, began collaborating with Aronson on this project, and he came up with the shows ultimate title. In 1991, he asked Aronson if he could use Aronsons original concept, Larson had ambitious expectations for Rent, his ultimate dream was to write a rock opera to bring musical theater to the MTV generation. Aronson and Larson made an agreement that if the show went to Broadway, Aronson would share in the proceeds, Jonathan Larson focused on composing Rent in the early 1990s, waiting tables at the Moondance Diner to support himself. Over the course of years, Larson wrote hundreds of songs and made drastic changes to the show. In the fall of 1992, Larson approached James Nicola, artistic director of New York Theatre Workshop, with a tape, Larson continued to work on Rent, gradually reworking its flaws and staging more workshop productions. Larson would not live to see Rents success, he died from an aortic aneurysm in the early morning of January 25,1996.
The first preview of Rent was canceled and instead, the show premiered as planned and quickly gained popularity fueled by enthusiastic reviews and the recent death of its composer. It proved extremely successful during its run, selling out all its shows at the 150-seat New York Theater Workshop. Due to such overwhelming popularity and a need for a larger theater, Larsons inspiration for Rents content came from several different sources
The Old Glory
The Old Glory is a play written by the American poet Robert Lowell that was first performed in 1964. It consists of three pieces that were meant to be performed together as a trilogy, for this production, all three plays together ran too long and the director, Jonathan Miller, decided to cut the first piece and the Red Cross. The Old Glory was revived for a second production in 1976 in celebration of the United States Bicentennial. Then, in 2011, Benito Cereno was produced without the two plays for an off-Broadway production at the Horizon Theater Rep. The characters in this play include Mr. Blackstone, Thomas Morton, the play is set in the 1630s in the settlement of Merrymount. The three main characters of Blackstone and Endecott are based on historical figures. The characters in this play include Major Molineux, Colonel Greenough, the play is set in Boston, just as the American Revolution is about to erupt. Lowells version of the story is more surrealistic and cartoonish than Hawthornes original short story, the characters in this play include Captain Amasa Delano, John Perkins, Benito Cereno, and Babo.
It is set in 1799, aboard the American ship, The President Adams, and the Spanish ship, The San Dominick. The plot of the play concerns Captain Delano, an American in charge of a New England sealing ship, the Old Glory was first published by Farrar and Giroux in 1965. A revised edition was published with minor changes in 1968 and this edition included an introduction by Robert Brustein and a directors note by Jonathan Miller. Brustein called The Old Glory a dramatic history of the American character, Lowells idea for The Old Glory began with his attempt to adapt Herman Melvilles novella Benito Cereno into an opera for the Metropolitan Opera in New York City. In 1960, with the assistance of the poet William Meredith, because Lowell didnt have a background in opera or any musical training, he struggled with the project and was unable to deliver the libretto. In 1964, Lowells friend, the poet Randall Jarrell, praised Benito Cereno as a masterpiece, in a scholarly article on The Old Glory, Baruch Hochman praised all three plays, Lowell the dramatist matches Lowell the poet.
In Hochmans interpretation, The plays are not so much about the centrality of violence in American life as about the discords at the heart of civilization itself, as a trilogy, the plays examine the bond between the powers that oppress and the powers that seek to overthrow them. In an ironic twist, The Village Voice would award The Old Glory with five of their Obie Theater Awards a year following their publication of Herschbergers negative article
Sergeant is a rank in many uniformed organizations, principally military and policing forces. Its origin is the Latin serviens, one who serves, through the French term sergent, the term sergeant refers to a non-commissioned officer placed above the rank of a corporal and a police officer immediately below a lieutenant. In most armies the rank of sergeant corresponds to command of a squad, in Commonwealth armies, it is a more senior rank, corresponding roughly to a platoon second-in-command. In the United States Army, sergeant is a junior rank corresponding to a four-soldier fireteam leader. More senior non-commissioned ranks are often variations on sergeant, for example staff sergeant, many countries use sergeant rank, whether in English or using a cognate with the same origin in another language. The equivalent rank in Arab armies is raqeeb, meaning overseer or watcher, in medieval European usage, a sergeant was simply any attendant or officer with a protective duty. Any medieval knight or military order of knighthood might have sergeants-at-arms, the etymology of the term is from Anglo-French sergant, serjant servant, court official, from Middle Latin servientem servant, soldier.
Later, a sergeant was a man of what would now be thought of as the middle class. Sergeants could fight either as heavy to light cavalry, or as well trained professional infantry, most notable medieval mercenaries fell into the sergeant class, such as Flemish crossbowmen and spearmen, who were seen as reliable quality troops. The sergeant class was deemed to be half of a knight in military value. A specific kind of military sergeant was the serjeant-at-arms, one of a body of armed men retained by English lords, the title is now given to an officer in modern legislative bodies who is charged with keeping order during meetings and, if necessary, forcibly removing disruptive members. The responsibilities of a sergeant differ from army to army, there are usually several ranks of sergeant, each corresponding to greater experience and responsibility for the daily lives of the soldiers of larger units. Sergeant is a rank in both the Australian Army and the Royal Australian Air Force, the ranks are equivalent to each other and the Royal Australian Navy rank of petty officer.
The Australian Army rank of sergeant is now redundant and is no longer awarded, due to being outside the rank equivalencies. Chief petty officers and flight sergeants are not required to call a warrant officer class two sir in accordance with Australian Defence Force Regulations 1952. The rank of sergeant exists in all Australian police forces and is more senior than a constable or senior constable, New South Wales Police Force, for example, has the additional rank of incremental sergeant. This is a progression, following appointment as a sergeant for seven years. An incremental sergeant rank is less senior than a senior sergeant but is more senior than a sergeant, upon appointment as a sergeant or senior sergeant, the sergeant is given a warrant of appointment under the commissioners hand and seal
The Longacre Theatre is a Broadway theatre located at 220 West 48th Street in midtown Manhattan. Designed by architect Henry Beaumont Herts in 1912, the theatre was named for Longacre Square, despite the rumor, a large number of performers who have appeared on stage here have taken home a Tony Award for their efforts. The Longacres first show was a production of the William Hurlbut-Frances Whitehouse comedy Are You a Crook. which opened on May 1,1913. With the exception of its use as a radio and television studio in the mid-1940s to early 1950s,2007, Talk Radio 2008, Boeing Boeing 2009, Burn the Floor 2010, La Cage aux Folles 2011, Chinglish 2012, Magic/Bird, The Performers. The production grossed $687,824.90 over eight performances, Broadway theatre Parker, John, ed. Whos Who in the Theatre. Broadway Theatre Guide Seating chart Longacre Theatre at the Internet Broadway Database
The Hot l Baltimore
The Hot l Baltimore is a play by Lanford Wilson. Set in the lobby of the Hotel Baltimore, it focuses on the residents of the property who are faced with eviction when the structure is condemned. The play draws its title from the neon marquee with a burned-out letter e that was never replaced. The Hot I Baltimore was produced by the Circle Repertory Company on February 4,1973 and it closed on January 4,1976, after 1166 performances. Directed by Marshall W. Mason, the cast included Trish Hawkins, Conchata Ferrell, Judd Hirsch, Jonathan Hogan and Mari Gorman. The play won the New York Drama Critics Circle Award for Best American Play of 1972–73, the Obie Award, the John Gassner Playwriting Award, the play was produced by the Steppenwolf Theatre Company in March to May 2011, directed by Tina Landau. In 1975, producer Norman Lear adapted the play for a half-hour ABC sitcom, the cast included Conchata Ferrell, James Cromwell, Richard Masur, Al Freeman, Jr. Gloria LeRoy, Jeannie Linero, and Charlotte Rae.
The network supported the show and gave it a publicity campaign. In 1976, a version with the title Hôtel Baltimore was produced for television in France, the series, which featured Dora Doll, lasted for only a single season. Mel Gussow, in his review for The New York Times wrote that Wilson writes with understanding, there are moments in this play. When Wilson - with his passion for idiosyncratic characters, atmospheric details and invented homilies - reminds me of William Saroyan, there is little plot or action but there is emotion. 1973 Drama Critics Circle Award for Best American Play 1973 Obie Award for Best American Play The Hot l Baltimore at the Internet off-Broadway Database The Hot l Baltimore at ThatTheatreSite
United States Army
The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures.
For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require.
This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the President
A brothel or bordello is a place where people may come to engage in sexual activity with a prostitute, sometimes referred to as a sex worker. Technically, any premises where prostitution takes place qualifies as a brothel. However, for legal or cultural reasons, establishments sometimes describe themselves as massage parlors, strip clubs, body rub parlours, sex work in a brothel is considered safer than street prostitution. Under English criminal law, a brothel is commonly referred to as a disorderly house, attitudes around the world to prostitution and how it should be regulated vary considerably, and have varied over time. Part of the impacts on whether the operation of brothels should be legal. On 2 December 1949, the United Nations General Assembly approved the Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons, the Convention came into effect on 25 July 1951 and as at December 2013 has been ratified by 82 states. The Convention seeks to combat prostitution, which it regards as incompatible with the dignity, parties to the Convention agreed to abolish regulation of individual prostitutes, and to ban brothels and procuring.
Some countries not parties to the Convention ban prostitution or the operation of brothels, various United Nations commissions, have differing positions on the issue. In the European Union, there is no policy and no consensus on the issue. The European Womens Lobby condemns prostitution as a form of male violence. In February 2014, the members of the European Parliament voted in a resolution, in favor of the Swedish Model of criminalizing the buying. Prostitution and the operation of brothels is illegal in many countries, such situations exist in many parts of the world, but the region most often associated with these policies is Asia. When brothels are illegal they may operate in the guise of a legitimate business, such as massage parlors. In other places, prostitution itself may be legal, but many activities which surround it are illegal and this is the situation, for example, in the United Kingdom and France. In a few countries and operating a brothel is legal, the degree of regulation varies widely by country.
Most of these countries allow brothels, at least in theory, in parts of Australia, for example, brothels are legal and regulated. Regulation includes planning controls and licensing and registration requirements, and there may be other restrictions, the existence of licensed brothels does not stop illegal brothels from operating. The Netherlands has one of the most liberal prostitution policies in the world, amsterdam is well known for its red-light district and is a destination for sex tourism
It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and the government of South Vietnam. The war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war. As the war continued, the actions of the Viet Cong decreased as the role. U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, in the course of the war, the U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The North Vietnamese government and the Viet Cong were fighting to reunify Vietnam and they viewed the conflict as a colonial war and a continuation of the First Indochina War against forces from France and on the United States. The U. S. government viewed its involvement in the war as a way to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam and this was part the domino theory of a wider containment policy, with the stated aim of stopping the spread of communism. Beginning in 1950, American military advisors arrived in what was French Indochina, U. S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s, with troop levels tripling in 1961 and again in 1962.
Regular U. S. combat units were deployed beginning in 1965, despite the Paris Peace Accord, which was signed by all parties in January 1973, the fighting continued. In the U. S. and the Western world, a large anti-Vietnam War movement developed as part of a larger counterculture, the war changed the dynamics between the Eastern and Western Blocs, and altered North–South relations. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973, the capture of Saigon by the North Vietnamese Army in April 1975 marked the end of the war, and North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities, estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 240, 000–300,000 Cambodians,20, 000–62,000 Laotians, and 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict. Various names have applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most commonly used name in English and it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict.
As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ. It is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam, France began its conquest of Indochina in the late 1850s, and completed pacification by 1893. The 1884 Treaty of Huế formed the basis for French colonial rule in Vietnam for the seven decades