France Football is a French weekly magazine containing football news from all over the world. It is one of the most reputable sports publications in Europe because of its photographic reports, in-depth and exclusive interviews and accurate statistics of the UEFA Champions League matches, extensive coverage of the European leagues; the magazine was first published in 1946. The headquarters is in Paris. Between 1956 and 2009, France Football presented the best player in Europe with the Ballon d'Or referred to as the European Footballer of the Year award. Following the award's merger with the FIFA World Player of the Year award in 2010, the magazine awarded the FIFA Ballon d'Or to the world's best player in partnership with FIFA, the sport's governing body, until 2016, when it resumed full ownership of the trophy. Since 1959, France Football elects the French Player of the Year and awarded the best club team in Europe since 1968 to 1990. Ballon d'Or Ballon d'Or Féminin Kopa Trophy French Player of the Year Onze Mondial World Soccer Ballon d'Or - France Football
FIFA World Player of the Year
The FIFA World Player of the Year was an association football award presented annually by the sport's governing body, FIFA, between 1991 and 2015. Coaches and captains of international teams and media representatives selected the player they deem to have performed the best in the previous calendar year. A single award for the world's best men's player, parallels awards for men and women were awarded from 2001–2009; the men's award was subsumed into the FIFA Ballon d'Or in 2010 while the women's award remained until 2015. After 2015 both men's and women's awards became part of The Best FIFA Football Awards. During the men's era, Brazilian players won 8 out of 19 years, compared to three wins – the second most – for French players. In terms of individual players, Brazil again led with five, followed by Italy and Portugal with two each; the youngest winner was Ronaldo, who won at 20 years old in 1996, the oldest winner was Fabio Cannavaro, who won aged 33 in 2006. Ronaldo and Zinedine Zidane each won the award three times, while Ronaldo and Ronaldinho were the only players to win in successive years.
From 2010 to 2015, the equivalent men's award was the FIFA Ballon d'Or, following a merging of the FIFA World Player of the Year and the France Football Ballon d'Or awards. Since 2016, the awards have been replaced by the Best FIFA Men's Player and the Best FIFA Women's Player awards. Eight women's footballers – three Germans, three Americans, one Brazilian, one Japanese – have won the award. Marta, the youngest recipient at age 20 in 2006, has won five successive awards, the most of any player. Birgit Prinz won three times in a row and Mia Hamm won twice in a row; the oldest winner is Nadine Angerer, 35 when she won in 2013. The winners are chosen by the coaches and captains of national teams as well as by international media representatives invited by FIFA. In a voting system based on positional voting, each voter is allotted three votes, worth five points, three points and one point, the three finalists are ordered based on total number of points. Following criticism from some sections of the media over nominations in previous years, FIFA has since 2004 provided shortlists from which its voters can select their choices.
Source: From 2010 to 2015, the award was merged with the Ballon d'Or to become the FIFA Ballon d'Or in a six-year partnership with France Football. In 2016, FIFA rebranded the award as The Best FIFA Men's Player. Source: In 2016, FIFA created The Best FIFA Women's Player award instead. Ballon d'Or FIFA Ballon d'Or The Best FIFA Football Awards FIFPro World XI
The Best FIFA Football Awards 2017
The Best FIFA Football Awards 2017 were held on 23 October 2017 in London, England. The ceremony was hosted by Idris Elba and Layla Anna-Lee. Cristiano Ronaldo, Lieke Martens, Gianluigi Buffon, Zinedine Zidane and Sarina Wiegman were among the award-winners. A panel of experts on men's football representing various FIFA and external football stakeholders compiled a shortlist of 24 male players for The Best FIFA Men's Player; the 24 candidates were announced on 17 August. The three finalists were announced on 22 September 2017. Cristiano Ronaldo won the award with over 43% of the vote; the selection criteria for the men's players of the year were: sporting performance, as well as general conduct on and off the pitch from 20 November 2016 to 2 July 2017. A panel of experts on football representing various FIFA and external football stakeholders compiled a shortlist of three goalkeepers for The Best FIFA Goalkeeper. Gianluigi Buffon won the award with over 42% of the vote; the selection criteria for the men's football coaches of the year were: the best goalkeeper, regardless of championship or nationality, for his achievements during the period from 20 November 2016 to 2 July 2017 inclusive.
A panel of experts on men's football representing various FIFA and external football stakeholders compiled a shortlist of twelve men's football coaches for The Best FIFA Men's Coach. The twelve candidates were announced on 17 August; the three finalists were announced on 22 September 2017. Zinedine Zidane won the award with over 46% of the vote; the selection criteria for the men's football coaches of the year were: performance and general behaviour of their teams on and off the pitch from 20 November 2016 to 2 July 2017. A panel of experts on women's football representing each of the six confederations selected a shortlist of ten female players for The Best FIFA Women's Player; the 10 candidates were announced on 17 August. The three finalists were announced on 22 September 2017. Lieke Martens won the award with nearly 22% of the vote; the selection criteria for the women's players of the year were: sporting performance, as well as general conduct on and off the pitch from 20 November 2016 to 6 August 2017.
A panel of experts on women's football representing each of the six confederations selected a shortlist of ten women's football coaches for The Best FIFA Women's Coach. The 10 candidates were announced on 17 August; the three finalists were announced on 22 September 2017. Sarina Wiegman won the award with over 36% of the vote; the selection criteria for the women's football coaches of the year were: performance and general behaviour of their teams on and off the pitch from 20 November 2016 to 6 August 2017. The award is bestowed on a player, a coach, a team, a match official, an individual fan or a fan group in recognition of exemplary fair play either on the pitch or in relation to an official football match during November 2016 to August 2017; the award was given to the most outstanding ”fair-play” gesture/behaviour of the year. The shortlist was announced on 22 September 2017; the three finalists were announced on 9 October 2017. Olivier Giroud won the award with over 36% of the vote; the award celebrates the best fan moment of November 2016 to August 2017, regardless of championship, gender or nationality.
The three nominees were announced on 22 September 2017. Celtic supporters won the award with nearly 56% of the vote; the 55–player men's shortlist was announced on 20 September 2017. The players chosen included Gianluigi Buffon as goalkeeper, Dani Alves, Leonardo Bonucci, Sergio Ramos, Marcelo as defenders, Luka Modrić, Toni Kroos, Andrés Iniesta as midfielders, Lionel Messi, Cristiano Ronaldo, Neymar as forwards. Second TeamThird TeamFourth TeamFifth Team Official website
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Club Atlético de Madrid referred to as Atlético Madrid, Atlético de Madrid or as Atlético or Atleti, is a Spanish professional football club based in Madrid, that play in La Liga. The club play their home games at the Wanda Metropolitano, which has a capacity of 68,000. In terms of league titles won, most in 2014, Atlético Madrid are the third most successful club in Spanish football – behind Real Madrid and Barcelona. Atlético have won La Liga on 10 occasions, including a league and cup double in 1996. Atlético's home kit is red and white vertical striped shirts, with blue shorts, blue and red socks; this combination has been used since 1911. Throughout their history the club has been known by a number of nicknames, including Los Colchoneros, due to their first team stripes being the same colours as traditional mattresses. During the 1970s, they became known as Los Indios, which some attribute to the club's signing several South American players after the restrictions on signing foreign players were lifted.
However, there are a number of alternative theories which claim they were named so because their stadium is "camped" on the river bank, or because Los Indios were the traditional enemy of Los Blancos, the nickname of the club's city rivals, Real Madrid. Felipe VI, the king of Spain, has been the honorary president of the club since 2003; the club co-owned the Indian Super League franchise in Kolkata named Atlético de Kolkata, which won the competition twice, but in 2017 Atlético decided to end its franchise partnership with the ISL club due to broken commitments. The club was founded on 26 April 1903 as Athletic Club Sucursal de Madrid by three Basque students living in Madrid; these founders saw the new club as a youth branch of their childhood team, Athletic Bilbao who they had just seen win the 1903 Copa del Rey Final in the city. In 1904, they were joined by dissident members of Real Madrid; the side began playing in blue and white halved shirts, the colours of Athletic Bilbao, but by 1911, both the Bilbao and Madrid teams were playing in their current colours of red and white stripes.
Some believe the change came about because red and white striped tops were the cheapest to make, as the same combination was used to make ticking for mattresses, the unused cloth was converted into football shirts. This contributed to Los Colchoneros. However, another explanation is that both Athletic Bilbao and Athletic Madrid used to buy Blackburn Rovers' blue and white kits in England. In late 1909, Juanito Elorduy, a former player and member of the board of Athletic Madrid, went to England to buy kits for both teams but failed to find Blackburn kits to purchase. Athletic Madrid adopted the red and white shirt, leading to them being known as Los Rojiblancos, but opted to keep their existing blue shorts whereas the Bilbao team switched to new black shorts. Athletic Bilbao won the 1911 Copa del Rey Final using several'borrowed' players from Athletic Madrid, including Manolón who scored one of their goals. Athletic's first ground, the Ronda de Vallecas, was in the eponymous working-class area on the south side of the city.
In 1919, the Compañía Urbanizadora Metropolitana—the company that ran the underground communication system in Madrid—acquired some land, near the Ciudad Universitaria. In 1921, Athletic Madrid became independent of parent-club Athletic Bilbao and moved into a 35,800-seater stadium built by the company, the Estadio Metropolitano de Madrid; the Metropolitano was used until 1966. After the move, the Metropolitano was demolished and was replaced with university buildings and an office block belonging to the company ENUSA. During the 1920s, Athletic won the Campeonato del Centro three times and were Copa del Rey runners-up in 1921, where they faced parent club Athletic Bilbao, as they would again in 1926. Based on these successes, in 1928 they were invited to join the Primera División of the inaugural La Liga played the following year. During their debut La Liga campaign, the club were managed by Fred Pentland, but after two seasons they were relegated to Segunda División, they returned to La Liga in 1934 but were relegated again in 1936 after Josep Samitier took over in mid-season from Pentland.
The Spanish Civil War gave Los Colchoneros a reprieve, as Real Oviedo was unable to play due to the destruction of their stadium during the bombings. Thus, both La Liga and Athletic's relegation were postponed, the latter by winning a playoff against Osasuna, champion of the Segunda División tournament. By 1939, when La Liga had resumed, Athletic had merged with Aviación Nacional of Zaragoza to become Athletic Aviación de Madrid. Aviación Nacional had been founded in 1939 by members of the Spanish Air Force, they had been promised a place in the Primera División for the 1939–40 season, only to be denied by the RFEF. As a compromise, this club merged with Athletic, whose squad had lost eight players during the Civil War; the team were awarded a place in the 1939–40 La Liga campaign only as a replacement for Real Oviedo. With the legendary Ricardo Zamora as manager, the club subsequently won their first La Liga title that season and retained the titl
Paris Saint-Germain F.C.
Paris Saint-Germain Football Club referred to as Paris Saint-Germain, Paris SG, or PSG, is a French professional football club based in Paris. Founded in 1970, the club has traditionally worn blue kits. PSG has played its home matches in the 47,929-capacity Parc des Princes in the 16th arrondissement of Paris since 1974; the club plays in the highest tier of French football, Ligue 1. The Parisian club established itself as a major force in France, one of the major forces of European football in the 2010s. PSG have won a total of 36 major trophies, making it the most successful French club in history by this measure. Paris SG is the only club to have never been relegated from Ligue 1. Domestically, the Parisians have won seven Ligue 1 titles, a record twelve Coupe de France, a record eight Coupe de la Ligue, a joint record eight Trophée des Champions titles. In European football, they have won one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup; the capital club has won other minor official titles such as one Ligue 2 and one UEFA Intertoto Cup.
PSG have a long-standing rivalry with Olympique de Marseille. The duo contest French football's most notorious match, known as Le Classique; the State of Qatar, through its shareholding organization Qatar Sports Investments, has been the club's owner since 2011. The takeover made Paris Saint-Germain the richest club in France and one of the wealthiest in the world; as of the 2017–18 season, PSG have the sixth-highest revenue in the footballing world with an annual turnover of €542m according to Deloitte, are the world's eleventh most valuable football club, worth €825m according to Forbes. Paris Saint-Germain Football Club was founded on 12 August 1970 after the merger of Paris Football Club and Stade Saint-Germain. PSG made an immediate impact, winning promotion to Ligue 1 in their first season after claiming the Ligue 2 title, their momentum was soon checked and the club split in 1972. Paris FC remained in Ligue 1, while Paris Saint-Germain kept their name but were administratively demoted to Division 3.
Two seasons PSG returned to Ligue 1 in 1974, moving into the Parc des Princes that same year. The club's trophy cabinet welcomed its first major silverware in the shape of the French Cup in 1982, during a decade marked by players such as Safet Sušić, Luis Fernández and Dominique Rocheteau. Four years Paris Saint-Germain claimed its maiden league title, after which they went into decline, but a takeover by television giants Canal+ revitalised the club and PSG entered their golden era. Led by David Ginola, George Weah and Raí, the club won nine trophies during the 1990s. Most notably, the Parisians claimed a second league title in 1994 and their crowning glory, the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1996. At the start of the 21st century, PSG struggled to rescale the heights despite the magic of Ronaldinho and the goals of Pauleta. Five more trophies arrived in the form of three French Cups, one League Cup and one UEFA Intertoto Cup, but the club became better known for lurching from one high-profile crisis to another.
Indeed, Paris Saint-Germain spent two seasons staving off relegations that were only narrowly avoided. This changed in 2011 with the arrival of new majority shareholders Qatar Sports Investments. Since the buyout, PSG have spent over €1b on player transfers like Zlatan Ibrahimović, Thiago Silva, Edinson Cavani and Kylian Mbappé, have dominated French football, winning 20 national titles. Despite this, the Champions League has proven to be a trophy beyond their reach. PSG have never made it beyond the Champions League quarterfinals since 2012, exiting the competition at the last-16 round in each of the last three seasons. Since its foundation, PSG have always represented both Saint-Germain-en-Laye; as a result, red and white are the traditional colours of Paris Saint-Germain. The red and blue represent the city of Paris, while the white stands for the nearby royal town of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. In the club's crest, the French capital is represented by the Eiffel Tower in red and the blue background.
For its part, the white cradle with the white fleur de lys on top is a hint to the coat of arms of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and to French royalty. In France, white is the colour of the fleur de lys is a royal symbol; the cradle and the fleur de lys recall that French King Louis XIV was born in Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1638. PSG's home shirt has always featured the three colours of the club; the three main home jerseys worn by Paris SG throughout its history have been predominantly red, blue or white. The club's first shirt was red, while the other two were predominantly white. However, all three have included the remaining two colours, as well as with further variations of the home jersey; the newly formed Paris Saint-Germain wore a red shirt during its first three seasons of existence. The jersey featured a blue and white collar to bring together the three colours of the club: the red and blue of Paris, the white of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. During the 2010–11 season, PSG wore a red home shirt to commemorate its 40th anniversary.
The connection between Paris Saint-Germain and the city's fashion houses is a longstanding one. French fashion designer Daniel Hechter served as the club's president for five years in the 1970s, is regarded as one of the driving forces behind the team's foundation, he became club president in 1973 and designed PSG's traditional look — a red vertical strip
Croatia the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy, its capital, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102.
In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year; the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration. The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a high standard of living.
It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world; the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-; the word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe; the oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ. The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852; the original is lost, just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm; the inscription is not believed to be dated but is to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country; the largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.
The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast and mountains; the city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain an