Ivan Ilyich Lyudnikov, was a Soviet Army Colonel General and Hero of the Soviet Union. Ivan Lyudnikov was born on 8 October 1902, in Krivaya Kosa in the Don Host Oblast. In 1913, he began working alongside his father at Mine No. 2 in the Shcheglovskogo Coal Mine. He became a coal sorter a drainage pump worker in 1914, he became an apprentice turner at the mine workshop in 1915, in 1916 became a turner. On 25 October 1917, Lyudnikov became a volunteer in the Yuzovsky Red Guard Group. In April 1918, he became a machine gunner in the special machine gun detachment commanded by Abrosimov on the Southern Front and was wounded. In May, he became a Red Army man and a machine gunner in the detachment of S. A. Bondarenko. In December, he transferred to the 1st Cavalry Regiment of the 42nd Rifle Division, part of Semyon Budyonny's 1st Cavalry Army. Lyudnikov became a VKSLM member in 1919, elected by personnel of the 1st Cavalry Regiment, he became a Red Navy man serving on the gunboat Znamya sotsializma, under the command of Sergey Kolbasev, part of the Azov Flotilla and based at the Mariupol Naval Base.
He fought against the White Army led by Alexey Kaledin, Anton Denikin and Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel during the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War between 1918 and 1922. After the war was over, he was educated at the following military educational institutions: 94 infantry commanding officer of the Ukrainian Military District Odessa infantry division Commander at the 13th Dagestan infantry division and battalion course commander at the Vladikavkaz infantry school Machine gun course at the Vistrel courses Frunze Military Academy Printed order 00128 of 29 August 1938 appointed him the special affairs officer of the Red Army 1st department. Beginning April 1939, he was leading two sections of the 13 branch department of the Red Army, its main task was in preparing operations workers for army headquarters and commanding Zhitomir infantry school. By 22 June 1941, Colonel Lyudnikov was commanding 200th Rifle infantry division, part of 31st Rifle Corps, in charge of military district and located south of the city of Sarny.
The 200th Rifle division was added to the 5th Army and took part in the First Battle of Kiev. Occupying the Korosten fortified area, along with other units, made numerous flank attacks on the 6th German Army aiming at Kiev. After being withdrawn from the river Dnieper, 200th division took part in defensive fighting for Chernihiv. On 12 September, the division and its staff was attacked from the air, as a result Lyudnikov was wounded in the head and his feet were broken, he was treated at Kharkiv hospital and at Kazan military hospital No. 361. After his treatment was over, in November 1941, Lyudnikov received command of the 16th Separate Rifle Brigade, organized on the basis of Grozny and some other defence schools of the North Caucasian defence district; the brigade became part of the 56th Army of the North Caucasus Military District. In late November, the brigade took part in the recapture of Rostov-on-Don. From 26 March 1942, Lyudnikov was assigned command of several divisions: the 218th Rifle Division of the North Caucasus Military District, the 404th Rifle Division, the 390th Armenian Rifle Division and the 63rd Mountain Rifle Division of the 44th Army.
Due to changes in the situation at the front, he did not take command of these. On 29 May 1942, he took command of the 138 Rifle division. 138th Rifle Division was fighting the enemy in Stalingrad in October–December 1942. For 100 days and nights the division conducted fighting at the Barrikady works in the area of the lower settlement; this territory of 700 m × 400 m was encircled on three sides, the fourth was Volga river. It was shot through by artillery, shot at by shells; the Division under Lyudnikov's command was fought steadfastly until he proceeded to the final section of the report in December 1942. On 25 January 1943, the Division's units charged north to destroy those fascist units in the area of works and settlements. For their part in the fighting for Stalingrad, the division was reorganized into the 70th Guards Rifle Division on 6 February 1943. On 1 June 1943, Lyudnikov was appointed commander of the 15th guard infantry division, carried out his orders on defence and changed to counterattack.
On 22 September, forward units approached Dnieper north of the city of Chernobyl and began forcing it without a pause. After seizing the bridge-head on the right bank they repulsed counterattacks and started battle for widening the bridge-head. Lyudnikov was taken note of for his successful management in forcing Dnieper, showing audacity and courage, he was afforded with the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union, presented with the order of Lenin and the Gold Star. The Red Army performed attack Operation Bagration. At the time, Lydnikov was in command of 39 Army at the 3rd Belorussian Front. Together with 43 Army of the 1st Baltic Front, Army general Beloborodov made an attack operation against German forces in June 1944; this operation is known as Vitebsk–Orsha Offensive or Vitebsk Orsha pocket. This operation resulted in liberation of 447 settlements including Vitebsk and Orsha. On the decision of General Headquarters, the authority of 39 Army was temporarily delegated to 1st Baltic front to take part in the Baltic Offensive.
The army was given the combat mission of seizing the Daugavpils–Pabradė li
Cult of personality
A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more an individual – uses the techniques of mass media, the big lie, the arts and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized and worshipful image of a leader through unquestioning flattery and praise. A cult of personality is similar to apotheosis, except that it is established by modern social engineering techniques by the state or the party in one-party states and dominant-party states, it is seen in totalitarian or authoritarian countries. The term came to prominence in 1956, in Nikita Khrushchev's secret speech On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences, given on the final day of the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In the speech, the First Secretary of the Communist Party – in effect, the leader of the country – criticized the lionization and idealization of Joseph Stalin, and, by implication, his Communist contemporary Mao Zedong, as being contrary to Marxist doctrine.
The speech was made public and was part of the "de-Stalinization" process the Soviet Union went through. The Imperial cult of ancient Rome identified emperors and some members of their families with the divinely sanctioned authority of the Roman State. Throughout history and other heads of state were held in enormous reverence and imputed super-human qualities. Through the principle of the divine right of kings, in medieval Europe for example, rulers were said to hold office by the will of God. Ancient Egypt, Imperial Japan, the Inca, the Aztecs, Tibet and the Roman Empire are noted for redefining monarchs as "god-kings"; the spread of democratic and secular ideas in Europe and North America in the 18th and 19th centuries made it difficult for monarchs to preserve this aura. However, the subsequent development of mass media, such as radio, enabled political leaders to project a positive image of themselves onto the masses as never before, it was from these circumstances in the 20th century. These cults are a form of political religion.
The term "cult of personality" appeared in English around 1800–1850, along with the French and German use. At first it had no political connotations but was instead related to the Romantic "cult of genius"; the political use of the phrase came first in a letter from Karl Marx to German political worker, Wilhelm Blos, 10 November 1877: Neither of us cares a straw of popularity. Let me cite one proof of this: such was my aversion to the personality cult that at the time of the International, when plagued by numerous moves to accord me public honor, I never allowed one of these to enter the domain of publicity There are various views about what constitutes a cult of personality in a leader. Historian Jan Plamper has written that modern-day personality cults display five characteristics that set them apart from "their predecessors": The cults are secular and "anchored in popular sovereignty". In his What is character and why it does matter, Thomas A. Wright states, "The cult of personality phenomenon refers to the idealized god-like, public image of an individual consciously shaped and molded through constant propaganda and media exposure.
As a result, one is able to manipulate others based on the influence of public personality...the cult of personality perspective focuses on the shallow, external images that many public figures cultivate to create an idealized and heroic image."Adrian Teodor Popan defines cult of personality as a "quantitatively exaggerated and qualitatively extravagant public demonstration of praise of the leader". He identifies three causal "necessary, but not sufficient, structural conditions, a path dependent chain of events which, lead to the cult formation: a particular combination of patrimonialism and clientelism, lack of dissidence, systematic falsification pervading the society’s culture." The media has played an instrumental role in forging national leaders' cults of personality. Thomas A. Wright reports that "It is becoming evident that the charismatic leader in politics, has become the product of media and self-exposure." And, focusing on the media in the United States, Robert N. Bellah adds that, "It is hard to determine the extent to which the media reflect the cult of personality in American politics and to what extent they have created it.
They did not create it all alone, but just as they have contributed to it. In any case, American politics is dominated by the personalities of political leaders to an extent rare in the modern world...in the personalised politics of recent years the "charisma" of the leader may be entirely a product of media exposure."Enjoying repeated electoral success. He is the controlling shareholder of Mediaset and owned the Italian football club A. C. Milan from 1986 to 2017. Forbes magazine ranked him 12th in the List of The World's Most Powerful People due to his domination of Italian politics in 2009. A single leader became associated with this revolutionary transformation and came to be treated as a benevolent "guide" for the nation without whom the transformation to a better
Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov was a Soviet politician and diplomat, an Old Bolshevik, a leading figure in the Soviet government from the 1920s, when he rose to power as a protégé of Joseph Stalin. Molotov served as Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars from 1930 to 1941, as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1939 to 1949 and from 1953 to 1956, he served as First Deputy Premier from 1942 to 1957, when he was dismissed from the Presidium of the Central Committee by Nikita Khrushchev. Molotov was removed from all positions in 1961 after several years of obscurity. Molotov was the principal Soviet signatory of the Nazi–Soviet non-aggression pact of 1939, whose most important provisions were added in the form of a secret protocol that stipulated an invasion of Poland and partition of its territory between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, he was aware of the Katyn massacre committed by the Soviet authorities during this period. After World War II, Molotov was involved in negotiations with the Western allies, in which he became noted for his diplomatic skills.
He retained his place as a leading Soviet diplomat and politician until March 1949, when he fell out of Stalin's favour and lost the foreign affairs ministry leadership to Andrei Vyshinsky. Molotov's relationship with Stalin deteriorated further, with Stalin criticising Molotov in a speech to the 19th Party Congress. However, after Stalin's death in 1953, Molotov was staunchly opposed to Khrushchev's de-Stalinisation policy. Molotov defended Stalin's policies and legacy until his death in 1986, harshly criticised Stalin's successors Khrushchev. Molotov was born Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Skryabin in the village of Kukarka, Yaransk Uyezd, Vyatka Governorate, the son of a butter churner. Contrary to a repeated error, he was not related to the composer Alexander Scriabin. Throughout his teen years, he was described as "shy" and "quiet", always assisting his father with his business, he was educated at a secondary school in Kazan, joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1906, soon gravitating toward that organisation's radical Bolshevik faction, headed by V. I.
Lenin. Skryabin took the pseudonym "Molotov", derived from the Russian word молот molot, since he believed that the name has an "industrial" and "proletarian" ring to it, he was spent two years in exile in Vologda. In 1911, he enrolled at St Petersburg Polytechnic. Molotov joined the editorial staff of a new underground Bolshevik newspaper called Pravda, meeting Joseph Stalin for the first time in association with the project; this first association between the two future Soviet leaders proved to be brief and did not lead to an immediate close political association. Molotov worked as a so-called "professional revolutionary" for the next several years, writing for the party press and attempting to better organize the underground party, he moved from St. Petersburg to Moscow in 1914 at the time of the outbreak of World War I, it was in Moscow the following year that Molotov was again arrested for his party activity, this time being deported to Irkutsk in eastern Siberia. In 1916, he escaped from his Siberian exile and returned to the capital city, now called Petrograd by the Tsarist regime, which thought the name St. Petersburg sounded excessively German.
Molotov became a member of the Bolshevik Party's committee in Petrograd in 1916. When the February Revolution occurred in 1917, he was one of the few Bolsheviks of any standing in the capital. Under his direction Pravda took to the "left" to oppose the Provisional Government formed after the revolution; when Joseph Stalin returned to the capital, he reversed Molotov's line. Despite this, Molotov became a protégé of and close adherent to Stalin, an alliance to which he owed his prominence. Molotov became a member of the Military Revolutionary Committee which planned the October Revolution, which brought the Bolsheviks to power. In 1918, Molotov was sent to Ukraine to take part in the civil war breaking out. Since he was not a military man, he took no part in the fighting. In 1920, he became secretary to the Central Committee of the Ukrainian Bolshevik Party. Lenin recalled him to Moscow in 1921, elevating him to full membership of the Central Committee and Orgburo, putting him in charge of the party secretariat.
He was voted in as a non-voting member of the Politburo in 1921 and held the office of Responsible Secretary and married Soviet politician Polina Zhemchuzhina. His Responsible Secretaryship was criticised by Lenin and Leon Trotsky, with Lenin noting his "shameful bureaucratism" and stupid behaviour. On the advice of Molotov and Nikolai Bukharin, the Central Committee decided to reduce Lenin's work hours. In 1922, Stalin became general secretary of the Bolshevik Party with Molotov as the de facto Second Secretary; as a young follower, Molotov did not refrain from criticizing him. Under Stalin's patronage, Molotov became a member of the Politburo in 1926. During the power struggles which followed Lenin's death in 1924, Molotov remained a loyal supporter of Stalin against his various rivals: first Leon Trotsky Lev Kamenev and Grigory Zinoviev, Nikolai Bukharin. Molotov became a leading figure in the "Stalinist centre" of the party, which included Kliment Voroshilov and Sergo Ordzhonikidze. Trotsky and his supporters underestimated Molotov.
Trotsky called him "mediocrity personified", whilst Molotov himself pedantically corrected comrades referring to him as'Stone Arse' by saying that Lenin had dubbed him'Iron Arse'. Ho
Nikolay Nikolayevich Voronov was a Soviet military leader, chief marshal of the artillery, Hero of the Soviet Union. He was commander of artillery forces of the Red Army from 1941 until 1950. Voronov commanded the Soviet artillery during the Battle of Stalingrad and was the Stavka representative to various fronts during the Siege of Leningrad and the Battle of Kursk, he fought in the Russian Civil War, the Polish-Soviet War and the Battle of Khalkin Gol, as well as serving as an advisor to the Spanish Republican Army during the Spanish Civil War. Nikolay Voronov was born on 5 May 1899 in Saint Petersburg to Nikolai Terentyvich Voronov, a clerk, Valentina Voronov. After the Revolution of 1905, Voronov's father became unemployed due to his Russian Social Democratic Labour Party sympathies. On 30 November 1908, his poverty-stricken mother committed suicide by taking cyanide. Voronov dropped out of a private school in 1914 due to financial problems and in 1915 got a job working as a secretary for an attorney.
In the fall of 1916, his father was drafted. In 1917, Voronov passed an external degree examination. In March 1918, Voronov joined the Red Army. In the same year, he completed the 2nd Petrograd Artillery courses, after which he was a platoon commander in a howitzer battalion in the Petrograd 2nd Battery; as part of the 15th Army, he fought in battles with Nikolai Yudenich's forces near Pskov. In 1919, Voronov joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Beginning in April 1920, Voronov fought in the Polish–Soviet War with the 83rd Regiment of the 10th Rifle Division, his battery was armed with the 76 mm divisional gun M1902 instead of the 122 mm howitzer M1910. On 17 August, Voronov received a severe concussion during a battle in the village of Józefów nad Wisłą; when he regained consciousness, he found. The injured Voronov was captured. During his eight months of captivity, Voronov suffered from typhus and twice came close to having his leg amputated, he was repatriated at the end of the war in April 1921.
In the summer of 1922, Voronov was appointed commander of the howitzer battery of the 27th Rifle Division. In fall 1923 he attended the school of higher artillery commanders and after graduation continued to serve with the 27th Rifle Division. During the 1926 maneuvers, Voronov distinguished himself commanding the artillery of the Belorussian Military District; as a reward, he was granted permission to take the entrance examination for the Frunze Military Academy. In 1930, Voronov graduated from the academy, he became the commander of the artillery regiment of the 1st Moscow Rifle Division. In August 1932, Voronov was sent to Italy as part of the Soviet mission there. In April 1934, he was appointed chief military Commissar of the 1st Artillery School. In 1936, he was awarded the Order of the Red Star for his management of the school. In 1935, he served on the Soviet military mission to Italy for the second time, was promoted to Kombrig on 11 November. In 1937, he was sent under the name "Voltaire" as an advisor to the Spanish Republicans, where he worked on the training of artillery units on the Madrid Front.
During his tour in Spain, Voronov was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. In June 1937, Voronov returned to Moscow, he was promoted to Komkor and replaced Komdiv N. M. Rogowski as the chief of the artillery of the Red Army, shot during the Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization, on 20 June 1937. Voronov started work on the modernization of the Red Army artillery, in November 1937 submitted a memorandum to Kliment Voroshilov on the modernization of the artillery. At the end of July 1938 Voronov went as part of a special commission of the People's Commissariat of Defence to test the combat training of the Far Eastern Military District during the Battle of Lake Khasan. In June 1939, he was sent to Khalkhyn Gol to lead the 1st Army Group's artillery during the Battles of Khalkhin Gol. For his actions during the battle, Voronov was awarded a second Order of the Red Banner. In September 1939, Voronov commanded the Belorussian Military District's artillery during the Soviet invasion of Poland.
He was injured in a car accident and said his life was saved by a silver pen given to him by Dolores Ibárruri in Spain. In November, Voronov inspected the troops of the Leningrad Military District, in readiness for the Winter War. During the war, he led artillery units those of the 7th Army, fought in the offensive against the Mannerheim Line. For his actions during the war, Voronov was awarded a second Order of Lenin and was promoted to Komandarm 2nd rank. On 4 June 1940, he was given the rank of colonel general of the artillery after the introduction of Red Army general officers ranks. Voronov led the Kiev Special Military District's artillery during the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. An order of the People's Commissariat of Defence on 13 July abolished the position of chief of the artillery and introduced the position of first deputy chief of GRAU. Voronov was appointed to this position, subordinate to Grigory Kulik. On 19 June 1941, Voronov was transferred to the post of Chief of the Main Directorate of Air Defence, now accountable to the People's Commissar of Defence.
During the first days of the war on the Eastern Front. On 19 July, the post of chief of the artillery was restored and Voronov was appointed to that position. On 20 July, he was ordered organized antitank artillery during the Yelnya Offensive. After returning to Moscow, together with Le
André Bazin was a renowned and influential French film critic and film theorist. Bazin started to write about film in 1943 and was a co-founder of the renowned film magazine Cahiers du cinéma in 1951, along with Jacques Doniol-Valcroze and Joseph-Marie Lo Duca, he is notable for arguing. His call for objective reality, deep focus, lack of montage are linked to his belief that the interpretation of a film or scene should be left to the spectator; this placed him in opposition to film theory of the 1920s and 1930s, which emphasized how the cinema could manipulate reality. Bazin was born in Angers, France, in 1918, he died in age 40, of leukemia. Bazin started to write about film in 1943 and was a co-founder of the renowned film magazine Cahiers du cinéma in 1951, along with Jacques Doniol-Valcroze and Joseph-Marie Lo Duca. Bazin was a major force in criticism, he edited Cahiers until his death, a four-volume collection of his writings was published posthumously, covering the years 1958 to 1962 and titled Qu'est-ce que le cinéma?.
A selection from this collection was translated into English and published in two volumes in the late 1960s and early 1970s. They became mainstays of film courses in the English-speaking world, but were never updated or revised. In 2009, the Canadian publisher Caboose, taking advantage of more favourable Canadian copyright laws, compiled fresh translations of some of the key essays from the collection in a single-volume edition. With annotations by translator Timothy Barnard, this became the only corrected and annotated edition of these writings in any language. In 2018 this volume was replaced by a more extensive collection of Bazin's texts translated by Barnard, André Bazin: Selected Writings 1943-1958; the long-held standard view of Bazin's critical system is that he argued for films that depicted what he saw as "objective reality" and directors who made themselves "invisible". He advocated the use of deep focus, wide shots and the "shot-in-depth", preferred what he referred to as "true continuity" through mise-en-scène over experiments in editing and visual effects.
This placed him in opposition to film theory of the 1920s and 1930s, which emphasized how the cinema could manipulate reality. The concentration on objective reality, deep focus, lack of montage are linked to Bazin's belief that the interpretation of a film or scene should be left to the spectator, he watched film as as he expected the director to undertake it. His personal friendships with many directors he wrote about furthered his analysis of their work, he became a central figure not only in film critique, but in bringing about certain collaborations, as well. Bazin preferred long takes to montage editing, he believed that less was more, that narrative was key to great film. Bazin, influenced by personalism, believed that a film should represent a director's personal vision; this idea had a pivotal importance in the development of the auteur theory, the manifesto for which François Truffaut's article, "A Certain Tendency of the French Cinema", was published by his mentor Bazin in Cahiers in 1954.
Bazin is known as a proponent of "appreciative criticism", the notion that only critics who like a film should review it, thus encouraging constructive criticism. François Truffaut dedicated The 400 Blows to Bazin, who died one day after shooting commenced on the film. Jean Renoir dedicated the revival of The Rules of the Game to the memory of Bazin. Richard Linklater's film Waking Life features a discussion between filmmaker Caveh Zahedi and poet David Jewell regarding some of Bazin's film theories. There is an emphasis on Bazin's Christianity and the belief that every shot is a representation of God manifested in creation. Jean-Luc Godard's Contempt opens with a quotation wrongly attributed to Bazin. David Foster Wallace's novel Infinite Jest references Bazin in regard to film criticism. Bazin, André.. André Bazin: Selected Writings 1943-1958 Montreal: caboose, ISBN 978-1-927852-05-7 Bazin, André.. What is cinema? Vol. 1 & 2. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-02034-0 Bazin, André..
Jean Renoir. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-21464-0 Bazin, André.. Orson Welles: a critical view. New York: Harper and Row. ISBN 0-06-010274-8 Andrew, Dudley. André Bazin. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978. ISBN 0-19-502165-7 Bazin, André.. French cinema of the occupation and resistance: The birth of a critical esthetic. New York: F. Ungar Pub. Co. ISBN 0-8044-2022-X Bazin, André.. The cinema of cruelty: From Buñuel to Hitchcock. New York: Seaver Books. ISBN 0-394-51808-X Bazin, André.. Essays on Chaplin. New Haven, Conn.: University of New Haven Press. LCCN 84-52687 Bazin, André.. Bazin at work: Major essays & reviews from the forties and fifties. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-90017-4 ISBN 0-415-90018-2 Bazin, André.. French cinema from the liberation to the New Wave, 1945-1958 La politique des auteurs, edited by André Bazin. Interviews with Robert Bresson, Jean Renoir, L
Mosfilm is a film studio, among the largest and oldest in the Russian Federation and in Europe. Its output includes most of the more acclaimed Soviet-era films, ranging from works by Andrei Tarkovsky and Sergei Eisenstein, to Red Westerns to the Akira Kurosawa co-production Dersu Uzala and the epic War and Peace; the Moscow film production unit with studio facilities was established in November 1923 by the motion picture mogul Aleksandr Khanzhonkov and I. Ermolev as a unit of the Goskino works; the first movie filmed by Mosfilm was On the Wings Skyward. In 1927 the construction of a new film studio complex began on Mosfilmovskaya Street in Sparrow Hills of Moscow; this film studio was named after the Moscow amalgamated factory Soyuzkino the Tenth Anniversary of the October. In 1934 the film studio was renamed to Moskinokombinat, in 1936 – to Mosfilm. During World War II the film studio personnel were evacuated to Alma-Ata and merged with other Soviet production units into the Central United Film Studio.
The Mosfilm personnel returned to Moscow at the end of 1943. The famous Mosfilm logo, representing the monument "Worker and Kolkhoz Woman" by Vera Mukhina and Spasskaya Tower of the Kremlin, was introduced in 1947 in the musical comedy, Spring directed by Grigori Aleksandrov and starring Lyubov Orlova and Nikolai Cherkasov. By the time the Soviet Union was no more, Mosfilm had produced more than 3,000 films. Many film classics were shot at Mosfilm throughout its history and some of these were granted international awards at various film festivals. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Mosfilm continued operations as a quasi-private production company, led by film director Karen Shakhnazarov; as of 2005, the company embraced ten independent studios, located within 13 sound stages occupying an area of 13,000 sq. meters. Tours through this "Russian Hollywood" become popular, as they allow to view Mosfilm's enormous depot with 170 tanks and 50 vintage cars; the biggest sound stage is leased annually to hold the Golden Eagle Awards.
In 2011 Mosfilm released a selection of its classic films online for free viewing. Directed by Sergei Eisenstein1925 The Battleship Potemkin, a historical silent film 1938 Alexander Nevsky, a historical film 1946 Ivan The Terrible, Part II, a historical filmDirected by Andrei Tarkovsky1960 The Steamroller and the Violin, a short film 1962 Ivan's Childhood, a feature film directed by Andrei Tarkovsky, the Golden Lion Award winner at the 1962 Venice Film Festival 1966 Andrei Rublev 1972 Solaris 1975 The Mirror 1979 Stalker 1983 Nostalghia Others1934 Jolly Fellows, a musical comedy 1935 Aerograd, a science fiction film directed by Alexander Dovzhenko 1936 Circus, a musical comedy 1938 Volga-Volga, a musical comedy 1939 Minin and Pozharsky, a historical film directed by Vsevolod Pudovkin and Mikhail Doller 1956 Ilya Muromets, a fantasy film directed by Aleksandr Ptushko 1957 The Cranes Are Flying, a war drama directed by Mikhail Kalatozov, 1958 winner of Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival 1957 Miles of Fire, an ostern film directed by Samson Samsonov 1959 Ballad of a Soldier, a war film directed by Grigori Chukhrai, a 1959 special jury prize winner of Cannes Film Festival and 1961 Academy Award nominant.
1962 Hussar Ballad directed by Eldar Ryazanov 1963 Walking the Streets of Moscow directed by Georgi Daneliya 1964 Welcome, or No Trespassing directed by Elem Klimov 1964 I Am Cuba directed by Mikhail Kalatozov 1965 Adventures of a Dentist directed by Elem Klimov 1966 Watch Out for the Automobile directed by Eldar Ryazanov 1966 Wings directed by Larisa Shepitko 1966 The Elusive Avengers directed by Edmond Keosayan 1967 Viy 1968 War and Peace directed by Sergei Bondarchuk, Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1968 winner. 1968 The Diamond Arm directed by Leonid Gaidai 1969 Liberation directed by Yuri Ozerov 1969 The Brothers Karamazov, Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1969 nominant. 1969 White Sun of the Desert directed by Vladimir Motyl 1971 Tchaikovsky directed by Igor Talankin, Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1971 nominee. 1971 Stariki-razboyniki directed by Eldar Ryazanov 1972 Gentlemen of Fortune 1973 Ivan Vasilievich: Back to the Future directed by Leonid Gaidai 1974 At Home Among Strangers directed by Nikita Mikhalkov 1974 Unbelievable Adventures of Italians in Russia directed by Franco Prosperi and Eldar Ryazanov 1975 Dersu Uzala directed by Akira Kurosawa, Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1975 winner.
1975 Siberiade directed by Andrei Konchalovsky 1975 Afonya directed by Georgi Daneliya 1975 The Irony of Fate directed by Eldar Ryazanov 1976 The Ascent directed by Larisa Shepitko, the Golden Bear Award at the Berlin Film Festival in 1977 winner. 1976 Queen of the Gypsies directed by Emil Loteanu 1977 Mimino directed by Georgi Daneliya 1977 Office Romance directed by Eldar Ryazanov 1979 Moscow Does Not Believe In Tears, Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1980 winner. 1981 Private Life directed by Yuli Raizman, Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1981 nominant. 1981 Teheran 43 1982 Lenin in Paris 1985 Come and See directed by Elem Klimov 1986
Arthur Schmidt (soldier)
Arthur Schmidt was an officer in the German military from 1914 to 1943. He attained the rank of Generalleutnant during World War II, is best known for his role as the Sixth Army's chief of staff in the Battle of Stalingrad in 1942–43, during the final stages of which he became its de facto commander, playing a large role in executing Hitler's order that it stand firm despite being encircled by the Red Army, he was a prisoner of war in the Soviet Union for twelve years, was released following West German chancellor Konrad Adenauer's visit to Moscow in 1955. Schmidt joined the army as a one-year volunteer on 10 August 1914, attaining the rank of Leutnant on 8 May 1915. Schmidt held various positions in the Heer, including chief of operations in Fifth Army and Eighteenth Army. On 25 October 1940 he served as chief of staff in 5th Army Corps, a position he held until 25 March 1942, when he moved to the Führerreserve at Oberkommando des Heeres. On 26 January 1942 he was awarded the German Cross in Gold.
Schmidt was appointed chief of staff to General Friedrich Paulus in Sixth Army on 15 May 1942, replacing Colonel Ferdinand Heim after the counter-attack against Marshal Semyon Timoshenko at the Second Battle of Kharkov. The British historian and author Antony Beevor offers the following description of Schmidt: a slim, sharp-featured and sharp-tongued staff officer from a Hamburg mercantile family. Schmidt, confident of his own abilities, put many backs up within Sixth Army headquarters, although he had his supporters. Paulus relied on his judgement, as a result he played a large, some say an excessive, role in determining the course of events that year. Despite Lieutenant-Colonel Niemeyer's frank and pessimistic area briefings, Schmidt underestimated the build-up and capabilities of Soviet forces at Stalingrad following the initial Axis successes, a failing that he – unlike Paulus – subsequently did not attempt to excuse. Ignoring Hitler's'Führer instruction' of 30 June 1942 that Axis formations should not liaise with their neighbours, Schmidt authorised an officer from Sixth Army, Lieutenant Gerhard Stöck, to be issued with a radio and join up with Romanian forces to the north-west of Stalingrad to help with intelligence gathering.
Many false reports of the massing of Soviet forces were received from the Romanian sector, so when Stöck radioed at 5 a.m. on 19 November that an offensive was about to begin, furious when disturbed by false alarms, was not informed, although he was awoken twenty minutes when it became clear that this was no false alarm. Paulus and Schmidt realised. Evacuating their HQ at Golubinsky amid a bonfire of burning files and stores, they flew to Nizhne-Chirskaya that same day, just missing Hitler's order that "Sixth Army stand firm in spite of danger of temporary encirclement." At Nizhne-Chirskaya on 22 November, Schmidt told 8th Air Corps's commander, General Martin Fiebig, that Sixth Army needed to be resupplied by air. He was told that "The Luftwaffe doesn't have enough aircraft." That day and Paulus held a conference attended by General Hermann Hoth and Major-General Pickert, during which Schmidt "did much of the talking". He re-emphasised that before Sixth Army could break out to the south: "We must have fuel and ammunition delivered by the Luftwaffe."
When told that this was impossible, he replied that "more than 10,000 wounded and the bulk of the heavy weapons and vehicles would have to be left behind. That would be a Napoleonic ending." Schmidt maintained that the army, which would adopt a "hedgehog" defence, must be resupplied, but that the situation was not yet so desperate as there were plenty of horses left that could serve as food. All the while, Paulus remained silent. On the afternoon of 22 November, Schmidt flew with Paulus to the new Sixth Army HQ at Gumrak; that evening the Soviet encirclement of Axis forces was confirmed in a signal Paulus sent to Hitler. Schmidt contacted his corps commanders and, in defiance of Hitler's order to stand firm, they agreed with Schmidt that a breakout to the south was desirable. Paulus and Schmidt started planning for the breakout that evening, despite receiving another message from Hitler that they must stand firm and await relief. However, on 24 November Sixth Army received a further Führer order relayed from Army Group B, ordering them to stand firm.
Schmidt commented: Early on the 24th November, while Paulus and I were preparing the necessary measures for a breakout to the south, we received a'Führer decision' from Army Group It said that the Sixth Army was to stay in Stalingrad and wait to be relieved. We reacted to this order with astonishment, since we had expected some sort of discussion with the Army Group, were certain of the breakout. Paulus and I came separately to the same conclusion, it now seemed more impossible than to act against an order of the High Command or Army Group. This decision to stand firm in a "hedgehog" defence sealed Sixth Army's fate; when presented with the commander of 51st Corps General Walther von Seydlitz-Kurzbach's 25 November memorandum to Paulus, detailing plans for a breakout, Schmidt said: "We don't have to break the head of the Führer for him, neither does General von Seydlitz have to break the head of." On 18 or 19 December, Major Eismann was sent by Field Marshal Erich von Manstein to brief Paulus and Schmidt on Operation Donnerschlag, Army Group Don's plan, not sanctioned by Hitler, for the Sixth Army to break out and incorporate itself in Manstein's Army Grou