Robert I, Duke of Normandy
Robert the Magnificent, was the Duke of Normandy from 1027 until his death in 1035. Owing to uncertainty over the numbering of the Dukes of Normandy he is usually called Robert I and he was the father of William the Conqueror who became in 1066 King of England and founded the House of Normandy. Robert was the son of Richard II of Normandy and Judith, daughter of Conan I and he was grandson of Richard I of Normandy, great-grandson of William I of Normandy and great-great grandson of Rollo, the Viking who founded Normandy. Before he died, Richard II had decided his elder son Richard III would succeed him while his second son Robert would become Count of Hiémois, when Richard III died a year later, there were suspicions that Robert had something to do with his death. Although nothing could be proved, Robert had the most to gain, the civil war Robert I had brought against his brother Richard III was still causing instability in the duchy. Private wars raged between neighbouring barons and this resulted in a new aristocracy arising in Normandy during Robert’s reign.
It was during this time many of the lesser nobility left Normandy to seek their fortunes in southern Italy. Soon after assuming the dukedom, possibly in revenge for supporting his brother against him, Robert I assembled an army against his uncle, Archbishop of Rouen and Count of Évreux. Robert attacked another powerful churchman, his cousin Hugo III dIvry, Bishop of Bayeux, Robert seized a number of church properties belonging to the Abbey of Fecamp. Baldwin V, supported by king Robert II of France, his father-in-law, was persuaded to make peace with his father in 1030 when Duke Robert promised the elder Baldwin his considerable military support. Robert gave shelter to Henry I of France against his mother, Queen Constance, for his help Henry I rewarded Robert with the French Vexin. However, Alan appealed to their uncle, Archbishop Robert of Rouen, Robert made a safe landing in Guernsey. Gesta Normannorum Ducum stated that King Cnut sent envoys to Duke Robert offering to settle half the Kingdom of England on Edward, after postponing the naval invasion he chose to postpone the decision until after he returned from Jerusalem.
Roberts attitude towards the Church had changed noticeably certainly since his reinstating his uncles position as Archbishop of Rouen, after making his illegitimate son William his heir, he set out on pilgrimage to Jerusalem. According to the Gesta Normannorum Ducum he travelled by way of Constantinople, reached Jerusalem, fell seriously ill and his son William, aged about eight, succeeded him. According to the historian William of Malmesbury, decades his son William sent a mission to Constantinople and Nicaea, permission was granted, having travelled as far as Apulia on the return journey, the envoys learned that William himself had meanwhile died. They decided to re-inter Roberts body in Italy, by his mistress, Herleva of Falaise, he was father of, William the Conqueror. By Herleva or possibly another concubine, he was the father of, Adelaide of Normandy and she married secondly, Lambert II, Count of Lens, and thirdly, Odo II of Champagne
The Cotentin Peninsula, known as the Cherbourg Peninsula, is a peninsula in Normandy that forms part of the northwest coast of France. It extends north-westward into the English Channel, towards Great Britain, to its west lie the Channel Islands and to the southwest lies the Brittany Peninsula. The peninsula lies wholly within the department of Manche, in the region of Normandy, the Cotentin peninsula is part of the Armorican Massif and lies between the estuary of the Vire river and Mont Saint-Michel Bay. It is divided into three areas, the headland of Cap de la Hague, the Cotentin Pass, and the valley of the Saire River and it forms the bulk of the department of Manche. Its southern part, known as le Marais, crosses from east to west from just north west of Saint Lo and east of Lessay, the largest town in the peninsula is Cherbourg on the north coast, a major cross-channel port. The western coast of the peninsula, known as the Côte des Îles faces the Channel Islands, ferry links serve Carteret and the islands of Jersey and Alderney from Dielette.
Off the east coast of the lies the island of Tatihou. The oldest stone in France is found in outcroppings on the coast of Cap de la Hague, Cotentin was almost an island at one time. Only a small strip of land in the heath of Lessay connected the peninsula with the mainland. Thanks to the so-called portes à flot, which close at flood and open at ebb and which were built in the west coast and in the Baie des Veys, on the east coast, the Côte des Havres lies between the Cape of Carteret and the Cape of Granville. To the northwest, there are two sand dune systems, one stretching between Siouville-Hague and Vauville, the other one stretching between Cap of Carteret and Baubigny, the peninsula formed part of the Roman geographical area of Armorica. The town known today as Coutances, capital of the Unelli, the base of the peninsula, called in Latin the pagus Constantinus, joined together with the pagus Coriovallensis centred upon Cherbourg to the north, subsequently became known as the Cotentin. Under the Carolingians it was administered by viscounts drawn successively from members of the Saint-Sauveur family, King Alan the Great of Brittany waged war successfully on the Norsemen.
As the result of his conquests, the Cotentin Peninsula was included theoretically in the territory of the Duchy of Brittany, the Dukes of Brittany suffered continuing Norse invasions and Norman raids. Eventually the Cotentin Peninsula was lost to Brittany after only 70 years of political domination, Vikings settled on the Cotentin in the ninth and tenth centuries. There are indications of an industry there dating to the ninth century. They were followed by Anglo-Norse and Anglo-Danish people, who established as farmers and it became part of Normandy in the early tenth century. Many placenames there are derived from the Norse language, examples include La Hague from hagi meadow or enclosure and La Hougue from haugr meaning a hill or mound
Brionne is a commune in the Eure department. Brionne is in the region of Normandy of northern France, the keep of Brionne was built in the 11th century A. D. and was destroyed in the 18th century. The keep was of a rare, Norman variety because of its square shape, the church of Saint Martin includes a tower that uses Romanesque and Gothic elements. The ground-level floor of the church is of a Romanesque style while the floor is of a Gothic style. The churchs door was made in the 18th century A. D, the churchs altar was designed by Guillaume de la Tremblaye in 1694 A. D. The altar was intended to be used in the Chapel of the Bec Abbey. The cemetery and the church of Saint Denis were used for religious purposes until 1790 A. D, the cemetery was used until both the church and the cemetery were damaged by bombs in The 2nd World War. The church was partially restored but the cemetery ceased to exist. The church now serve as a gymnasium. Communes of the Eure department INSEE Official site) Blog about Brionne Medieval past of Brionne reveals it at the heart of Normandys turbulant history - with images English
Hamon Dentatus was a Norman noble who held the lordship of Torigni-sur-Vire, Manche, in Normandy. Hamon Dentatus rebelled against Duke William, William the Conqueror and his Latin epithet Dentatus signifies betoothed or toothy. Little is known about his life other than his progeny, the origins of Hamon Dentatus de Crevecoeur are unknown, although various suggestions have been made. This pedigree appeared to Round to have hatched in the seventeenth century. wishing to exalt Hamon Dentatus. He is supposed to have held the titles Count/Earl of Corboile/Corboyle/Corbeuil and these titles were confirmed retroactively by King Charles II in 1661 in his royal warrant which elevated to the peerage John Granville, 1st Earl of Bath, of Stowe, Kilkhampton. He left progeny including, Hamo Dapifer an Anglo-Norman royal official under both King William the Conqueror and his son King William Rufus. He held the office, from which his epithet derives, known in Latin as dapifer and in French seneschal, in English steward and he was the father of Robert FitzHamon, the conqueror of Glamorgan.
This was despite William of Malmesbury having described Hamo Dentatus as avus to Robert FitzHamon, the erroneous descent was given official status when recited in the royal warrant signed in 1661 by King Charles II creating titles of nobility for John Granville, 1st Earl of Bath. Domesday People, A Prosopography of Persons Occurring in English Documents, 1066-1166, new Haven, Yale University Press
Kingdom of France
The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and it was an early colonial power, with possessions around the world. France originated as West Francia, the half of the Carolingian Empire. A branch of the Carolingian dynasty continued to rule until 987, the territory remained known as Francia and its ruler as rex Francorum well into the High Middle Ages. The first king calling himself Roi de France was Philip II, France continued to be ruled by the Capetians and their cadet lines—the Valois and Bourbon—until the monarchy was overthrown in 1792 during the French Revolution. France in the Middle Ages was a de-centralised, feudal monarchy, in Brittany and Catalonia the authority of the French king was barely felt. Lorraine and Provence were states of the Holy Roman Empire and not yet a part of France, during the Late Middle Ages, the Kings of England laid claim to the French throne, resulting in a series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years War.
Subsequently, France sought to extend its influence into Italy, but was defeated by Spain in the ensuing Italian Wars, religiously France became divided between the Catholic majority and a Protestant minority, the Huguenots, which led to a series of civil wars, the Wars of Religion. France laid claim to large stretches of North America, known collectively as New France, Wars with Great Britain led to the loss of much of this territory by 1763. French intervention in the American Revolutionary War helped secure the independence of the new United States of America, the Kingdom of France adopted a written constitution in 1791, but the Kingdom was abolished a year and replaced with the First French Republic. The monarchy was restored by the great powers in 1814. During the years of the elderly Charlemagnes rule, the Vikings made advances along the northern and western perimeters of the Kingdom of the Franks, after Charlemagnes death in 814 his heirs were incapable of maintaining political unity and the empire began to crumble.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 divided the Carolingian Empire into three parts, with Charles the Bald ruling over West Francia, the nucleus of what would develop into the kingdom of France. Viking advances were allowed to increase, and their dreaded longboats were sailing up the Loire and Seine rivers and other waterways, wreaking havoc. During the reign of Charles the Simple, Normans under Rollo from Norway, were settled in an area on either side of the River Seine, downstream from Paris, that was to become Normandy. With its offshoots, the houses of Valois and Bourbon, it was to rule France for more than 800 years. Henry II inherited the Duchy of Normandy and the County of Anjou, and married Frances newly divorced ex-queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine, after the French victory at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214, the English monarchs maintained power only in southwestern Duchy of Guyenne. The death of Charles IV of France in 1328 without male heirs ended the main Capetian line, under Salic law the crown could not pass through a woman, so the throne passed to Philip VI, son of Charles of Valois
The Normans were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France. They were descended from Norse raiders and pirates from Denmark and Norway who, under their leader Rollo, through generations of assimilation and mixing with the native Frankish and Gallo-Roman populations, their descendants gradually adopted the Carolingian-based cultures of West Francia. The distinct cultural and ethnic identity of the Normans emerged initially in the first half of the 10th century, the Norman dynasty had a major political and military impact on medieval Europe and even the Near East. The Normans were famed for their spirit and eventually for their Christian piety. They adopted the Gallo-Romance language of the Frankish land they settled, their becoming known as Norman, Normaund or Norman French. The Normans are noted both for their culture, such as their unique Romanesque architecture and musical traditions, and for their significant military accomplishments and their chief men were specially lavish through their desire of good report.
They were, moreover, a race skillful in flattery, given to the study of eloquence, so that the boys were orators. They were enduring of toil and cold whenever fortune laid it on them, given to hunting and hawking, delighting in the pleasure of horses, and of all the weapons and garb of war. The treaty offered Rollo and his men the French lands between the river Epte and the Atlantic coast in exchange for their protection against further Viking incursions. The area corresponded to the part of present-day Upper Normandy down to the river Seine. The territory was equivalent to the old province of Rouen. Before Rollos arrival, its populations did not differ from Picardy or the Île-de-France, the Norman language was forged by the adoption of the indigenous langue doïl branch of Romance by a Norse-speaking ruling class, and it developed into the regional language that survives today. The Normans thereafter adopted the growing feudal doctrines of the rest of France, the new Norman rulers were culturally and ethnically distinct from the old French aristocracy, most of whom traced their lineage to Franks of the Carolingian dynasty.
Most Norman knights remained poor and land-hungry, and by 1066 Normandy had been exporting fighting horsemen for more than a generation, many Normans of Italy and England eventually served as avid Crusaders under the Italo-Norman prince Bohemund I and the Anglo-Norman king Richard the Lion-Heart. Opportunistic bands of Normans successfully established a foothold in Southern Italy, probably as the result of returning pilgrims stories, the Normans entered Southern Italy as warriors in 1017 at the latest. In 999, according to Amatus of Montecassino, Norman pilgrims returning from Jerusalem called in at the port of Salerno when a Saracen attack occurred. The Normans fought so valiantly that Prince Guaimar III begged them to stay, the Hauteville family achieved princely rank by proclaiming prince Guaimar IV of Salerno Duke of Apulia and Calabria. He promptly awarded their elected leader, William Iron Arm, with the title of count in his capital of Melfi
Normandy is one of the regions of France, roughly corresponding to the historical Duchy of Normandy. Administratively, Normandy is divided into five departments, Eure, Orne and it covers 30,627 km², forming roughly 5% of the territory of France. Its population of 3.37 million accounts for around 5% of the population of France, Normans is the name given to the inhabitants of Normandy, and the region is the homeland of the Norman language. The historical region of Normandy comprised the region of Normandy, as well as small areas now part of the départements, or departments of Mayenne. For a century and a following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Normandy and England were linked by Norman. Archaeological finds, such as paintings, prove that humans were present in the region in prehistoric times. Celts invaded Normandy in successive waves from the 4th to the 3rd century BC, when Julius Caesar invaded Gaul, there were nine different Celtic tribes living in Normandy. The Romanisation of Normandy was achieved by the methods, Roman roads.
Classicists have knowledge of many Gallo-Roman villas in Normandy, in the late 3rd century, barbarian raids devastated Normandy. Coastal settlements were raided by Saxon pirates, Christianity began to enter the area during this period. In 406, Germanic tribes began invading from the east, while the Saxons subjugated the Norman coast, the Roman Emperor withdrew from most of Normandy. As early as 487, the area between the River Somme and the River Loire came under the control of the Frankish lord Clovis, the Vikings started to raid the Seine Valley during the middle of the 9th century. As early as 841, a Viking fleet appeared at the mouth of the Seine, after attacking and destroying monasteries, including one at Jumièges, they took advantage of the power vacuum created by the disintegration of Charlemagnes empire to take northern France. The fiefdom of Normandy was created for the Norwegian Viking leader Hrólfr Ragnvaldsson, Rollo had besieged Paris but in 911 entered vassalage to the king of the West Franks, Charles the Simple, through the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte.
In exchange for his homage and fealty, Rollo legally gained the territory which he, the name Normandy reflects Rollos Viking origins. The descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local Gallo-Romance language and they became the Normans – a Norman-speaking mixture of Saxons and indigenous Franks and Celts. Besides the Norman conquest of England and the subsequent conquests of Wales and Ireland, Norman families, such as that of Tancred of Hauteville, Rainulf Drengot and Guimond de Moulins played important parts in the Norman conquest of southern Italy and Crusades. They carved out a place for themselves and their descendants in the Crusader states of Asia Minor, the 14th century Norman explorer Jean de Béthencourt established a kingdom in the Canary Islands
Poissy is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France. It is located in the suburbs of Paris,23.8 km from the centre of Paris. In 1561 it was the site of a fruitless Catholic-Huguenot conference and it is known for hosting successively the Automobiles Gregoire, Ford SAF, Chrysler, Talbot factories, and now hosts one of Frances largest Peugeot factories. The Simca Poissy engine was made here, Poissy is served by Poissy station on Paris RER line A and on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line. It occupies about 66 acres on the northeast of PSA Peugeot Citroën factory, the Park welcomes 150 companies employing a total of 2,000 employees. It hosts The Charles-de-Gaulle High School and The Training Centre for the Employees in Pharmacy gathering 1,500 high school students and students. Two business incubator, a heliport, the Chamber of Commerce of Yvelines-Val dOise, villa Savoye, considered by many to be the seminal work of the Swiss architect Le Corbusier.
The Noyau de Poissy is a based on macerated or distilled apricot pits. Musée du jouet, shows 800 games and toys dating between 1850 and 1950, La salle Molière, Library Christine de Pizan, Library André-Malraux. La Porteuse de pain, La Demoiselle dAvignon, La Tribu Les Grands Ducs, Le Ciel, les oiseaux et. ta mère. S
William the Conqueror
William I, usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo, he was Duke of Normandy from 1035 onward, after a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England six years later. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands, William was the son of the unmarried Robert I, Duke of Normandy, by Roberts mistress Herleva. His illegitimate status and his youth caused some difficulties for him after he succeeded his father, during his childhood and adolescence, members of the Norman aristocracy battled each other, both for control of the child duke and for their own ends. In 1047 William was able to quash a rebellion and begin to establish his authority over the duchy and his marriage in the 1050s to Matilda of Flanders provided him with a powerful ally in the neighbouring county of Flanders.
By the time of his marriage, William was able to arrange the appointments of his supporters as bishops and his consolidation of power allowed him to expand his horizons, and by 1062 William was able to secure control of the neighbouring county of Maine. In the 1050s and early 1060s William became a contender for the throne of England, held by the childless Edward the Confessor, his first cousin once removed. There were other claimants, including the powerful English earl Harold Godwinson. William argued that Edward had previously promised the throne to him, William built a large fleet and invaded England in September 1066, decisively defeating and killing Harold at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066. After further military efforts William was crowned king on Christmas Day 1066 and he made arrangements for the governance of England in early 1067 before returning to Normandy. Several unsuccessful rebellions followed, but by 1075 Williams hold on England was mostly secure, Williams final years were marked by difficulties in his continental domains, troubles with his eldest son, and threatened invasions of England by the Danes.
In 1086 William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book, a listing all the landholders in England along with their holdings. William died in September 1087 while leading a campaign in northern France and his reign in England was marked by the construction of castles, the settling of a new Norman nobility on the land, and change in the composition of the English clergy. He did not try to integrate his various domains into one empire, Williams lands were divided after his death, Normandy went to his eldest son, Robert Curthose, and his second surviving son, William Rufus, received England. Norsemen first began raiding in what became Normandy in the late 8th century, permanent Scandinavian settlement occurred before 911, when Rollo, one of the Viking leaders, and King Charles the Simple of France reached an agreement surrendering the county of Rouen to Rollo. The lands around Rouen became the core of the duchy of Normandy. Normandy may have used as a base when Scandinavian attacks on England were renewed at the end of the 10th century.
In an effort to improve matters, King Æthelred the Unready took Emma of Normandy, sister of Duke Richard II, as his second wife in 1002
The Orne is a river in Normandy, within northwestern France. It discharges into the English Channel at the port of Ouistreham and its source is in Aunou-sur-Orne, east of Sées. Its main tributaries are the Odon and the Rouvre, the waters of the Orne are typically moderately turbid and brown in colour. PH levels of the Orne have been measured at 8.5 at the town of St. Andre sur Orne where summer water temperatures approximate 18 degrees Celsius, electrical conductivity of the Orne has been measured at 30 micro-Siemens per centimeter. St. Andre sur Orne Canal de Caen à la Mer The Orne at the Sandre database
Duchy of Normandy
The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and Rollo, leader of the Vikings. From 1066 until 1204 it was held by the kings of England, except for the rule of Robert Curthose. Normandy was declared forfeit by Philip II of France in 1202 and it remained disputed territory until the Treaty of Paris of 1259, when the English sovereigns ceded their claim, except for the Channel Islands. The duchy was named for its inhabitants, the Normans, the title of Duke of Normandy was sporadically conferred in the kingdom of France as an honorific but non-feudal title, the last one having been Louis XVII of France from 1785 to 1789. The first Viking attack on the river Seine took place in 820, by 911, the area had been raided many times and there were even small Viking settlements on the lower Seine. The text of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte has not survived and it is only known through the historian Dudo of Saint-Quentin, who was writing a century after the event.
The exact date of the treaty is unknown, but it was likely in the autumn of 911, by the agreement, Charles III, king of the West Franks, granted to the Viking leader Rollo some lands along the lower Seine that were apparently already under Danish control. Whether Rollo himself was a Dane or a Norwegian is not known, for his part, Rollo agreed to defend the territory from other Vikings and that he and his men would convert to Christianity. The territory ceded to Rollo comprised the pagi of the Caux, Évrecin and this was territory formerly known as the county of Rouen, and which would become Upper Normandy. A royal diploma of 918 confirms the donation of 911, using the verb adnuo. There is no evidence that Rollo owed any service or oath to the king for his lands, nor there were any legal means for the king to take them back. Likewise, Rollo does not seem to have created a count or given comital authority. In 924, King Radulf extended Rollos county westward up to the river Vire, including the Bessin, in 933, King Radulf granted the Avranchin and Cotentin to Rollos son and successor, William Longsword.
These areas had been previously under Breton rule, the northern Cotentin had been settled by Norwegians coming from the region of the Irish Sea. There was initially much hostility between these Norwegian settlers and their new Danish overlords and these expansions brought the boundaries of Normandy roughly in line with those of the ecclesiastical province of Rouen. There were two distinct patterns of Norse settlement in the duchy, in the Danish area in the Roumois and the Caux, settlers intermingled with the indigenous Gallo-Romance-speaking population. Rollo shared out the estates with his companions and gave agricultural land to his other followers. Danish settlers cleared their own land to farm it, and there was no segregation of populations, in the northern Cotentin on the other hand, the population was purely Norwegian
Fleury-sur-Orne is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. Fleury-sur-Orne, forms part of outlying Greater Caen, composed of 18 communes and 198,023 inhabitants, until 1916 Fleury-sur-Orne was known as Allemagne after the Alamanni tribe which once guarded the ford across the Orne. During the First World War this name, meaning in French Germany, became inconvenient, little is known about this battle, but it seems to have been a purely cavalry contest, with neither infantry nor archers playing a significant role. After a series of cavalry skirmishes, the rebellious barons fled. They were slaughtered as they tried to cross the Orne, at the Athis fort close to Fleury-sur-Orne, carried downstream en masse, the bodies of the massacred knights blocked the mill of Barbillon on the level of current Ile Enchantée. The victory allowed William to remain Duke of Normandy, thus setting the stage for his brilliant battles, nicole Oresme Communes of the Calvados department INSEE Official site Unofficial site Tourist information