The Beatles in Hamburg
The original lineup of the Beatles, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, Stuart Sutcliffe and Pete Best performed at different clubs in Hamburg, West Germany, during the period from August 1960 to December 1962. The Beatles' booking agent, Allan Williams, decided to send the group to Hamburg when another group he managed and the Seniors, proved successful there. Having no permanent drummer at the time, they recruited Best a few days before their departure. After breaking their contract by playing at another club, Harrison was deported for being underaged, McCartney and Best were arrested and deported for attempted arson; the Beatles first met Astrid Kirchherr in Hamburg, instrumental in their adoption of the famous Beatle haircut. During their time in Hamburg, Sutcliffe decided to leave the group to continue his studies. In April 1962, less than a year after leaving the group, he suffered a brain hemorrhage and died as a result. Hamburg had once been Germany's main seaport, the fourth largest in the world, but in 1943 the entire city had been reduced to rubble by World War II bombing raids.
By 1960, when they arrived, the Hamburg that had grown up from the ruins of WWII had established a reputation throughout Europe as a city of vice and criminal activity. In contrast to an economically depressed post-war Liverpool, Hamburg was a wealthy city. Williams, a 29-year-old Liverpool businessman and promoter, had sent his leading group and the Seniors to Hamburg, where they were enjoying success, wanted to send an additional group, he tried to send Rory Storm and the Hurricanes, but Storm and his group were committed to a Butlins holiday camp and turned Williams' offer down, as did Gerry and the Pacemakers. Williams started promoting concerts for The Beatles in May 1960, after they had played at his Jacaranda club in Liverpool, offered The Beatles the Hamburg bookings, he booked them into Bruno Koschmider's Indra club in Hamburg for a season of bookings starting on 12 August 1960, but said that he was not impressed with them as a musical group, hoped to find a better act to follow them.
As they had no permanent drummer, McCartney looked for someone to fill the position, difficult, as Lennon said that drummers were "few and far between", because a set of drums was an expensive item. Harrison had seen Best playing with the Black Jacks in The Casbah Coffee Club, he was regarded as a steady drummer, playing the bass drum on all four beats in the bar, which pushed the rhythm, was known in Liverpool at the time as being "mean and magnificent" by female fans, which convinced McCartney he would be good for the group. After the Black Jacks broke up, McCartney asked Best to go to Hamburg, telling him they would earn £15 per week each. Best had the chance to go to a teacher-training college, as he had passed his school exams, unlike Lennon, McCartney and Harrison, who had failed most of theirs, but decided that playing in Hamburg would be a better career move; the St. Pauli quarter of Hamburg, where the Indra club was located, was well known as an area where prostitutes were to be found, was a dangerous place for anyone that looked different from the usual clientele.
McCartney's father, Jim McCartney, was reluctant to let his teenage son go to Hamburg, but relented after a visit from Williams, who told him that he "shouldn't worry". Lennon's aunt, Mimi Smith, was reluctant to allow Lennon to go to Hamburg, wanting Lennon to continue his studies, but Lennon placated her by exaggerating the amount he would earn. Best had an audition in Williams' Jacaranda club on 15 August 1960, travelled to Hamburg the next day as a member of the group. Williams admitted that the audition with Best was not needed, as they had not found any other drummer willing to travel to Hamburg, but did not tell Best in case he asked for more money; the group were to be paid about £100 per week, much more than promoters in Liverpool paid. Williams drove the group and their equipment in his Austin J4 minibus, loaded by crane onto a ferry at Harwich on 16 August 1960, landed at Hook of Holland. All five Beatles and his wife Beryl, her brother Barry Chang, "Lord Woodbine" were in the minivan, along with Georg Sterner, making a total of ten people, which resulted in a journey, both uncomfortable and dangerous.
As Williams had not obtained German work permits, they were detained at Harwich for five hours. Williams convinced the authorities that they were students on holiday, although work permits were obtained after their arrival in Hamburg. Note: "Lord Woodbine" and Williams ran a strip club called New Cabaret Artistes club at 174A Upper Parliament Street in Liverpool. Lennon, McCartney and Sutcliffe once played backing music for "Janice the Stripper" there, in July 1960. In the early 1960s, the Hamburg scene revolved around the Kaiserkeller, Top Ten, Star-Club, Beer-Shop, Holle and the Pacific Hotel, as well as the less popular clubs like Grannies, the Ice Cream Shop and Sacha's; the Reeperbahn and the Grosse Freiheit were decorated with neon lights, with posters advertising the performers in the clubs. Each club had a doorman. Customers who would not, or could not afford to pay were dealt with by being beaten and thrown out; the Beatles arrived early in the mor
The Quarrymen were a British skiffle/rock and roll group, formed by John Lennon in Liverpool in 1956, which evolved into the Beatles in 1960. Consisting of Lennon and several schoolfriends, the Quarrymen took their name from a line in the school song of Quarry Bank High School, which they attended. Lennon's mother, Julia Lennon, taught her son to play the banjo and showed Lennon and Eric Griffiths how to tune their guitars in a similar way to the banjo, taught them simple chords and songs. Lennon started a skiffle group, briefly called the Blackjacks, but changed the name before any public performances; some accounts credit Lennon with choosing the new name. The Quarrymen played at parties, school dances and amateur skiffle contests before Paul McCartney joined the band in October 1957. George Harrison joined the band in early 1958 at McCartney's recommendation, though Lennon resisted because he felt Harrison to be too young. Both McCartney and Harrison attended the Liverpool Institute; the group made an amateur recording of themselves in 1958, performing Buddy Holly's "That'll Be the Day" and "In Spite of All the Danger", a song written by McCartney and Harrison.
The group moved away from skiffle and towards rock and roll, causing several of the original members to leave. This left only a trio of Lennon, McCartney, Harrison, who performed under several other names, including Johnny and the Moondogs and Japage 3 before returning to the Quarrymen name in 1959. In 1960, the group changed its name to the Beatles, went on to have a successful musical career. In 1997 the four surviving original members of the Quarrymen reunited to perform at the 40th anniversary celebrations of the garden fete performance at which Lennon and McCartney met for the first time; the band decided to continue playing, since 1998 have performed in many countries throughout the world, releasing four albums. Three original members are still performing as the Quarrymen. In the mid-1950s, there was a revival in the United Kingdom of the musical form "skiffle" that had originated in the United States and had been popular in the US in the 1920s,'30s and'40s. In addition to its popularity among British teenagers as music to listen to, it spawned a craze of teenage boys starting their own groups to perform the music.
One of the primary attractions was that it did not require great musical skills or expensive instruments to be played. Early British skiffle was played by traditional jazz musicians, with the most successful British proponent of the genre in the 1950s being Lonnie Donegan; the Quarrymen's initial repertoire included several songs. When Lennon wanted to try making music himself, he and fellow Quarry Bank school friend, took guitar lessons in Hunt's Cross, although Lennon gave up the lessons soon after, as they were based on theory and not actual playing; as Griffiths knew how to play the banjo, Lennon's mother showed them how to tune the top four strings of their guitars to the same notes as a banjo, taught them the chords of D, C, D7, as well as the Fats Domino song, "Ain't That a Shame". They practised at Lennon's aunt's house at 251 Menlove Avenue where Lennon lived, or at Griffiths' house in Halewood Drive, they learned how to play "Rock Island Line", "Jump Down Turn Around", "Alabamy Bound" and "Cumberland Gap", learned how to play "That's All Right" and "Mean Woman Blues".
Lennon and Griffiths decided to form a skiffle group in November 1956. This initial line-up consisted of Lennon and Griffiths on guitars, Pete Shotton on washboard, school friend Bill Smith on tea chest bass; the group called the Blackjacks changed their name to the Quarrymen. Both Lennon and Shotton have been credited with coining the name Quarrymen after a line in their school's song:'Quarrymen, old before our birth. Straining each muscle and sinew.' The choice of name was tongue-in-cheek as Lennon regarded the reference in the school song to "straining each muscle and sinew" as risible. Smith's tenure in the band was short, was replaced in quick succession by Nigel Walley, Ivan Vaughan, Len Garry throughout late 1956 and early 1957. During this period, drummer Colin Hanton and banjo player Rod Davis joined the group; this group of Lennon, Shotton, Garry and Davis formed the first stable line-up of the group. The group first rehearsed in Shotton's house on Vale Road, but because of the noise, his mother told them to use the corrugated air-raid shelter in the back garden.
Rehearsals were moved from the cold air-raid shelter to Hanton's or Griffiths' house — as Griffiths' father had died in WWII, his mother worked all day. The band often visited Lennon's mother at 1 Blomfield Road, listening to her collection of rock and roll records by Elvis and Lee's "Let the Good Times Roll", Gene Vincent's "Be-Bop-A-Lula" which they added to their repertoire. After his tenure on tea-chest bass, Walley became the group's manager, he sent flyers to local theatres and ballrooms, put up posters designed by Lennon: ‘Country-and-western, rock n' roll, skiffle band — The Quarrymen — Open for Engagements — Please Call Nigel Walley, Tel. Gateacre 1715’. Walley managed to secure the group several paid engagements throughout the spring of 1957, including one at The Cavern Club A jazz club at the time, the Cavern tolerated skiffle as it was considered an offshoot of jazz. Lennon, began leading the band in several rock and roll numbers, prompting the club's manager to send up a note orderin
The Bag O'Nails
The Bag O'Nails was a live music club and meeting place for musicians in the 1960s and situated at 9 Kingly Street, London, England. Bands and other musicians who played and socialised there included Georgie Fame, Jimi Hendrix, Bobby Tench, The Gass and Eric Burdon; the venue hosted an early gig by the Jimi Hendrix Experience and others frequented the venue including Tom Jones, The Who and The Animals. After the Beatles' recording sessions in London, their roadie Mal Evans, personal assistant Neil Aspinall and Paul McCartney would eat at The Bag O'Nails and it was one of their favourite venues. McCartney met his future wife Linda Eastman at the club on 15 May 1967. Another event is recorded in Mal Evans' memoirs: "January 19 and 20: I ended up drunk in The Bag O'Nails with McCartney and Aspinall". In 1967, Rik Gunnell took over the management of the artist roster at the club after the Flamingo Club in Wardour Street, where he had managed club evenings, closed; the Bag O'Nails re-opened as a private members' club in March 2013.
The club closed in October 2018 and is due to open as a new members' club called The Court in February 2019. Membership will start from £ 600 per year. Miles, Barry. Many Years From Now. Vintage-Random House. ISBN 0-7493-8658-4. Spitz, Bob; the Beatles: The Biography. Little and Company. ISBN 1-84513-160-6. Roby, Steven. Becoming Jimi Hendrix: From Southern Crossroads to Psychedelic London, The Untold Story of A Musical Genius. Da Capo Press. P. 178. ISBN 978-0-306-81910-0
EMI Group Limited was a British Transnational conglomerate founded in March 1931 in London. At the time of its break-up in 2012, it was the fourth largest business group and record label conglomerate in the music industry, was one of the big four record companies; the company was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, but faced financial troubles and US$4 billion in debt, leading to its acquisition by Citigroup in February 2011. Citigroup's ownership was temporary, as EMI announced in November 2011 that it would sell its music arm to Vivendi's Universal Music Group for $1.9 billion and its publishing business to a Sony/ATV consortium for around $2.2 billion. Other members of the Sony consortium include the Estate of Michael Jackson, The Blackstone Group, the Abu Dhabi–owned Mubadala Development Company. EMI's locations in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada were all disassembled to repay debt, but the primary head office located outside those countries is still functional, it is owned by Sony/ATV Music Publishing, the music publishing division of Sony Music which bought another 70% stake in EMI Music Publishing.
Electric and Musical Industries Ltd was formed in March 1931 by the merger of the Columbia Graphophone Company and the Gramophone Company, with its "His Master's Voice" record label, firms that have a history extending back to the origins of recorded sound. The new vertically integrated company produced sound recordings as well as recording and playback equipment; the company's gramophone manufacturing led to forty years of success with larger-scale electronics and electrical engineering. In 1934, the company developed the electronic Marconi-EMI system for television broadcasting, which replaced Baird's electro-mechanical system following its introduction in 1936. After the war, the company resumed its involvement in making broadcasting equipment, notably providing the BBC's second television transmitter at Sutton Coldfield, it manufactured broadcast television cameras for British television production companies as well as for the BBC. The commercial television ITV companies used them alongside cameras made by Pye and Marconi.
Their best-remembered piece of broadcast television equipment was the EMI 2001 colour television camera, which became the mainstay of much of the British television industry from the end of the 1960s until the early 1990s. Exports of this piece of equipment were low, EMI left this area of product manufacture. Alan Blumlein, an engineer employed by EMI, conducted a great deal of pioneering research into stereo sound recording many years prior to the practical implementation of the technique in the early 1950s, he was killed in 1942 whilst conducting flight trials on an experimental H2S radar set. During and after World War II, the EMI Laboratories in Hayes, Hillingdon developed radar equipment, microwave devices such as the reflex klystron oscillator, electro-optic devices such as infra-red image converters, guided missiles employing analogue computers; the company was for many years an internationally respected manufacturer of photomultipliers. This part of the business was transferred to Thorn as part of Thorn-EMI later became the independent concern Electron Tubes Ltd.
The EMI Electronic Business Machine, a valve and magnetic drum memory computer, was built in the 1950s to process the British Motor Corporation payroll. In 1958 the EMIDEC 1100, the UK's first commercially available all-transistor computer, was developed at Hayes under the leadership of Godfrey Hounsfield, an electrical engineer at EMI. In the early 1970s, with financial support by the UK Department of Health and Social Security as well as EMI research investment, Hounsfield developed the first CT scanner, a device which revolutionised medical imaging. In 1973 EMI was awarded a prestigious Queen's Award for Technological Innovation for what was called the EMI scanner, in 1979 Hounsfield won the Nobel Prize for his accomplishment. After brief, but brilliant, success in the medical imaging field, EMI's manufacturing activities were sold off to other companies, notably Thorn. Subsequently and manufacturing activities were sold off to other companies and work moved to other towns such as Crawley and Wells.
Emihus Electronics, based in Glenrothes, was owned 51% by Hughes Aircraft, of California, US, 49% by EMI. It manufactured integrated circuits electrolytic capacitors and, for a short period in the mid-1970s, hand-held calculators under the Gemini name. Early in its life, the Gramophone Company established subsidiary operations in a number of other countries in the British Commonwealth, including India and New Zealand. Gramophone's Australian and New Zealand subsidiaries dominated the popular music industries in those countries from the 1920s until the 1960s, when other locally owned labels began to challenge the near monopoly of EMI. Over 150,000 78-rpm recordings from around the world are held in EMI's temperature-controlled archive in Hayes, some of which have been released on CD since 2008 by Honest Jon's Records. In 1931, the year the company was formed, it opened the legendary recording studios at Abbey Road, London. During the 1930s and 1940s, its roster of artists included Arturo
Abbey Road, London
Abbey Road is a thoroughfare in the borough of Camden and the City of Westminster in London, running northwest to southeast through St. John's Wood, near Lord's Cricket Ground, it is part of the B507 road. This road is best known for the 1969 album, Abbey Road, by the Beatles; the north-western end of Abbey Road begins in Kilburn, at the junction with Quex Road and West End Lane. The road was once a track leading to Kilburn Priory and its associated Abbey Farm, was developed in the early 19th century, it continues south-east for a mile, crossing Belsize Road, Boundary Road, Marlborough Place, ending at the junction of Grove End Road and Garden Road. The Abbey National Building Society was founded in 1874 as The Abbey Road & St John's Wood Permanent Benefit Building Society in a Baptist church on Abbey Road. EMI's Abbey Road Studios are located at 3 Abbey Road, St John's Wood; the Beatles and many other famous popular music performers have recorded at this studio, the Beatles named their last studio LP after this street.
The album's cover photograph shows the four group members walking across the zebra crossing just outside the studio entrance. As a result of its association with the Beatles, since 1969, this part of Abbey Road has been featured on the London tourism circuit. In December 2010, the crossing was given Grade II Listed Building status by English Heritage; the zebra crossing featured on the Beatles cover, as well as the crossing directly north of it, have become popular photo-opportunity areas, despite the road still being a busy thoroughfare for traffic. The Beatles album cover has been parodied many times over the years on the crossing; the street sign on the corner of Grove End Road and Abbey Road is now mounted high on the building on the corner, to save the local council the expense of cleaning and replacing the sign, defaced or stolen. The council repaints the wall next to the zebra crossing every three months to cover fans' graffiti. Abbey Road is a ward of the City of Westminster. At the 2011 Census this ward had a population of 11,250.
Route map: Abbey Road London, QuickTime VR Abbey Road webcam Satellite View of Crosswalk / Zebra crossing Google Street View of Crosswalk / Zebra crossing
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The line-up of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr led the band to be regarded as the foremost and most influential in history. With a sound rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the group were integral to the evolution of pop music into an art form, to the development of the counterculture of the 1960s, they incorporated elements of classical music, older pop forms, unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways, in years experimented with a number of musical styles ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock. As they continued to draw influences from a variety of cultural sources, their musical and lyrical sophistication grew, they came to be seen as embodying the era's sociocultural movements. Led by primary songwriters Lennon and McCartney, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960 with Stuart Sutcliffe playing bass.
The core trio of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison, together since 1958, went through a succession of drummers, including Pete Best, before asking Starr to join them in 1962. Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act, producer George Martin guided and developed their recordings expanding their domestic success after their first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962; as their popularity grew into the intense fan frenzy dubbed "Beatlemania", the band acquired the nickname "the Fab Four", with Epstein and other members of the band's entourage sometimes given the informal title of "fifth Beatle". By early 1964, the Beatles were international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market, breaking numerous sales records, they soon made their motion-picture debut with A Hard Day's Night. From 1965 onwards, they produced innovative recordings, including the albums Rubber Soul, Sgt. Pepper's The Beatles and Abbey Road. In 1968, they founded Apple Corps, a multi-armed multimedia corporation that continues to oversee projects related to the band's legacy.
After the group's break-up in 1970, all four members enjoyed success as solo artists. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980. McCartney and Starr remain musically active; the Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with estimated sales of over 800 million records worldwide. They are the best-selling music artists in the US, with certified sales of over 178 million units, have had more number-one albums on the British charts, have sold more singles in the UK, than any other act; the group were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, all four main members were inducted individually between 1994 and 2015. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most successful artists; the band have received an Academy Award and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards. They were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. In March 1957, John Lennon aged sixteen, formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool.
They called themselves the Blackjacks, before changing their name to the Quarrymen after discovering that a respected local group was using the other name. Fifteen-year-old Paul McCartney joined them as a rhythm guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July. In February 1958, McCartney invited his friend George Harrison to watch the band; the fifteen-year-old auditioned for Lennon, impressing him with his playing, but Lennon thought Harrison was too young for the band. After a month of Harrison's persistence, during a second meeting, he performed the lead guitar part of the instrumental song "Raunchy" on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus, they enlisted him as their lead guitarist. By January 1959, Lennon's Quarry Bank friends had left the group, he began his studies at the Liverpool College of Art; the three guitarists, billing themselves at least three times as Johnny and the Moondogs, were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer. Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe, who had just sold one of his paintings and was persuaded to purchase a bass guitar, joined in January 1960, it was he who suggested changing the band's name to Beatals, as a tribute to Buddy Holly and the Crickets.
They used this name until May, when they became the Silver Beetles, before undertaking a brief tour of Scotland as the backing group for pop singer and fellow Liverpudlian Johnny Gentle. By early July, they had refashioned themselves as the Silver Beatles, by the middle of August shortened the name to The Beatles. Allan Williams, the Beatles' unofficial manager, arranged a residency for them in Hamburg, but lacking a full-time drummer they auditioned and hired Pete Best in mid-August 1960; the band, now a five-piece, left four days contracted to club owner Bruno Koschmider for what would be a 31⁄2-month residency. Beatles historian Mark Lewisohn writes: "They pulled into Hamburg at dusk on 17 August, the time when the red-light area comes to life... flashing neon lights screamed out the various entertainment on offer, while scantily clad women sat unabashed in shop windows waiting for business opportunities." Koschmider had converted a couple of strip clubs in the district into music venues, he placed the Beatles at the Indra Club.
Beatlemania was the intense fan frenzy directed towards the English rock band the Beatles in the 1960s. Their popularity started growing in the United Kingdom in late 1963. By the next year, their worldwide tours were characterised by intense levels of hysteria and high-pitched screaming by female fans, both at concerts and during the band's travels. In February 1964, the Beatles arrived in the US, their televised performances on The Ed Sullivan Show were viewed by 73 million people. In addition to establishing the Beatles' international stature, their arrival changed attitudes to popular music in the US, whose own Memphis-driven musical evolution had made it a global trend-setter. From 1964 to 1970, the Beatles had the top-selling US single one out of every six weeks, the top-selling US album one out of every three weeks. In 1966, the frenzy became so much that they became a studio-only band; the use of the word "mania" to describe fandom predates the Beatles by more than 100 years. It has continued to be used to describe the popularity of musical acts, as well as popularity of public figures and trends outside the music industry.
In February 1964, Paul Johnson wrote in The New Statesman—in an article that the magazine now describes as its "most complained-about piece"—that the mania was a modern incarnation of female hysteria and that the wild fans at the Beatles' concerts were "the least fortunate of their generation, the dull, the idle, the failures." A 1966 study published in the British Journal of Clinical Psychology rejected this assertion. The researchers found that Beatles fans were not likelier to score higher on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory's hysteria scale, nor were they unusually neurotic. Instead, they described Beatlemania as "the passing reaction of predominantly young adolescent females to group pressures of such a kind that meet their special emotional needs."Beginning in 1841, fans of Hungarian pianist and composer Franz Liszt showed a level of fanaticism similar to that of the Beatles. Poet Heinrich Heine coined the word "Lisztomania" to describe this. At the time, the word was used to indicate that the fan behaviour was a genuine mental illness—an implication, not part of the Beatlemania.
Like the Beatlemania, there was no agreement on why Liszt had such a fanatical fan base. One factor in the intensity of Beatlemania may have been the Post–World War II baby boom, which gave the Beatles a larger audience of young fans than Frank Sinatra and Elvis Presley had a decade earlier; some commentators have argued that the Beatles' famous moptop haircuts signaled androgyny and thus presented a less threatening version of male sexuality to teenage girls, while their presentable suits meant they seemed less "sleazy" than Elvis to middle-class whites. With the success of their second single, "Please Please Me", the Beatles found themselves in demand for the whole of 1963. In the UK, the song reached number 2 on the Record Retailer chart, topped both the NME and Melody Maker charts; the band released their first album titled Please Please Me, in March 1963. They appeared on ABC TV's Thank Your Lucky Stars show on 11 January and recorded for the BBCs Here We Go on 16 January and the BBC's Saturday Club and Talent Spot on 22 January.
As well as completing four nationwide tours in 1963, they performed at a great many one-off shows across the UK throughout the year finishing one show only to travel straight to the next show in another location—sometimes to perform again the same day. The music papers were full of stories about the Beatles, magazines for teenage girls contained interviews with the band members, colour posters and other Beatle-related articles. Lennon's August 1962 marriage to Cynthia Powell was kept from public view as a guarded secret. On 2 February 1963, the Beatles opened their first nationwide tour at a show in Bradford, featuring Helen Shapiro, Danny Williams, Kenny Lynch and the Red Price Orchestra. Heading the tour bill was the 16-year-old Shapiro, followed by the other five acts, the last of, the Beatles; the band proved immensely popular during the tour, as Gordon Sampson, a journalist with the tour, observed. His report did not include the word "Beatlemania", but the phenomenon was evident, with Sampson writing that "a great reception went to the colourfully dressed Beatles, who stole the show, for the audience called for them while other artists were performing!"
For the Beatles' second nationwide tour, which began on 9 March at the Granada Cinema in London, the group appeared on a bill headed by the American stars Tommy Roe and Chris Montez. Both US artists had firmly established themselves in the UK singles charts. Throughout the tour, the crowds screamed for the Beatles, for the first time in UK history, the American stars were less popular than a homegrown act. While enjoying the overwhelming display of enthusiasm, the Beatles felt embarrassment for the American performers at this unexpected turn of events, which persisted at every show from the first day to the last; the Beatles began their third nationwide tour on 18 May, the bill this time headed by Roy Orbison. Orbison had established greater UK chart success than either Montez or Roe, with eight previous chart entries of his own—four of them entering the top 10. However, at the tour's opening show, staged at the Adelphi Cinema, the American star proved less popular than The Beatles, just as had happened with Roe and Montez throughout the previous nationwide tour.
As events unfolded it became obvious this was not going to change, a week into the tour the covers of the souvenir programs were reprinted to place The