Croatia the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy, its capital, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102.
In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year; the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration. The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a high standard of living.
It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world; the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-; the word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe; the oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ. The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852; the original is lost, just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm; the inscription is not believed to be dated but is to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country; the largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.
The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast and mountains; the city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain an
Nenad Belan is a Croatian rock musician, known as the frontman of Đavoli, as well as for his solo work. Neno Belan started his career as a teenager in Kavijar i Marsovi Bizoni. In 1980 he became a member of the band Narodno Blago which performed rhythm and blues and performed as the supporting band for Split punk rock musician Fon Biškić, with whom they performed covers of The Rolling Stones and The Clash songs. Narodno Blago disbanded in 1983, Belan became the member of the band Aquilla; the band performed Dalmatian folk songs, Belan played mandolin. In 1984 Belan formed the band Đavoli, which performed music inspired by 1950s rock and roll; the band performed until 1991. In 1991 appeared Belan's first solo release, EP Rock galama, recorded with the members of Đavoli. In 1991 Đavoli disbanded due to the outbreak of Yugoslav wars, 1991 Split Festival, where Belan and Anja Šovagić Despot were scheduled to perform the song "Ljubav postoji zbog nas", was canceled. Belan appeared on the Split Festival in 1992 performing song "Zaboravi".
In 1993 he released Vino noći. The album vas recorded with members of Daleka Obala. Vino noći featured hits "Zaboravi", "Sunčan dan", "A gdje si ti?" and "Ljubav postoji zbog nas". The album featured English language versions of "Vino noći" and "Sunčan dan". In 1994 he released EP Mama, the title track was a candidate for the Croatian representative at the 1994 Eurovision Song Contest; the EP featured songs "Beat na moru" and "Ne pitaj za nju". During the 1990s, Belan performed abroad, while in Croatia he appeared at music festivals. In 1995 He released pop-oriented album Dolazi ljubav. On the tour that followed the album release he was followed by the bass guitarist Olja Dešić and the drummer Leo Rumora. In 1997 he released the album Južnjačka utjeha; the album featured a cover of The Vibrators' "Baby Baby" and a cover of Bob Dylan's "Blowin' in the Wind". In 1998 Belan reunited Đavoli when Vedran Križan joined the band as the keyboardist, thus finished the gathering of the group, soon to be known as "Fiumens", but not before they tried to revive old "Đavoli" brand so the band released the album Space Twist.
However, Đavoli disbanded once again, Neno, Olja and Vedran formed the band Neno Belan & Fiumens, they released albums Luna & Stelle in 2002 and Rijeka snova in 2007 as Neno Belan & Fiumens, as well as "Dream factory" in 2009, double CD, live from "Tvornica", for which they got many discography awards in Croatia. Ljubav i moda Hallo Lulu 22 Ostani uz mene Space Twist Balade – Kad se nađem u predjelu noći... The Ultimate Collection – Neno Belan & Đavoli Vino noći Dolazi ljubav Južnjačka utjeha Rock galama Mama Luna & Stelle Rijeka snova EX YU ROCK enciklopedija 1960–2006, Janjatović Petar.
Damir Urban is a popular Croatian musician best known for his work as a singer/songwriter for Laufer and for his solo work with his band 4. Damir Urban was born on 19 September 1968 in Rijeka, Croatia, a town, today well known for its rock scene, where he founded his first band La Bellona as the bassist and main songwriter, it is with this band that he performed live for the first time, although little is left today of La Bellona's music. In 1986 Urban was part of another band as a vocalist, one that defined the Croatian rock scene of the early 1990s. Laufer released their first album, The best of, in 1993 which spawned hits such as "Lopov Jack", "Svijet za nas" and undoubtedly their most popular song, "Moja voda". Urban co-wrote most of the music, their second album, was released in 1994, shortly after which the band disbanded due to differences over the musical vision Laufer was to follow. Laufer's greatest hits album, was released via Croatia Records in 2004. Damir Urban released his first solo album in 1996, entitled Otrovna kiša, to critical and commercial acclaim.
The album produced hits such as "Astronaut". In 1998, he released Žena dijete to greater critical and commercial acclaim, the album spawned a string of number ones: "Mala truba", "Odlučio sam da te volim" and "Black Tattoo" all received extensive airplay, he refused to receive the Porin for the album, as it was nominated for best alternative album and Urban believed his album to be a rock album, therefore, he considered he would be stealing a prize from real alternative artists. After the tremendous success of Žena dijete, Urban was working on a new album entitled Merkur, two singles were released: "Aroma Satanica" and "Moja", whose video was banned from many Croatian television stations due to graphic depictions of homosexual sex. More than six years passed, yet Merkur did not see daylight while Damir Urban wrote music for several plays. In 2004, it was announced that Merkur would be scrapped in favor of another album entitled Retro, released that same year to mixed reviews but to commercial success.
Retro is controversial in that it was a concept album describing the demise of a relationship because of infidelity. In fact, many argue. Most songs describe Damir Urban's newfound love, Milica Czerny who wrote the lyrics to two songs on the album. Urban & 4 released their new album, Hello, on 29 May 2009. Urban was named by the Zoran Milanović government to the Ministry of Culture's Expert Committee for Rock Music and Club Shows for 2016
Reggae is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s. The term denotes the modern popular music of Jamaica and its diaspora. A 1968 single by Toots and the Maytals, "Do the Reggay" was the first popular song to use the word "reggae," naming the genre and introducing it to a global audience. While sometimes used in a broad sense to refer to most types of popular Jamaican dance music, the term reggae more properly denotes a particular music style, influenced by traditional mento as well as American jazz and rhythm and blues the New Orleans R&B practiced by Fats Domino and Allen Toussaint, evolved out of the earlier genres ska and rocksteady. Reggae relates news, social gossip, political comment. Reggae spread into a commercialized jazz field, being known first as ‘Rudie Blues’ ‘Ska’ ‘Blue Beat’, ‘Rock Steady’, it is recognizable from the counterpoint between the bass and drum downbeat, the offbeat rhythm section. The immediate origins of reggae were in rocksteady. Reggae is linked to the Rastafari, an Afrocentric religion which developed in Jamaica in the 1930's, aiming at promoting Pan Africanism.
Soon after the Rastafarian movement appeared, the international popularity of reggae music became associated with and increased the visibility of Rastafarianism spreading the Rastafari gospel throughout the world. Reggae music is an important means of transporting vital messages of Rastafarianism; the musician becomes the messenger, as Rastafarians see it,"the soldier and the musician are tools for change."Stylistically, reggae incorporates some of the musical elements of rhythm and blues, mento and draws influence from traditional African folk rhythms. One of the most recognizable elements is offbeat rhythms; the tempo of reggae is slower paced than ska but faster than rocksteady. The concept of call and response can be found throughout reggae music; the genre of reggae music is led by the bass. Some key players in this sound are Jackie Jackson from Toots and the Maytals, Carlton Barrett from Bob Marley and the Wailers, Lloyd Brevett from The Skatalites, Paul Douglas from Toots and the Maytals, Lloyd Knibb from The Skatalites, Winston Grennan, Sly Dunbar, Anthony "Benbow" Creary from The Upsetters.
The bass guitar plays the dominant role in reggae. The bass sound in reggae is thick and heavy, equalized so the upper frequencies are removed and the lower frequencies emphasized; the guitar in reggae plays on the off beat of the rhythm. It is common for reggae to be sung in Jamaican Patois, Jamaican English, Iyaric dialects. Reggae is noted for its tradition of social criticism and religion in its lyrics, although many reggae songs discuss lighter, more personal subjects, such as love and socializing. Reggae has spread to many countries across the world incorporating local instruments and fusing with other genres. Reggae en Español spread from the Spanish speaking Central American country of Panama to the mainland South American countries of Venezuela and Guyana to the rest of South America. Caribbean music in the United Kingdom, including reggae, has been popular since the late 1960s, has evolved into several subgenres and fusions. Many reggae artists began their careers in the UK, there have been a number of European artists and bands drawing their inspiration directly from Jamaica and the Caribbean community in Europe.
Reggae in Africa was boosted by the visit of Bob Marley to Zimbabwe in 1980. In Jamaica, authentic reggae is one of the biggest sources of income; the 1967 edition of the Dictionary of Jamaican English lists reggae as "a estab. Sp. for rege", as in rege-rege, a word that can mean either "rags, ragged clothing" or "a quarrel, a row". Reggae as a musical term first appeared in print with the 1968 rocksteady hit "Do the Reggay" by The Maytals which named the genre of Reggae for the world. Reggae historian Steve Barrow credits Clancy Eccles with altering the Jamaican patois word streggae into reggae. However, Toots Hibbert said: There's a word we used to use in Jamaica called'streggae'. If a girl is walking and the guys look at her and say'Man, she's streggae' it means she don't dress well, she look raggedy; the girls would say that about the men too. This one morning me and my two friends were playing and I said,'OK man, let's do the reggay.' It was just something. So we just start. People tell me that we had given the sound its name.
Before that people had called it blue-beat and all kind of other things. Now it's in the Guinness World of Records. Bob Marley is said to have claimed that the word reggae came from a Spanish term for "the king's music"; the liner notes of To the King, a compilation of Christian gospel reggae, suggest that the word reggae was derived from the Latin regi meaning "to the king". Although influenced by traditional mento and calypso music, as well as American jazz and rhythm and blues, reggae owes its direct origins to the ska and rocksteady of 1960s Jamaica; the generic title for Jamaican music recorded between 1961 and 1967, ska emerged from Jamaican R&B, based on American R&B and doo-wop. Rastafari entered some countries through reggae music; the Rastafari moveme
Zlatan Stipišić Gibonni
Zlatan Stipišić Gibonni is a Croatian singer-songwriter and composer from Split. He is one of the most successful and awarded recording artists from Croatia, receiving record-high 40 Porin music awards for his albums and songs. Born in a family with a strong musical tradition, Zlatan Stipišić, who embraced the nickname Gibonni, began his career in the 1980s with the heavy metal band Osmi putnik. After the group disbanded, Stipišić joined Divlje jagode, recording few demo tapes before disbanding, it was the lead guitarist of Jagode, who gave Stipišić the nickname Gibonni. Gibonni started his solo career in the 1990s with songs that combined elements of rock, modern pop and Dalmatian folk songs, he soon created a huge following among Croatian youth. Gibonni's popularity continued to grow beyond Croatia and he is one of the most popular and influential musicians in the territories of former Yugoslavia. Gibonni wrote the song "Cesarica" for Oliver Dragojević, which became one of Oliver's signature hit songs and one of the most popular and well known songs in Croatia.
In 2003 Zlatan Stipišić was appointed a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador. He is involved in many humanitarian organizations fighting hunger and poverty. Gibonni released his long-awaited and critically appraised album Unca fibre in May 2006 after a five-year period following his award-winning album Mirakul. In 2010 he released the album Toleranca, in 2013, he released 20th Century Man, sung in English; this album was used as a fundraiser for SOS children's village. In 2016, Gibonni released the Album Familija, made in collaboration with Oliver Dragojević, featuring 10 tracks. Soon afterward, Gibonni released his Best of Collection consisting of his most popular songs, including some from his early 90s career. 1991 Sa mnom ili bez mene, Croatia Records 1993 Noina arka, Croatia Records 1994 Kruna od perja, Croatia Records 1995 Koncert, Croatia Records 1997 Ruža vjetrova, Croatia Records 1999 Judi, zviri i beštimje Dallas Records 1999 24 karata / 18 Velikih, Croatia Records 2000 HTisdn Millennium Koncert, Dallas Records 2001 Mirakul, Dallas Records 2003 Svi moji punti kad se zbroje, Dallas Records 2004 ZG Mirakul live, Dallas Records 2006 Unca fibre, Dallas Records 2006 The platinum collection, Croatia Records 2007 Acoustic:Electric, Dallas Records 2008 Acoustic:Electric special Christmas limited edition, Dallas Records 2010 Toleranca, Dallas Records 2013 20th Century Man, Dallas Records 2016 Familija, Aquarius Records 2016 Best of Collection, Croatia Records Croatian music Zdenko Runjić Oliver Dragojević Zadarfest Dalmatia Gibonni Compositions of Gibonni Gibonnijevi Brodolomci Fan club Gibonni
Gabi Novak is a Croatian pop and jazz singer. She became famous in the 1960s. Gabi was born to a Croatian father Đuro Novak of Hvar origin and a German mother Elizabeth of Berlin origin, she spent her childhood in birth town Berlin, but she moved to Yugoslavia, her father Đuro was killed in 1945. She was married to Stipica Kalogjera, a Croatian composer, but in 1970 they were divorced, in 1973 she was married to Arsen Dedić, a renowned singer-songwriter who composed many of her songs, she has a child, from a relationship with Arsen Dedić, a son Matija, a famous Croatian pianist. Gabi Novak is the winner of several Porin awards: Best Jazz Performance Album of the Year Best Female Vocal Performance Best Pop Album Best Vocal Collaboration Lifetime Achievement Award Biography Gabi Novak
Hip hop music
Hip hop music called hip-hop or rap music, is a music genre developed in the United States by inner-city African Americans in the late 1970s which consists of a stylized rhythmic music that accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech, chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching with turntables, break dancing, graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, rhythmic beatboxing. While used to refer to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture; the term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music. Hip hop as both a musical genre and a culture was formed during the 1970s when block parties became popular in New York City among African-American youth residing in the Bronx; however hip-hop music did not get recorded for the radio or television to play until 1979 due to poverty during hip-hop's birth and lack of acceptance outside ghetto neighborhoods.
At block parties DJs played percussive breaks of popular songs using two turntables and a DJ mixer to be able to play breaks from two copies of the same record, alternating from one to the other and extending the "break". Hip hop's early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became available and affordable. Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, a chanting vocal style, was used over the beats. Rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat. Notable artists at this time include DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five, Fab Five Freddy, Marley Marl, Afrika Bambaataa, Kool Moe Dee, Kurtis Blow, Doug E. Fresh, Warp 9, The Fat Boys, Spoonie Gee; the Sugarhill Gang's 1979 song "Rapper's Delight" is regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain widespread popularity in the mainstream. The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop.
Prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was confined within the United States. However, during the 1980s, it began to spread to music scenes in dozens of countries, many of which mixed hip hop with local styles to create new subgenres. New school hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D. M. C. and LL Cool J. The Golden age hip hop period was an innovative period between the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the Juice Crew, Public Enemy, Eric B. & Rakim, Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One, EPMD, Slick Rick, Beastie Boys, Kool G Rap, Big Daddy Kane, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that focuses on the violent lifestyles and impoverished conditions of inner-city African-American youth. Schoolly D, N. W. A, Ice-T, Ice Cube, the Geto Boys are key founding artists, known for mixing the political and social commentary of political rap with the criminal elements and crime stories found in gangsta rap.
In the West Coast hip hop style, G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the 1990s with artists such as Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg. East Coast hip hop in the early to mid 1990s was dominated by the Afrocentric jazz rap and alternative hip hop of the Native Tongues posse as well as the hardcore rap of artists such as Mobb Deep, Wu-Tang Clan, Onyx. East Coast hip hop had gangsta rap musicians such as Kool G Rap and the Notorious B. I. G.. In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap and Atlanta hip hop. At the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being neo soul and nu metal. Hip hop became a best-selling genre in the mid-1990s and the top selling music genre by 1999; the popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s, with hip hop influences increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop. The United States saw the success of regional styles such as crunk, a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics.
Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to wane. During the mid-2000s, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West. During the late 2000s and early 2010s, rappers such as Lil Wayne, Soulja Boy, B.o. B were the most popular rappers. During the 2010s, rappers such as Drake, Nicki Minaj, J. Cole, Kendrick Lamar all have been popular. Trap, a subgenre of hip hop has been popular during the 2010s with hip hop artists and hip hop music groups such as Migos, Travis Scott, Kodak Black; the creation of the term hip hop is credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap, it is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U. S. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of soldiers marching.
Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stage performance, used by other artists such as The Sugarhi