Isaac Lee Hayes Jr. was an American singer-songwriter, voice actor and producer. Hayes was one of the creative forces behind the Southern soul music label Stax Records, where he served both as an in-house songwriter and as a session musician and record producer, teaming with his partner David Porter during the mid-1960s. Hayes and Porter, along with Bill Withers, the Sherman Brothers, Steve Cropper, John Fogerty were inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2005 in recognition of writing scores of songs for themselves, the duo Sam & Dave, Carla Thomas, others. In 2002, Hayes was inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame; the song "Soul Man", written by Hayes and Porter and first performed by Sam & Dave, has been recognized as one of the most influential songs of the past 50 years by the Grammy Hall of Fame. It was honored by The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, by Rolling Stone magazine, by the Recording Industry Association of America as one of the Songs of the Century. During the late 1960s, Hayes began a career as a recording artist.
He had several successful soul albums such as Black Moses. In addition to his work in popular music, he worked as a composer of musical scores for motion pictures, he was well known for his musical score for the film Shaft. For the "Theme from Shaft", he was awarded the Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1972, he became the third African-American, after Sidney Poitier and Hattie McDaniel, to win an Academy Award in any competitive field covered by Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. He won two Grammy Awards for that same year, he was given his third Grammy for his music album Black Moses. In 1992 Hayes was crowned honorary king of the Ada region of Ghana in recognition of his humanitarian work there, he acted in motion pictures and television, such as in the movies Truck Turner and I'm Gonna Git You Sucka, as Gandolf "Gandy" Fitch in the TV series The Rockford Files. He voiced the character Chef from the animated Comedy Central series South Park from its debut in 1997 until 2005, his influences were Percy Mayfield, Big Joe Turner, James Brown, Jerry Butler, Sam Cooke, Fats Domino, Marvin Gaye, Otis Redding, psychedelic soul groups like The Chambers Brothers and Sly and the Family Stone.
On August 5, 2003, Hayes was honored as a BMI Icon at the 2003 BMI Urban Awards for his enduring influence on generations of music makers. Throughout his songwriting career, Hayes received five BMI R&B Awards, two BMI Pop Awards, two BMI Urban Awards and six Million-Air citations; as of 2008, his songs generated more than 12 million performances. Isaac Hayes, Jr. was born in Tennessee, in Tipton County. He was Isaac Hayes, Sr.. After his mother died young and his father abandoned his family, Isaac, Jr. was raised by his maternal grandparents, Mr. and Mrs. Willie Wade, Sr; the child of a sharecropper family, he grew up working on farms in Shelby County, in Tipton County. At age five Hayes began singing at his local church. Hayes dropped out of high school, but his former teachers at Manassas High School in Memphis encouraged him to complete his diploma, which he did at age 21. After graduating from high school, Hayes was offered several music scholarships from colleges and universities, he turned down all of them to provide for his immediate family, working at a meat-packing plant in Memphis by day and playing nightclubs and juke joints several evenings a week in Memphis and nearby northern Mississippi.
His first professional gigs, in the late 1950s, were as a singer at Curry's Club in North Memphis, backed by Ben Branch's houseband. Hayes began his recording career in the early 1960s, as a session player for various acts of the Memphis-based Stax Records, he wrote a string of hit songs with songwriting partner David Porter, including "You Don't Know Like I Know", "Soul Man", "When Something Is Wrong with My Baby" and "Hold On, I'm Comin'" for Sam & Dave. Hayes and Stax studio band Booker T. & the M. G.'s were the producers for Sam & Dave, Carla Thomas and other Stax artists during the mid-1960s. Hayes-Porter contributed to the Stax sound made famous during this period, Sam & Dave credited Hayes for helping develop both their sound and style. In 1968, Hayes released his debut album, Presenting Isaac Hayes, a jazzy improvised effort, commercially unsuccessful, his next album was Hot Buttered Soul, released in 1969 after Stax had gone through a major upheaval. The label had lost its largest star, Otis Redding, in a plane crash in December 1967.
Stax lost all of its back catalog to Atlantic Records in May 1968. As a result, Stax executive vice president Al Bell called for 27 new albums to be completed in mid-1969; this album is noted for his distinct sound. On the album, Hayes reinterpreted "Walk On By" into a 12-minute exploration. "By the Time I Get to Phoenix" starts with an eight-minute-long monologue before breaking into song, the lone original number, the funky "Hyperbolicsyllabicsesquedalymistic" runs nearly ten minutes, a significant break from the standard three-minute soul/pop songs. "Walk On By" would be the first of many times Hayes would take a Burt Bacharach standard made famous as three-minute pop songs by Dionne Warwick or Dusty Springfield, transform it into a soulful and gospel number. In 1970, Hayes
O'Shea Jackson Sr. known professionally as Ice Cube, is an American rapper and actor. Ice Cube gained recognition as a member of the hip hop group C. I. A. in 1984, which gained limited commercial success prior to disbanding three years later. Ice Cube, alongside Dr. Dre and Eazy E formed the group N. W. A, where he gained extreme notoriety as the group's primary songwriter and performer, noted for becoming one of the founding artists of gangsta rap, pushing the boundaries of lyrical content in mainstream popular music, as well as visual imagery in music videos. After leaving N. W. A in December 1989, Ice Cube embarked on a successful solo career, releasing the albums AmeriKKKa's Most Wanted and Death Certificate, both of which have attained platinum certification in the United States, while being classed as defining albums of the 1990s. Much of his musical output has contained harsh socio-political commentary and storytelling, which has earned him several accolades from multiple publications and artists cited as an influence and one of the best rappers of all time.
Following the release of Death Certificate, Ice Cube transitioned into film, where his popularity was further enhanced by his starring role in Boyz n the Hood, where his performance was praised. He wrote and starred in the Friday film series, which contributed to reinventing his public image as a movie star. Ice Cube has featured in the Barbershop, Ride Along, XXX film series, while serving as a producer to several other films, including Straight Outta Compton, a biographical film depicting the career of N. W. A.. As a businessman, Ice Cube has founded his clothing line, Solo by Cube, as well as the 3 on 3 basketball league Big3, which predominately features retired NBA players. O'Shea Jackson was born on June 15, 1969, in Baldwin Hills, South Central Los Angeles, the son of Doris, a hospital clerk and custodian, Hosea Jackson, who worked as a groundskeeper at UCLA and a machinist, he has an older brother as well as a half-sister, murdered when Ice Cube was 12. His cousin is Teren Delvon Jones known as Del tha Funky Homosapien, a part of the rap group Hieroglyphics and who has worked with Gorillaz.
Jackson grew up on Van Wick Street in South Central Los Angeles. In his early teens, Jackson developed an interest in hip hop music, began writing raps in Los Angeles George Washington Preparatory High School's typewriting class. Jackson penned his first rap song in the ninth grade after a friend named "Kiddo", challenged him to write a song during a typewriting class. Kiddo lost. On the origins of his rapper name, Ice Cube says, he is quoted as saying "He threatened to slam me into a freezer and pull me out when I was an ice cube. I just started using that name, it just caught on."At the age of 16, Jackson sold his first song to future N. W. A. member Eazy-E. Jackson attended William Howard Taft High School in Woodland Hills, California, he enrolled at the Phoenix Institute of Technology in the fall of 1987 in Arizona. Being passionate about architecture, he studied architectural drafting, he returned to Los Angeles to pursue a rap career. Not sure of whether his rap career would work out, he would turn to become an architecture draftsman as a career backup.
With friend Sir Jinx, Ice Cube formed the C. I. A. and they performed at parties hosted by Dr. Dre. Dre soon entered the recording industry as a member of the World Class Wreckin' Cru. Dre saw Cube's potential as a writer and had him assist with writing Wreckin Cru's big L. A. hit track, "Cabbage Patch" as well as joining Cube on a side partnership which the duo called Stereo Crew. Stereo Crew produced a twelve-inch record, "She's a Skag" released on Epic Records in 1986. While Dr. Dre was DJing at L. A. dance club Eve After Dark, Ice Cube would rap over his music parodying songs by other artists. One such example of this was the song "My Penis," a parody of Run-DMC's "My Adidas." In a 2015 interview, club-owner Alonzo Williams said that he felt that this song damaged his reputation and asked for it not to be performed. In 1987, Ice Cube released the Dr. Dre produced single My Posse under with his group C. I. A.. After the collaboration, Ice Cube showed Eazy-E the lyrics to "Boyz-n-the-Hood". Eazy-E, although rejecting the lyrics recorded the song for N.
W. A. and the Posse, the debut album for the group N. W. A that included Dr. Dre, MC Ren, DJ Yella. Ice Cube was the only member of N. W. A, not from Compton, California. By this point Ice Cube was a full-time member of N. W. A along with Dr. Dre and MC Ren. Ice Cube wrote Dr. Dre's and Eazy-E's rhymes for the group's landmark album, Straight Outta Compton, released in 1988. However, towards the end of 1989, Ice Cube found himself at odds with the group's manager, Jerry Heller, after rejecting Heller's proposed contract terms. Ice Cube wrote the lyrics to half of both Straight Outta Compton, Eazy-E's solo album, Eazy-Duz-It, but he was only paid $32,000 and his contract did not confirm that he was an official member of N. W. A; this led Ice Cube to leave the group and bring a private lawsuit against Jerry Heller, settled out of court. In response, the remaining N. W. A members attacked him on the EP 100 Miles and Runnin', on their next and final album, Niggaz4Life. In 1989, Ice Cube recorded his debut solo album, AmeriKKKa's Most Wanted, in New York with the Bomb Squad.
It was released in May 1990 and was an instant hit and contributing to the rising tide of rap's popularity in mainstream society. The album was charg
Courteney Bass Cox is an American actress and director. She is best known for her roles as Monica Geller on the NBC sitcom Friends, Gale Weathers in the horror series Scream, Jules Cobb in the ABC/TBS sitcom Cougar Town, for which she earned her first Golden Globe nomination. Cox starred in the FX series Dirt, she owns a production company, called Coquette Productions, created by Cox and her then-husband David Arquette. Cox worked as a director on her sitcom Cougar Town and the television film Talhotblond. Cox was raised in Birmingham, Alabama, she is a daughter of businessman Richard Lewis Courteney Copeland. Cox has two older sisters and Dorothy, an older brother, Richard Jr, her parents divorced in 1974 and her mother married businessman Hunter Copeland. After graduating from Mountain Brook High School, Cox left for Mount Vernon College in Washington, D. C. but did not complete her architecture course, opting instead to pursue a career in modeling and acting. She has English ancestry. Cox appeared in the 1984 music video for Bruce Springsteen's "Dancing in the Dark" as the young woman pulled onstage at the St. Paul Civic Center to dance with Springsteen.
Her early television work includes a starring role in the short-lived television series Misfits of Science, in a recurring role as Lauren Miller, the girlfriend of Alex P. Keaton in the TV series Family Ties, her early film roles include Masters of the Universe, Cocoon: The Return, I'll Be Home for Christmas. She played the tough-as-nails assistant of Larry Burrows, in Mr. Destiny. In 1993, she co-starred in the short-lived CBS sitcom The Trouble with Larry with Bronson Pinchot and Perry King; the following year, shortly before the debut of the sitcom Friends, Cox appeared with Jim Carrey in Ace Ventura: Pet Detective and as Jerry Seinfeld's girlfriend, Meryl, in the Seinfeld episode "The Wife". In 1995, she was cast in Toad the Wet Sprocket's music video "Good Intentions"; the song is on the Friends soundtrack. In 1994, Cox was asked to audition for the part of Rachel Green on a new sitcom, Friends. At first the most famous cast member of the new show, Cox joined fellow castmates Jennifer Aniston, Lisa Kudrow, Matt LeBlanc, Matthew Perry and David Schwimmer for what became her most famous role, lasting for 10 seasons until 2004.
According to the Guinness Book of World Records, Cox became the highest-paid TV actress of all time, with her US$1 million-per-episode paycheck for the final two seasons of Friends. Between seasons five and six, Cox married David Arquette, changed her name to Courteney Cox Arquette. An in-joke reference to this is made in the beginning credits of the episode "The One After Vegas", where the rest of the cast has "Arquette" added to their names; the dedication "For Courteney and David, who did get married" – a reference to Monica and Chandler's decision not to marry in the episode – appears during the fade out to the tag scene. Cox appeared in the high-profile Hollywood films, Scream 2, Scream 3, as reporter Gale Weathers, she met her husband, David Arquette, who played her on-screen love interest Dwight "Dewey" Riley, while filming the first Scream film. Both Cox and Arquette reprised their respective roles from the Scream trilogy in 2011's Scream 4; the film was released in theaters April 15, 2011.
Her other films include Ace Ventura: Pet Detective with Jim Carrey, The Runner, 3000 Miles to Graceland, The Shrink Is In. In late 2003, Cox and Arquette produced one season of the reality television series Mix It Up; the lifestyle show, which aired on the We cable channel, struggled with low ratings and was not renewed for a second season. After the conclusion of Friends, Cox was producer Marc Cherry's first choice to be offered a starring role as Susan Mayer on Desperate Housewives, but Cox was unavailable due to her pregnancy and the role went to Teri Hatcher. A few years Cox signed a deal with ABC Studios to star in her own series. After Friends, Cox starred in the independent film November, she voiced Daisy in the animated film Barnyard. A Friends reunion film was rumored to be in production following the success of Sex and the City, but this has been denied by Warner Bros. and others. Cox starred as Lucy Spiller, a cynical tabloid editor, in Dirt, a television drama for FX. Cox and her husband David Arquette were the executive producers of the series.
According to Cox, the series was canceled after the second season in 2008. In July 2008, Entertainment Weekly announced that Cox had signed on to star in a three-episode arc for the television series Scrubs. In 2009, Cox began her roles as the star of the single-camera comedy series on ABC called Cougar Town, playing a newly single 40-year-old mother on the hunt for new experiences, it is notably Cox's most successful work since Friends. The show's third season was to premiere in November 2011, but was moved to February 14, 2012. In the third season, Cox directed two of the show's 15 episodes of that season; the show's fourth season premiered on January 8, 2013. She starred in a three-episode arc on former Friends co-star Lisa
Donald Jay Rickles was an American stand-up comedian and author. He is regarded as being one of the best insult comics of all time, his prominent film roles included Run Silent, Run Deep with Clark Gable and Kelly's Heroes with Clint Eastwood, beginning in 1976 he enjoyed a two-year run starring in the NBC television sitcom C. P. O. Sharkey, he received widespread exposure as a popular guest on numerous talk and variety shows, including The Dean Martin Show, The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson and Late Show with David Letterman, voiced Mr. Potato Head in the Toy Story franchise, he won a Primetime Emmy Award for the 2007 documentary Mr. Warmth: The Don Rickles Project. Donald Jay Rickles was born to Jewish parents in New York City, on May 8, 1926, his father, Max Rickles, emigrated in 1903 with his Lithuanian parents from Kaunas, his mother, was born in New York City to Austrian immigrant parents. Rickles grew up in Jackson Heights. After graduating from Newtown High School, Rickles enlisted in the United States Navy and served during World War II on the motor torpedo boat tender USS Cyrene as a seaman first class.
He was honorably discharged in 1946. Two years intending to be a dramatic actor, he studied at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts and played bit parts on television. Frustrated by a lack of acting work, Rickles began performing comedy in clubs in New York and Los Angeles, he became known as an insult comedian. The audience enjoyed these insults more than his prepared material, so he incorporated them into his act; when he began his career in the early 1950s, he started calling ill-mannered members of the audience "hockey pucks". His style was similar to that of an older insult comic, Jack E. Leonard, though Rickles denied Leonard influenced his style. During an interview on Larry King Live, Rickles credited Milton Berle's comedy style for inspiring him to enter show business. While working in the "Murray Franklin's" nightclub in Miami Beach, early in his career, Rickles spotted Frank Sinatra and remarked to him, "I just saw your movie The Pride and the Passion and I want to tell you, the cannon's acting was great."
He added, "Make yourself at Frank. Hit somebody!" Sinatra, whose pet name for Rickles was "bullet-head", enjoyed him so much that he encouraged other celebrities to see Rickles' act and be insulted by him. Sinatra's support helped. During a Dean Martin Celebrity Roast special, Rickles was among those who took part in roasting Sinatra, Rickles, was roasted during another show in the series. Rickles earned the nicknames "The Merchant of Venom" and "Mr. Warmth" for his poking fun at people of all ethnicities and walks of life; when he was introduced to an audience or on a television talk show, Spanish matador music, "La Virgen de la Macarena", would be played, subtly foreshadowing someone was about to be metaphorically gored. Rickles said, "I always pictured myself facing the audience as the matador."In 1958, he made his film debut in a serious part in Run Silent, Run Deep with Clark Gable and Burt Lancaster. Throughout the 1960s, he appeared on television in sitcoms and dramatic series. Rickles guest-starred in Get Smart as an old war buddy of Max who comes to stay with him.
In an episode of the 1960s drama series Run for Your Life, Rickles portrayed a distressed comedian whose act culminates when he strangles a patron while imploring the patron to "Laugh!" Rickles took a dramatic turn in the low-budget Roger Corman film X: The Man with the X-Ray Eyes as a carnival barker out to exploit the title character. Rickles appeared in the Beach Party film series, he recalled in his 2007 memoir that at a White House dinner, Barbara Bush teased him about his decision to appear in those films. Rickles' agent, Jack Gilardi, was married to Annette Funicello when Rickles was cast in the Beach Party films, he subsequently began appearing more on television talk shows, first appearing on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson in 1965. He became a frequent guest and guest host, appearing more than 100 times on The Tonight Show during Carson's era. An early Carson-Rickles Tonight highlight occurred in 1968 when, while two Japanese women treated Carson to a bath and massage by foot, Rickles walked onto the set.
He made frequent appearances on The Dean Martin Show and became a fixture on The Dean Martin Celebrity Roast specials. In 1968, Rickles released a live comedy album Hello, Dummy!, which reached #54 on the Billboard 200 album chart. The same year he starred in his own variety show on ABC, The Don Rickles Show, with comedy writer Pat McCormick as his sidekick; the show lasted one season. During the 1960s, Rickles made guest appearances on The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Munsters, The Addams Family, The Mothers-in-Law, Gilligan's Island, Get Smart, The Twilight Zone, The Andy Griffith Show, Gomer Pyle and I Dream of Jeannie. In 1970, Rickles had a notable role as Crapgame in Kelly's Heroes, sharing the marquee poster with co-stars Clint Eastwood, Telly Savalas, Donald Sutherland and Carroll O'Connor. In 1972, he starred in The Don Rickles Show with comedy writer Pat McCormick as his sidekick, which lasted for 13 episodes, he starred in a series of television specials. In his memoir, Rickles acknowledged a scripted sitcom was not well-suited to his ad-lib style of performing.
Starting in 1973, he became a popular comedian appearing on The Dean Martin Celebrity Roast specials. In 1976–1978, he starred in C. P. O. Sharkey, which lasted two seasons; the series is remembered for the cigarette box incident when Johnny Carson
Parker Christian Posey is an American actress and musician. She works with Christopher Guest and has appeared in several of his mockumentaries, such as Waiting for Guffman, Best in Show, A Mighty Wind, For Your Consideration, Mascots. Posey is the recipient of a Golden Globe Award nomination, a Satellite Award nomination and two Independent Spirit Award nominations. Posey made her film debut in Joey Breaker. Following small roles in Coneheads and the cult classic Dazed and Confused, she was labelled "Queen of the Indies" for starring in a succession of independent films throughout the 1990s, such as Sleep with Me, Party Girl, The Doom Generation and Screaming, The Daytrippers, The House of Yes and Clockwatchers, her other notable film appearances include You've Got Mail, Scream 3, Josie and the Pussycats, Personal Velocity, The Sweetest Thing, Blade: Trinity, Superman Returns, Fay Grim, Broken English, The Eye, Spring Breakdown, Irrational Man, Café Society. Outside of film, Posey starred in the television movie Hell on Heels: The Battle of Mary Kay and has guest-starred on numerous series, such as Futurama, The Simpsons, Will & Grace, Boston Legal and Recreation, The Good Wife, Inside Amy Schumer, Search Party.
Since 2018 she has starred as June Harris on the Netflix series Lost in Space. Posey was born in Baltimore, Maryland, to Lynda, a chef, Chris Posey, owner of a car dealership, she has Christopher. Posey's first name was given to her because her mother had a childhood friend she admired named Parker. After Posey's birth, her family lived in Louisiana for 11 years, they moved to Laurel, where her mother worked as a chef and culinary instructor for the Viking Range Corporation in Greenwood, her father operated a car dealership. Posey was raised as a Catholic. Posey attended the State University of New York at Purchase, where she studied drama and roomed with actresses Sherry Stringfield and Orlagh Cassidy. Posey got her first break in television with the role of Tess Shelby on the daytime soap opera As the World Turns. Posey's first major role in a feature film was in Dazed and Confused with Ben Affleck, Matthew McConaughey, Jason London; the film has been identified as a cult classic. In 2003, Entertainment Weekly ranked the film #17 on their list of "The Top 50 Cult Films", third on their list of the 50 Best High School Movies, 10th on their "Funniest Movies of the Past 25 Years" list, ranked it #6 on their "The Cult 25: The Essential Left-Field Movie Hits Since'83" list.
In 1994, she appeared in Hal Hartley's short film Opera No. 1, with Adrienne Shelley. Throughout the late 1990s, Posey co-starred in 32 independent films and was nicknamed "Queen of the Indies"; these films include Personal Velocity, Clockwatchers, The Daytrippers, Party Girl and The House of Yes. In particular, she received positive reviews for the latter film, with her role as a delusional woman in love with her own brother. In an interview in January 2012, Parker said that the unofficial title has sometimes been a hindrance: I'm trying to work in studio movies, but they won't hire me. I get feedback from my agent saying,'She's too much of an indie queen.' And on the other side, my name doesn't get the financing to do a movie over $1 million. And I'm called'the indie queen.' So it's a challenging path because I know so much about the indie side of the business. Because I grew up in it... But it's different times, and this stuff gets projected onto me. People are like,'You're here every year, you do so many indie movies.'
And I'm like,'No, I did Broken English five years ago.' She has co-starred in Christopher Guest's films, including five of his mock documentaries, the first being Waiting for Guffman in 1996. In 1998, Posey appeared in Hartley's film Henry Fool, the big budget studio film You've Got Mail. In 2000, she starred in Guest's third mock documentary Best in Show, in the big budget horror film Scream 3. Critical reaction to Posey's performance in the latter film was positive, earned her an MTV Movie Award nomination. However, she lost to Adam Sandler; the next year she played the antagonist in Josie and the Pussycats. From 2001-2002, she appeared in a supporting role in the popular NBC sitcom Grace. In 2003, she starred in Guest's A Mighty Wind; the next year she appeared in Sisters of Mercy, Laws of Attraction, Blade: Trinity. Posey co-starred in the 2005 film Adam & Steve. In 2006, Posey appeared in Superman Returns as Kitty Kowalski, Lex Luthor's ditzy sidekick, a character based on Eve Teschmacher from the 1978 film Superman.
Posey was the only actress considered for the role. Superman Returns was a box office success; the film was successful at the 33rd Saturn Awards, Posey, a few fellow cast members, the visual effects department were all nominated. The same year she played the title character in Fay Grim, the sequel to Henry Fool, appeared in For Your Consideration. In 2007, Posey was cast in the lead role on the TV series The Return of Jezebel James; the show was given 13 episodes, the show was cut to seven episodes in anticipation of the pending writers strike. It premiered on the Fox television network in 2008 as a mid-season replacement. However, the show was canceled after the third episode aired due to unacceptably low ratings, she starred in Zoe Cassavetes' 2007 film Broke
The fourth wall is a performance convention in which an invisible, imagined wall separates actors from the audience. While the audience can see through this "wall", the convention assumes, the actors act as if they cannot. From the 16th century onwards, the rise of illusionism in staging practices, which culminated in the realism and naturalism of the theatre of the 19th century, led to the development of the fourth wall concept; the metaphor suggests a relationship to the mise-en-scène behind a proscenium arch. When a scene is set indoors and three of the walls of its room are presented onstage, in what is known as a box set, the "fourth" of them would run along the line dividing the room from the auditorium; the "fourth wall", though, is a theatrical convention, rather than of set design. The actors ignore the audience, focus their attention on the dramatic world, remain absorbed in its fiction, in a state that the theatre practitioner Konstantin Stanislavski called "public solitude". In this way, the fourth wall exists regardless of the presence of any actual walls in the set, or the physical arrangement of the theatre building or performance space, or the actors' distance from or proximity to the audience."Breaking the fourth wall" is any instance in which this performance convention, having been adopted more in the drama, is violated.
This can be done through either directly referencing the audience, the play as a play, or the characters' fictionality. The temporary suspension of the convention in this way draws attention to its use in the rest of the performance; this act of drawing attention to a play's performance conventions is metatheatrical. A similar effect of metareference is achieved when the performance convention of avoiding direct contact with the camera used by actors in a television drama or film, is temporarily suspended; the phrase "breaking the fourth wall" is used to describe such effects in those media. Breaking the fourth wall is possible in other media, such as video games and books; the concept is attributed to the philosopher and dramatist Denis Diderot. The term itself was used by Molière; the presence of the fourth wall is an established convention of modern realistic theatre, which has led some artists to draw direct attention to it for dramatic or comic effect when a boundary is "broken", when an actor or character addresses the audience directly.
Breaking the fourth wall is common in pantomime and children's theatre where, for example, a character might ask the children for help, as when Peter Pan appeals to the audience to applaud in an effort to revive the fading Tinker Bell. Many Shakespearian plays use this technique for comic effect; the acceptance of the transparency of the fourth wall is part of the suspension of disbelief between a work of fiction and an audience, allowing them to enjoy the fiction as though they were observing real events. Critic Vincent Canby described it in 1987 as "that invisible scrim that forever separates the audience from the stage"; the earliest recorded breaking of the fourth wall in serious cinema was in Mary MacLane's revolutionary 1918 silent film Men Who Have Made Love to Me, in which the enigmatic authoress - who portrays herself - interrupts the vignettes onscreen to address the audience directly. In 1918, in A Dog's Life, written and starring Charlie Chaplin, after finding a wallet with money in it, "The Tramp", Chaplin's most famous character, looks right at the audience with his signature eyebrow raised.
Oliver Hardy was one of the first notable examples of breaking the fourth wall in his films with Stan Laurel, when he would stare directly at the camera to seek sympathy from viewers. Groucho Marx spoke directly to the audience in Animal Crackers, Horse Feathers, in the film advising them to "go out to the lobby" during Chico Marx's piano interlude. Comedy films by Mel Brooks, Monty Python, Zucker and Zucker broke the fourth wall, such that with these films, "the fourth wall is so flimsy and so shattered that it might as well not exist", according to The A. V. Club. In Akira Kurosawa's 1957 adaptation of Gorky's The Lower Depths, the film abruptly ends with Kōji Mitsui breaking the fourth wall to utter a callous remark about a fellow slum dweller's suicide. By having Mitsui use the startling technique, Kurosawa not only stresses his character's victorious nihilism but suggests the film's theatrical origins. Breaking the fourth wall is an integral part of the ending of Alejandro Jodorowsky's 1973 film The Holy Mountain.
In the Mel Brooks film Blazing Saddles, the characters break the fourth wall. Woody Allen broke the fourth wall several times in his movie Annie Hall, as he explained, "because I felt many of the people in the audience had the same feelings and the same problems. I wanted to talk to them directly and confront them." His 1985 film The Purple Rose of Cairo features the breaking of the fourth wall as a central plot point. The John Hughes movie Ferris Bueller's Day Off, is another well-known fourth-wall-breaking movie. Bueller, played by Matthew Broderick turns to the camera without breaking character to tell his thought process or explain his reasoning. Another Chicago area fourth-wall-breaking film, High Fidelity, has John Cusack's character Rob intimately sharing his life struggles and confessions with the audience. Two more recent examples are the 2016 film Deadpool, in which it is used as a comic device between the main character and the audience and the 2017 film I, where Tonya Harding and the
India Arie Simpson known as India. Arie, is an American singer and songwriter, she has sold over 10 million worldwide. She has won four Grammy Awards including Best R&B Album, she was born in Denver, the daughter of Joyce and Ralph Simpson. Her musical skills were encouraged by both parents in her younger years, her mother is now her stylist. She has an older brother named J'On and younger sister Mary A Martin of Philadelphia PA According to a DNA analysis, she descends from the Mende people of Sierra Leone, the Kru people of Liberia and the Fula people of Guinea-Bissau. After Simpson's parents divorced, her mother moved the family to Atlanta, Georgia when India was 13. Simpson had taken up a succession of musical instruments throughout her schooling in Denver, but her interest in the guitar while attending the Savannah College of Art and Design, in Savannah, led to a personal revelation about songwriting and performing. "When I started tapping into my own sensitivity, I started to understand people better.
It was a direct result of writing songs", she said at the press release of her debut album, Acoustic Soul. Co-founding the Atlanta-based independent music collective Groovement EarthShare, her one-song turn on a locally released compilation led to a second-stage gig at the 1998 Lilith Fair. In 1999, a Universal/Motown music scout signed her and made an introduction to former Motown CEO Kedar Massenburg. Arie resides in New York, NY. Named to Oprah Winfrey's SuperSoul100 list of visionaries and influential leaders, India. Arie performed Songversation during 2017 motivational cruises. Arie released her debut album Acoustic Soul on March 27, 2001; the album was met with commercial success. "Acoustic Soul" debuted at number ten on the U. S. Billboard number three on the Top R&B / Hip-Hop Albums. Within months, without the concentrated radio airplay that powers pop and rap albums, Acoustic Soul was certified double platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America, selling 2,180,000 copies in the U.
S. and 3,000,000 copies worldwide. The album was certified Gold by the British Phonographic Industry and platinum by Music Canada; the album was promoted with the release of the lead single "Video". "Video" attained commercial success peaking at forty seven on the US Billboard Hot 100 and becoming her highest charting song in the region to date. The album's second single "Brown Skin" failed to chart on the Billboard Hot 100, but it became her highest charting single in the United Kingdom, peaking at number 29. Arie performed a duet with rock singer-guitarist John Mellencamp on the song "Peaceful World" for his 2001 album Cuttin' Heads. While Arie and the album were nominated for seven Grammy awards in 2002, they won no awards, losing in five of seven categories to Alicia Keys, she closed the ceremony with a performance of her song "Video". Arie performed a duet with jazz singer Cassandra Wilson on the song "Just Another Parade" for her 2002 album Belly of the Sun. Arie followed the success of her debut on September 2002 with the release of Voyage to India.
It debuted at number six on the Billboard 200 with first week sales of 109,000 copies and topped the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums, with the RIAA certifying it Platinum. At the 2003 Grammy Awards, it won Best R&B Album, the single "Little Things" won Best Urban/Alternative Performance; the song "Get It Together" was featured on many film soundtracks including Brown Sugar and Shark Tale. On September 12, 2005, Arie performed "Just 4 2day", a song written for her appearance on the debut of The Tyra Banks Show, she performed "What About the Child", a song that did not air but was made available as a one-dollar Internet download to support child victims of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Arie is featured on Stevie Wonder's album A Time to Love, released on October 18, 2005. Arie and Wonder duet on the title track "A Time to Love", written by Arie, nominated for Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals at the 2006 Grammy Awards. Three years earlier, their rendition of Mel Tormé's 1944 classic "The Christmas Song", recorded for the holiday TV commercial for retailer Target, had been nominated for the same category, making it the first song created and financed for a commercial to be nominated for a Grammy Award.
The first-week sales of Arie's album Testimony: Vol. 1, Life & Relationship, 161,000 copies, are her best sales week to date. The album was certified gold in August 2006, selling 730,000 in 1,300,000 worldwide. "I Am Not My Hair", a collaboration with Akon, was the most successful release from Testimony: Vol. 1. Reaching the U. S. Billboard Hot 100 at #97 and the UK Singles Chart at #65. On the April 16, 2007 episode of The Oprah Winfrey Show entitled "After Imus: Now What?", Arie guest-starred as a panelist. Arie performed a duet with singer Anthony David for his song "Words" for his 2008 album Acey Duecy, her next album, Testimony: Vol. 2, Love & Politics was released on Tuesday, February 10, 2009. It debuted at No. 3 on the Billboard 200, No. 2 on the R&B chart. Within this CD, Arie collaborated with such artists as Sezen Aksu, Keb Mo, Gramps Morgan and Musiq Soulchild to fulfill her self-proclaimed desire to "do projects with people who are making music, meaningful, with a lot of integrity and a lot of sonic diversity".
Arie identified this CD as her first to write and sing songs without worrying about public opinion after a much-needed vacation to Hawaii. The album was her first produced and released