16 mm film
16 mm film is a popular and economical gauge of film. 16 mm refers to the width of the film. It is used for non-theatrical film-making, or for low-budget motion pictures, it existed as a popular amateur or home movie-making format for several decades, alongside 8 mm film and Super 8 film. Eastman Kodak released the first 16 mm "outfit" in 1923, consisting of a camera, tripod and splicer, for $335. RCA-Victor introduced a 16 mm sound movie projector in 1932, developed an optical sound-on-film 16 mm camera, released in 1935. Eastman Kodak introduced 16 mm film in 1923, as a less expensive alternative to 35 mm film for amateurs. During the 1920s, the format was referred to as sub-standard by the professional industry. Kodak hired Willard Beech Cook from his 28 mm Pathescope of America company to create the new 16 mm'Kodascope Library'. In addition to making home movies, people could buy or rent films from the library, a key selling aspect of the format. Intended for amateur use, 16 mm film was one of the first formats to use acetate safety film as a film base.
Kodak never used nitrate film for the format. 35 mm nitrate was discontinued in 1952. The silent 16 mm format was aimed at the home enthusiast, but by the 1930s it had begun to make inroads into the educational market; the addition of optical sound tracks and, most notably, Kodachrome in 1935, gave an enormous boost to its popularity. The format was used extensively during World War II, there was a huge expansion of 16 mm professional filmmaking in the post-war years. Films for government, business and industrial clients created a large network of 16 mm professional filmmakers and related service industries in the 1950s and 1960s; the advent of television production enhanced the use of 16 mm film for its advantage of cost and portability over 35 mm. At first used as a news-gathering format, the 16 mm format was used to create television programming shot outside the confines of the more rigid television studio production sets; the home movie market switched to the less expensive 8 mm and Super 8 mm film formats.
16 mm, using light cameras, was extensively used for television production in many countries before portable video cameras appeared. In Britain, the BBC's Ealing-based film department made significant use of 16mm film and, during its peak, employed over 50 film crews. Throughout much of the 1960s-1990s period, these crews made use of cameras such as the Arriflex SP and Eclair NPR in combination with quarter-inch sound recorders, such as the Nagra III. Using these tools, film department crews would work on some of the most significant programmes produced by the BBC, including Man Alive and Chronicle. Made up of five people, these small crews were able to work efficiently and in hostile environments, were able to shoot an entire programme with a filming ratio of less than 5:1. Replacing analog video devices, digital video has made significant inroads in television production use. 16 mm is still in use in its Super 16 ratio for low-cost productions. Two perforation pitches are available for 16 mm film.
One specification, known as "long pitch", has a spacing of 0.3000 inch and is used for print and reversal film stocks. Negative and intermediate film stocks have perforations spaced 0.2994 in. Known as "short pitch"; these differences allow for the sharpest and smoothest possible image when making prints using a contact printer. Film stocks are available in either'single-perf' or'double-perf', meaning the film is perforated on either one or both edges. A perforation for 16 mm film is 0.0720 in wide by 0.05 in tall with a radius curve on all four corners of 0.0101 in. Tolerances are ±0.0004 in.. The picture-taking area of standard 16 mm is 10.26 mm by 7.49 mm, an aspect ratio of 1.37:1, the standard pre-widescreen Academy ratio for 35 mm. The "nominal" picture projection area is 0.380 in by 0.284 in, the maximum picture projection area is 0.384 in by 0.286 in, each implying an aspect ratio of 1.34:1. Double-perf 16 mm film, the original format, has a perforation at both sides of every frame line.
Single-perf is perforated at one side only, making room for an optical or magnetic soundtrack along the other side. The variant called Super 16 mm, Super 16, or 16 mm Type W is an adaptation of the 1.66 aspect ratio of the'Paramount format' to 16 mm film. It was developed by Swedish cinematographer Rune Ericson in 1969, using single-sprocket film and taking advantage of the extra room for an expanded picture area of 7.41 mm by 12.52 mm. Super 16 cameras are 16 mm cameras that have had the film gate and ground glass in the viewfinder modified for the wider frame, since this process widens the frame by affecting only one side of the film, the various cameras' front mounting plate or turret areas must be re-machined to shift and re-center the mounts for any taking lenses used; because the resulting, Super 16 aspect-ratio takes up the space reserved for the 16mm soundtrack, films shot in this format must be enlarged by optical printing to 35 mm for sound-projection, and, in order to preserve the proper 1.66:1, or 1.85:1 theatrical aspect ratios which this format was designed to provide.
And, with the recent development of digital intermediate workflows, it is now possible to digitally enlarge to a 35 mm sound print with no quality loss, or alternatively to use high-quality video equipment f
Cyril Nicholas Henty-Dodd, better known by his stage name Simon Dee, was a British television interviewer and radio disc jockey who hosted a twice-weekly BBC TV chat show, Dee Time, in the late 1960s. After moving to London Weekend Television in 1970, he was dropped and his career never recovered, he died of bone cancer in 2009. Dee was born on 28 July 1935, in Manchester, the only child of Cyril Edward Dodd and Doris Gwendoline Pilling who married in 1934 in Salford, he was educated at Shrewsbury School. He served his compulsory national service in the Royal Air Force photo-reconnaissance unit, taking aerial photographs of the combat zone during the 1956 Suez Crisis, being wounded in the face by a sniper in Cyprus. While stationed in Baghdad with RAF Intelligence, he auditioned for British Forces Radio. Demobilised in 1958, his first civilian jobs included bouncer in a coffee bar, photographic assistant to Balfour de Havilland, builders' labourer, leaf-sweeper in Hyde Park, vacuum cleaner salesman.
In 1964, Dee joined Radio Caroline, a pirate radio station broadcasting pop music from a ship moored outside UK territorial waters. He witnessed the station's construction at the Irish port of Greenore, sailed with the ship to its anchorage off the coast of Essex. On 28 March, Holy Saturday, his was the first live voice on the radio station, welcoming listeners and handing over to the only other DJ on the ship at the time, Chris Moore, for the opening programme.. In August 1964, Radio Atlanta became Radio Caroline South. Dee transferred to the former Atlanta ship when the original ship sailed to an anchorage off the Isle of Man to become Radio Caroline North, he left in 1965 to go freelance, but had fallen out with directors of the station beforehand, having refused to play certain records and another occasion when he disobeyed the ship captain's orders. In 1965, Dee was given a job on the BBC Light Programme, he worked on Radio Luxembourg. He told a reporter at the time that he left Caroline "while the going was good".
He joined the team presenting Top of the Pops in 1966, replacing David Jacobs, the following year introduced the Monday edition of Midday Spin on the Light Programme. He fell into early disfavour on Radio 1 after twice playing Scott Walker's recording of Jacques Brel's song "Jackie", banned by the BBC. In 1967, Dee began his early evening chat show Dee Time on BBC 1; the show became popular, with up to 18 million viewers. It opened with sports announcer Len Martin announcing "It's Siiiiimon Dee!", imitating The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, closed with a film sequence of Dee driving off in an E-type Jaguar with blonde model Lorna McDonald. McDonald appeared anonymously at the time, dressed in a "kinky" - style boots; the opening sequence has been described as both "iconic" of the times and a "visual cliché" that lent itself to parody. Dee's biographer Richard Wiseman, associate producer of a "one-off" revival of Dee Time for Channel 4 in 2003, considered that the scene was what "most people who lived in Britain during the Sixties will remember him for".
Only two complete editions of Dee Time survive in the BBC Archives. Dee became successful and adopted an extravagant lifestyle. In 1967, he was the host of the Miss World contest transmitted live on BBC 1 from the Lyceum Ballroom, London, he had cameo roles in films, including The Italian Job and Doctor in Trouble. In the 2004 Channel Four TV programme Dee Construction, fellow DJ Tony Blackburn recalled, "He used to drive up and down the King's Road in an Aston Martin driven by his secretary. To be honest, I thought, a bit of a waste of money". Owing to a disagreement between Dee and the BBC over his huge salary demands, his contract was reviewed in 1969 and he left the channel, he was being paid £250 per show and claimed ITV were offering him £1,000. It is said that the BBC's Head of Light Entertainment Bill Cotton not only refused the pay rise that Dee demanded, but said that he would cut his wages by 20% "to test his loyalty", he was offered £100,000 for a two-year contract with the ITV contractor London Weekend Television and commenced a series with them in January 1970 on a Sunday evening.
It proved a ratings disaster. This coupled with the show only being part-networked with Granada Television screening each edition a week on a Saturday and Yorkshire Television not transmitting the show at all. Dee fell out with the station management and they terminated his contract after only a few months. There was friction between Dee and David Frost, part-owner of London Weekend, after whose show Dee's was broadcast. Both were talk shows, Frost thought that some of Dee's items would make the shows too similar. Dee felt. After a bizarre interview with actor George Lazenby, who outlined at length his theories about the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the show was dropped. In June 1970, Dee joined his former Radio Caroline boss, Ronan O'Rahilly, to campaign for pir
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Thames Television was a franchise holder for a region of the British ITV television network serving London and surrounding area on weekdays from 30 July 1968 until the night of 31 December 1992. It continued as an independent production company until 2003. Formed as a joint company, it merged the television interests of British Electric Traction owning 49%, Associated British Picture Corporation—soon taken over by EMI—owning 51%, it was both a broadcaster and a producer of television programmes, making shows both for the local region it covered and for networking nationally across the ITV regions. The British Film Institute describes Thames as having "served the capital and the network with a long-running, broad-based and extensive series of programmes, several of which either continue or are well-remembered today." Thames covered a broad spectrum of commercial public-service television, with a strong mix of drama, current affairs and comedy. After Thames was acquired by FremantleMedia it was merged with another Fremantle company, Talkback Productions, to form a new independent production company Talkback Thames.
However, on 1 January 2012, the Thames brand was revived and Talkback Thames has now been split into four different labels. From launch on 22 September 1955 to July 1968, the Independent Television Authority contract to provide programming on the ITV network for London on weekdays had been operated by Associated-Rediffusion. Geographical and structural changes in the network, created by the ITA's 1967 invitation for applicants for new franchise contracts for the right to broadcast on ITV, meant that ABC Weekend Television lost both its area franchises, serving the Midlands and the North at weekends, because these areas were to become seven-day operations. ABC applied for both the Midlands seven-day operation and the contract to serve London at the weekend, preferring the latter, it was expected that the company would be awarded the weekend franchise. After an impressive application, it was awarded to what became London Weekend Television in a consortium led by David Frost and others; this led to a serious problem for the ITA as ABC was a popular station, whose productions earned vital foreign currency.
Its station management and presentation style were well-admired, it could have been controversial to dismiss that as a result of purely administrative changes. It was considered difficult for ABC to win the Midlands seven-day contract, because the existing five-days contractor ATV had applied and was a large earner of overseas revenue, having won the Queen's Award for Export in 1966. Rediffusion had believed that its contract renewal was a formality, its application reflected this complacency: the company had treated the ITA high-handedly in interviews. In the early days of ITV, the company had worked hard to keep the network on-air during financial crises that threatened the collapse of other companies Granada Television, it was reported that Rediffusion's chairman Sir John Spencer Wills felt the ITA owed his company a'debt of gratitude' for this, a comment which annoyed the authority. During the interview process several members of Rediffusion management appeared in interviews for applicants for other regions, principally the consortium of which David Frost was a member, as well as the interview for Rediffusion, leading the ITA to question the loyalty at the company.
In programming, Rediffusion was considered stuffy but in the previous contract round of 1964, it had re-invented itself, dropping the name Associated-Rediffusion in favour of the trendier Rediffusion London, to reflect the cultural changes of the time, output altered accordingly. The outcome proposed by the ITA was a "shotgun marriage" between Rediffusion. "The combination of these two companies," announced ITA Chairman Lord Hill, "seemed to the Authority to offer the possibility of a programme company of real excellence." The resultant company was awarded the contract to serve London on weekdays. Control of the new company would be given to ABC, a move unpopular with Rediffusion. Questioning the ITA's decision, Rediffusion attempted to slow down the merger: only the threat of giving the licence to ABC made it relent. To assist Rediffusion financially, the ITA insisted that the new company have two sets of shares: voting shares which would allow ABC to have control and'B' shares which were to be split between the two, thus sharing profits fairly.
The structure of the new company was a problem. A merger between the two existing contract holders Associated British Cinemas Limited and Rediffusion Television Limited was impossible, owing to internal politics, as was a merger between their respective parent companies Associated British Picture Corporation and British Electric Traction; the answer was found to be Thames Television Ltd.. The ITA ordered ABC's managing director Howard Thomas and its director of programmes Brian Tesler to be appointed in similar capacities at the new station, the only individuals named or specified in all 15 franchise awards. ABC had majority control of the new company and the make-up of its board predominantly came from ABC; the use of ABC's old studios at Teddington meant the workforce was predominantly ex-ABC, although those at Kingsway were ex-Rediffusion. After some discussion as to the name of the new company—some directors
And Now for Something Completely Different
And Now for Something Completely Different is a 1971 British sketch comedy film based on the television comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus featuring sketches from the show's first two series. The title was taken from a catchphrase used in the television show; the film, released on 28 September 1971 in the United Kingdom, consists of 90 minutes of sketches seen in the first two series of the television show. All of the sketches were recreated for the film without an audience, were intended for an American audience which had not yet seen the series; the announcer appears between some sketches to deliver the line "and now for something different", in situations such as being roasted on a spit and lying on top of a desk in a small pink bikini. And Now for Something Completely Different is the Pythons' first feature film, composed of some well-known sketches from the first two series of the Flying Circus, including the "Dead Parrot" sketch, "The Lumberjack Song", "Upperclass Twits", "Hell's Grannies", the "Nudge Nudge" sketch and others.
The original sketches was recreated for the film with an low budget slightly rewritten and edited. Financed by Playboy′s UK executive Victor Lownes, it was intended to help Monty Python break into the United States. Although the film was unsuccessful at achieving an American breakthrough, it did well financially in the United Kingdom, in the United States on the "Midnight Movie" circuit, after the Pythons achieved some success there, following their first exposure on US television and the release of Monty Python and the Holy Grail; the group did not consider this film a success, but it enjoys a cult following among Python fans today. The film was the idea of entrepreneur Victor Lownes, head of Playboy UK, who convinced the group that a feature film would be the ideal way to introduce them to the US market. Lownes acted as executive producer. Production of the film did not go smoothly. Lownes tried to exert more control over the group than they had been used to at the BBC. In particular, he objected so to one character—'Ken Shabby'—that his appearance was removed, although stills from both this and a further cut sketch, "Flying Sheep", were published in Monty Python's Big Red Book.
Terry Jones and Michael Palin complained that the vast majority of the film was "nothing more than jokes behind desks." Another argument with Lownes occurred. Because the names of the Pythons were shown in blocks of stone, Lownes insisted that his own name be displayed in a similar manner. Gilliam refused but he was forced to give in. Gilliam created a different style of credit for the Pythons so that in the final version of the film, Lownes' credit is the only one that appears in that way; the budget of the film was low for the time at only £80,000. This is self-referentially acknowledged in the film's Killer Cars animation. You'll notice my mouth isn't moving, either"; the film was shot on location in England and inside an abandoned dairy, rather than on a more costly soundstage. The budget was so low that some effects that were performed in the television series could not be repeated in the film; the origin of the phrase is credited to Christopher Trace, founding presenter of the children's television programme Blue Peter, who used it as a link between segments.
Many of the early episodes of Monty Python's Flying Circus feature a sensible-looking announcer dressed in a black suit and sitting behind a wooden desk, which in turn is in some ridiculous location such as behind the bars of a zoo cage or in mid-air being held aloft by small attached propellers. The announcer would turn to the audience and announce "and now for something different", launching the show's opening credits starting with the second series of the show; the phrase was used as a transition within the show. It would be added to better explain the transition, for instance, "And now for something different: a man with a tape recorder up his nose"; each playing Various characters Graham Chapman John Cleese – Announcer Terry Gilliam – Animations Eric Idle Terry Jones Michael Palin Carol Cleveland Connie Booth How Not to Be Seen: A parody of a government film which first displays the importance of not being seen devolves into various things being blown up, much to the amusement of the narrator.
The narrator composes himself, says "And now for something different," and finds himself being blown up. Animation – Main Titles: Animated by Terry Gilliam. Man with a Tape Recorder up his Nose: Immediately following the main title sequence, a screen appears announcing "The End". An emcee steps onto the stage, explains that the cinema overestimated the film length and announces an interval. In the meantime, two short films are shown – one starring a man with a tape recorder up his nose and another starring a man with a tape recorder up his brother's nose. Dirty Hungarian Phrasebook: A Hungarian gentleman enters a tobacconist's shop and reads from his phrasebook the declaration: "I will not buy this record, it is scratched". Through similar non-sequiturs, he and the proprietor manage to arrange the purchase of a packet of cigarettes, until the Hungarian's phrasebook-guided English
Videotape is magnetic tape used for storing video and sound in addition. Information stored can be in the form of either digital signal. Videotape is used in both video tape recorders or, more videocassette recorders and camcorders. Videotapes are used for storing scientific or medical data, such as the data produced by an electrocardiogram; because video signals have a high bandwidth, stationary heads would require high tape speeds, in most cases, a helical-scan video head rotates against the moving tape to record the data in two dimensions. Tape is a linear method of storing information and thus imposes delays to access a portion of the tape, not under the heads; the early 2000s saw the introduction and rise to prominence of high quality random-access video recording media such as hard disks and flash memory. Since videotape has been relegated to archival and similar uses; the electronics division of entertainer Bing Crosby's production company, Bing Crosby Enterprises, gave the world's first demonstration of a videotape recording in Los Angeles on November 11, 1951.
Developed by John T. Mullin and Wayne R. Johnson since 1950, the device gave what were described as "blurred and indistinct" images using a modified Ampex 200 tape recorder and standard quarter-inch audio tape moving at 360 inches per second. A year an improved version using one-inch magnetic tape was shown to the press, who expressed amazement at the quality of the images although they had a "persistent grainy quality that looked like a worn motion picture". Overall the picture quality was still considered inferior to the best kinescope recordings on film. Bing Crosby Enterprises hoped to have a commercial version available in 1954 but none came forth; the BBC experimented from 1952 to 1958 with a high-speed linear videotape system called VERA, but this was unfeasible. It used half-inch tape on 20-inch reels traveling at 200 inches per second. RCA demonstrated the magnetic tape recording of both black-and-white and color television programs at its Princeton laboratories on December 1, 1953.
The high-speed longitudinal tape system, called Simplex, in development since 1951, could record and play back only a few minutes of a television program. The color system used half-inch tape on 10-1/2 inch reels to record five tracks, one each for red, green and audio; the black-and-white system used quarter-inch tape on 10-1/2 inch reels with two tracks, one for video and one for audio. Both systems ran at 360 inches per second with 2,500 feet on a reel. RCA-owned NBC first used it on The Jonathan Winters Show on October 23, 1956 when a prerecorded song sequence by Dorothy Collins in color was included in the otherwise live television program. In 1953, Dr. Norikazu Sawazaki developed a prototype helical scan video tape recorder. BCE demonstrated a color system in February 1955 using a longitudinal recording on half-inch tape. CBS, RCA's competitor, was about to order BCE machines when Ampex introduced the superior Quadruplex system. BCE was acquired by 3M Company in 1956. In 1959, Toshiba released the first commercial helical scan video tape recorder.
The first commercial professional broadcast quality videotape machines capable of replacing kinescopes were the two-inch quadruplex videotape machines introduced by Ampex on April 14, 1956 at the National Association of Broadcasters convention in Chicago. Quad employed a transverse four-head system on a two-inch tape, stationary heads for the sound track. CBS Television first used the Ampex VRX-1000 Mark IV at its Television City studios in Hollywood on November 30, 1956 to play a delayed broadcast of Douglas Edwards and the News from New York City to the Pacific Time Zone. On January 22, 1957, the NBC Television game show Truth or Consequences, produced in Hollywood, became the first program to be broadcast in all time zones from a prerecorded videotape. Ampex introduced a color videotape recorder in 1958 in a cross-licensing agreement with RCA, whose engineers had developed it from an Ampex black-and-white recorder. NBC's special, An Evening With Fred Astaire, is the oldest surviving television network color videotape, has been restored by the UCLA Film and Television Archive.
On December 7, 1963, instant replay was used for the first time during the live transmission of the Army–Navy Game by its inventor, director Tony Verna. Although Quad became the industry standard for thirty years, it has drawbacks such as an inability to freeze pictures, no picture search. In early machines, a tape could reliably be played back using only the same set of hand-made tape heads, which wore out quickly. Despite these problems, Quad is capable of producing excellent images. Subsequent videotape systems have used helical scan, where the video heads record diagonal tracks onto the tape. Many early videotape recordings were not preserved. While much less expensive and more convenient than kinescope, the high cost of 3M Scotch 179 and other early videotapes meant that most broadcasters erased and reused them, regarded videotape as a better and more cost-effective means of time-delaying broadcasts than kinescopes, it was the four time zones of the continental United States which had made the system desirable in the first place.
However, some classic television programs recorded on studio videotape still exist, are available on DVD – among them NBC's Peter Pan with Mary Martin as Peter, several episodes o
Ioanna Mouschouri, known professionally as Nana Mouskouri, is a Greek singer. During the span of her music career she has released over 200 albums and singles in at least twelve different languages, including Greek, English, Dutch, Portuguese, Hebrew, Mandarin Chinese and Corsican. Mouskouri became well-known throughout Europe for the song "The White Rose of Athens", recorded first in German as "Weiße Rosen aus Athen" as an adaptation of her Greek song "Σαν σφυρίξεις τρείς φορές", it became her first record to sell over one million copies. In 1963, she represented Luxembourg at the Eurovision Song Contest with the song "À force de prier", her friendship with the composer Michel Legrand led to the recording by Mouskouri of the theme song of the Oscar-nominated film The Umbrellas of Cherbourg. From 1968 to 1976, she hosted her own TV show produced by Presenting Nana Mouskouri, her popularity as a multilingual television personality and distinctive image, owing to the unusual signature black-rimmed glasses, turned Mouskouri into an international star.
"Je chante avec toi Liberté", recorded in 1981, is her biggest hit to date, performed in at least five languages – French, English as "Song for Liberty", German as "Lied der Freiheit", Spanish as "Libertad" and Portuguese as "Liberdade". "Only Love", a song recorded in 1985 as the theme song of tv-series Mistral's Daughter, gained worldwide popularity along with its other versions in French, Italian and German. It became her only UK hit single when it reached number two in February 1986. Mouskouri became a spokesperson for UNICEF in 1993 and was elected to the European Parliament as a Greek deputy from 1994 to 1999. In 2015 she was awarded the Echo Music Prize for Outstanding achievements by the German music association Deutsche Phono-Akademie. Nana Mouskouri's family lived in Chania, where her father, worked as a film projectionist in a local cinema; when Mouskouri was three, her family moved to Athens. Mouskouri's family sent her older sister Eugenía to the Athens Conservatoire. Although Mouskouri had displayed exceptional musical talent from age six, Jenny appeared to be the more gifted sibling.
Financially unable to support both girls' studies, the parents asked their tutor which one should continue. The sister conceded that Jenny had the better voice, but Nana was the one with the true inner need to sing. Mouskouri has said that a medical examination revealed she only has one functioning vocal cord and this could well account for her remarkable singing voice, as opposed to her breathy, raspy speaking voice. Mouskouri's early childhood was marked by the German Nazi occupation of Greece, her father became part of the anti-Nazi resistance movement in Athens. Mouskouri began singing lessons at age 12; as a child, she listened to radio broadcasts of singers including Frank Sinatra, Ella Fitzgerald, Billie Holiday, Édith Piaf. In 1950, she was accepted at the Conservatoire, she studied classical music with an emphasis on singing opera. After eight years at the Conservatoire, Mouskouri was encouraged by her friends to experiment with jazz music, she began singing with her friends' jazz group at night.
However, when Mouskouri's Conservatory professor found out about Mouskouri's involvement with a genre of music, not in keeping with her classical studies, he prevented her from sitting for her end-of-year exams. During an episode of "Joanna Lumley's Greek Odyssey", shown on the UK ITV channel in the autumn of 2011, Mouskouri told the actress Joanna Lumley how she had been scheduled to sing at the amphitheatre at Epidauros with other students of the Conservatoire, when upon arrival at the amphitheatre word came through from the Conservatoire in Athens that she had just been barred from participating in the performance there due to her involvement in light music. Mouskouri subsequently began performing at the Zaki club in Athens, she began singing jazz in nightclubs with a bias towards Ella Fitzgerald repertoire. In 1957, she recorded her first song, "Fascination", in both Greek and English for Odeon/EMI Greece. By 1958 while still performing at the Zaki, she met Greek composer Manos Hadjidakis.
Hadjidakis was offered to write songs for her. In 1959 Mouskouri performed Hadjidakis' "Κάπου υπάρχει η αγάπη μου" at the inaugural Greek Song Festival; the song won first prize, Mouskouri began to be noticed. At the 1960 Greek Song Festival, she performed two more Hadjidakis compositions, "Τιμωρία" and "Κυπαρισσάκι". Both these songs tied for first prize. Mouskouri performed Kostas Yannidis' composition, "Ξύπνα αγάπη μου", at the Mediterranean Song Festival, held in Barcelona that year; the song won first prize, she went on to sign a recording contract with Paris-based Philips-Fontana. In 1961, Mouskouri performed the soundtrack of a German documentary about Greece; this resulted in the German-language single Weiße Rosen aus Athen. The song was adapted by Hadjidakis from a folk melody, it became a success. The song was translated into several languages and it went