John Qualen was a Canadian-American character actor of Norwegian heritage who specialized in Scandinavian roles. Qualen was born in the son of immigrants from Norway, his father's ministering meant many moves and John was 20 when he graduated from Elgin High School in 1920. Though he was awarded a scholarship to Northwestern University after he won an oratory contest he never attended college. In a Milwaukee Journal interview he said he needed to start working and did so with the Chattaqua Circuit. Reaching Broadway, he gained his big break as the Swedish janitor in Elmer Rice's Street Scene, his movie career began. This was followed by his appearance in John Ford's Arrowsmith which began a more than thirty year membership in the director's "stock company", with important supporting roles in The Searchers, Two Rode Together, The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance and Cheyenne Autumn. Appearing in well over one hundred films, acting extensively on television into the 1970s, Qualen performed many of his roles with various accents Scandinavian intended for comic effect.
Three of his more memorable roles showcase his versatility. Qualen assumed a Midwestern dialect as Muley, who recounts the destruction of his farm by the bank in Ford's The Grapes of Wrath, as the confused killer Earl Williams in Howard Hawks' classic comedy His Girl Friday; as Berger, the jewelry-selling Norwegian resistance member in Michael Curtiz' Casablanca, he essayed a light Scandinavian accent, but put on a thicker Mediterranean accent as the homeward-bound fisherman Locota in William Wellman's The High and the Mighty Qualen was treasurer of The Authors Club and historian of The Masquers, Hollywood's social group for actors. John Qualen was blind in his years, he died of heart failure in 1987 in Torrance and was interred in the Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale. He was survived by his three daughters. Alfred Hitchcock Presents, episode "A Bullet for Baldwin" – Benjamin Steep Alfred Hitchcock Presents, episode "Help Wanted" – Mr. Crabtree Alfred Hitchcock Presents, episode "Shopping for Death" – Elmer Shore Father Knows Best, episode "The Bus to Nowhere" - Old Man Cheyenne, episode "Deadline" – Charley Dolan Maverick, episode "The Lonesome Reunion" – Leland Mills The Californians episode "J. Jimmerson Jones, Inc." -- J. Jimmerson Jones Sea Hunt Season 3, Episode 31 Mister Ed, episode "Ed's New Shoes" – Axel Bonanza, episode "Springtime" – Parley Maverick, episode "The Golden Fleecing" – Henry Albright The Andy Griffith Show, episode "The Jinx" – Henry Bennett Laramie, episode "Shadow of the Past" – Mr. Elbee The Real McCoys, episode "Cupid Wore a Tail" – Frank The Real McCoys, episode "The Other Side of the Fence" – Frank Make Room for Daddy, episodes "Sense of Humor" and "Call Off the Hounds" – Swenson, the Janitor The Virginian, episode "A Bride for Lars" – Gosta Swenson The Girl from U.
N. C. L. E. Episode "The Jewels of Topango Affair" – Dr. Elmer Spritzer Hazel, episode "A Question of Ethics" – Mr. Johansson Shane, episode "The Hant" - Old Man I Spy, episode "Red Sash of Courage" – Hannos Green Acres, episode "Eb's Romance" - Mr. Appleby Green Acres, episode "The Ex-Con" - Willy Dunhill The Odd Couple, episode “The Taste Of Money” - Sam Make Room for Granddaddy, episode "The Arm Wrestle" Folsom The Partridge Family episode "My Heart Belongs to a Two Car Garage" – The Old Man The F. B. I. episode "The Detonator" Movin' On, episode "Life Line" – Liggett John Qualen on IMDb John Qualen at the Internet Broadway Database John Qualen at Find a Grave Photos of John Qualen from The Long Voyage Home by Ned Scott
Robert Bushnell Ryan was an American actor who most portrayed hardened cops and ruthless villains. Ryan was born in Chicago, the first child of Mable Arbutus, a secretary, Timothy Aloysius Ryan, from a wealthy family that owned a real estate firm, he was of English descent. Ryan was educated at Loyola Academy, he graduated from Dartmouth College in 1932, having held the school's heavyweight boxing title all four years of his attendance. After graduation, the 6′4" Ryan found employment as a stoker on a ship to Africa, a WPA worker, a ranch hand in Montana, among other odd jobs, he returned home in 1936 when his father died, decided to become an actor. In 1937 Ryan joined a little theatre group in Chicago; the following year he enrolled in the Max Reinhardt Workshop in Hollywood. In November 1939 Paramount signed Ryan to a long term contract, they announced. Ryan had small parts in The Ghost Breakers and Queen of the Mob, a his first credited role in Golden Gloves, directed by Edward Dmytryk, who would go on to make several films with Ryan.
Ryan had small bits in Texas Rangers Ride Again. Paramount dropped him, he went to Broadway where he was cast in a production of Clifford Odets' Clash by Night, directed by Lee Strasberg and produced by Billy Rose starring Tallulah Bankhead and Lee J. Cobb, it only had a run of 49 performances but was high profile and led to him being signed to a long term contract by RKO. Ryan a good role in Bombardier, starring Pat O'Brien, was fourth billed in a Fred Astaire musical The Sky's the Limit, playing a friend of Astaire. Both films were popular, he had a good part in Behind the Rising Sun, directed by Dmytryk, a huge box office success. Ryan was third billed in The Iron Major, with O'Brien, Gangway for Tomorrow. RKO promoted him to star status in Tender Comrade, where he was Ginger Rogers' leading man, directed for the third time by Dymytryk, it was a bit hit. Popular was Marine Raiders which Ryan co-starred alongside O'Brien again. Ryan enlisted in the United States Marine Corps and served as a drill instructor at Camp Pendleton, located between Oceanside and San Clemente in Southern California.
At Camp Pendleton, he befriended writer and future director Richard Brooks, whose novel, The Brick Foxhole, he admired. He took up painting, his military service was from January 1944 to November 1945. When Ryan was discharged from the Marine Corps he returned to RKO who put him in a Randolph Scott western, Trail Street, popular, he was in The Woman on the Beach with Joan Bennett for Jean Renoir, which lost money. Ryan's breakthrough film role was as an anti-Semitic killer in Crossfire, a film noir based on Brooks's novel, directed by Dmytryk and co-starring Robert Young, Robert Mitchum and Gloria Grahame; the role won Ryan his sole career Oscar nomination, for Best Supporting Actor. The film was successful at the box office. Ryan co starred with Merle Oberon in Berlin Express for director Jacques Tourneur, he was reunited with Scott in Return of the Bad Men, with O'Brien in The Boy with Green Hair for Joseph Losey and produced by Dore Schary, head of production at RKO. MGM borrowed him to make Act of Violence for Fred Zinnemann.
He stayed at that studio to make Caught for Max Ophuls with James Mason. Back at RKO Ryan had one of his best roles, The Set-Up, directed by Robert Wise, as an over-the-hill boxer, brutally punished for refusing to take a dive, he was top billed in The Woman on Pier 13, an anti-communist melodrama directed by Robert Stevenson, made at the prompting of RKO's new owner, Howard Hughes. Ryan did some film noirs: The Secret Fury with Claudette Colbert directed by Mel Ferrer, Born to Be Bad directed by Nicholas Ray. In 1950 the studio bought The Miami Story as a vehicle for him, he made a Western, Best of the Badmen, a war film with John Wayne, Flying Leathernecks, directed by Ray. It was announced he was working on an original film story called The Alpine Slide about avalanches, but no film resulted. Ryan was reteamed with Robert Mitchum, his Crossfire co star, in The Racket, directed by John Cromwell, he did another film noir for Nicholas Ray, On Dangerous Ground, with Ida Lupino the film adaptation of Clash by Night with Barbara Stanwyck and Marilyn Monroe under Fritz Lang.
According to David Thomson, "at RKO Ryan created the character of a modern neurotic such as the American screen had not dreamed of before. "His last film at RKO for a number of years was Beware, My Lovely with Lupino, done for Lupino's company. Ryan went over to MGM where he played a villain in Anthony Mann's western The Naked Spur, starring James Stewart, it was popular. He did City Beneath the Sea for Budd Boetticher at Universal, Inferno at MGM, Alaska Seas at Paramount, he was the leading man for Shirley Booth in About Mrs. Greer Garson in Her Twelve Men; the latter was made at MGM, now being run by Dore Schary. Schary cast Ryan as the head villain in Bad Day at Black Rock, he did an off Broadway production of Coriolanus directed by John Houseman. Ryan returned to RKO for Escape to Burma with Stanwyck. More seen was Sam Fuller's House of Bamboo and Raoul Walsh's The Tall Men, both at Fox. By now his fee was $150,000 a film, he starred in The Proud Ones (
George J. Lewis
George J. Lewis was a Mexican-born actor who appeared in many films and TV series from the 1920s through the 1960s specializing in westerns, he is best known for playing Don Alejandro de la Vega, Don Diego de la Vega's father in the 1950s Disney television series Zorro. Lewis co-starred in Zorro's Black Whip and had a minor role in Ghost of Zorro before starring as Don Alejandro in the Disney series. Lewis broke into films in the 1920s, his handsome presence led to leading roles in a Universal Pictures short-subject series, The Collegians; the arrival of sound movies came as a blessing for Lewis, bilingual. He spoke English without any trace of accent, could play character or dialect roles of any ethnicity, his language skills earned him leading roles in Spanish-dialogue features, produced by American studios for international release. He played supporting roles in Educational Pictures shorts. Most of Lewis' screen work was in low-budget films, although he can be seen in a few major productions.
Some of his roles were sympathetic. George J. Lewis played villains in westerns and serials, chiefly at Republic Pictures. Cast as a sinister henchman, Lewis would carry out the villain's diabolical orders, setting death traps and ambushes week after week; the high point of Lewis's serial career was the 1945 Republic cliffhanger Federal Operator 99, in which he was the full-fledged villain of the piece, playing "Moonlight Sonata" on a piano while plotting crimes. Holding the heroine captive, the nonchalant Lewis asks the hero: "What will it be? Cash for me... or incineration for Miss Kingston?" He appeared in Three Stooges films as Vernon Dent's knife-wielding conspirator in the Stooge short Malice in the Palace, its remake, Rumpus in the Harem. He was featured with the Stooges in Hollywood's final two-reel comedy release, Sappy Bull Fighters. Many low-budget filmmakers scored successes in early television, many familiar faces turned up in half-hour action fare. Lewis appeared in the first two episodes of The Lone Ranger which were "Enter the Lone Ranger" and "The Lone Ranger Fights On".
He was a villain who helped betray a group of Texas Rangers and led them all into a deadly ambush, with the series star of course being the lone survivor. He played a Native American in an Adventures of Superman episode called "Test of a Warrior." Lewis was cast as General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo in the 1956 episode, "The Bear Flag" of the syndicated anthology series, Death Valley Days, hosted by Stanley Andrews. The episode explains the tensions in 1846 between established Hispanic families in California and the newly-arrived white settlers from the United States. General Vallejo seeks accommodation with the forces headed by Ezekiel "Stuttering Zeke" Merritt in establishing the short-term Bear Flag Republic. Lewis continued to work in dozens of television episodes including Daniel Boone & Cheyenne until he retired in 1969. Lewis died two days before his 92nd birthday. George J. Lewis on IMDb
John F. Seitz
John Francis Seitz, A. S. C. was inventor. He was nominated for seven Academy Awards, his Hollywood career began in 1909 as a lab assistant with the Essanay Film Manufacturing Company in Chicago. He went to work as a lab technician for the American Film Manufacturing Company in Chicago. In 1916 during the silent era he established himself, achieving great successes with the Rudolph Valentino film, The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. Regarded by director Billy Wilder, Seitz worked with him on the film noirs Double Indemnity, The Lost Weekend, Sunset Boulevard, receiving Academy Award nominations for each. During his career he received seven nominations for Academy Award for Best Cinematography. In 1929 he served as president of the American Society of Cinematographers for a year, had been a member since 1923; the A. S. C. named the 2002 Heritage Award after Seitz. Seitz devoted himself to photographic inventions for which he held 18 patents. An example of a Seitz invention is the matte shot: a large painting is photographed separately and added to a scene to expand it, add effects, and/or create a sense of depth in backgrounds.
He was noted for his innovations with low-key lighting, which enhanced the film noir style. A widower, he married screenwriter Marie Boyle in 1934 who raised his daughter Margaret Alice Marhoefer and gave birth to a son, John Lawrence Seitz. Burial: Holy Cross Cemetery. Source: Look Magazine Award: Cinematography The Lost Weekend. Note: No official nominees had been announced this year. Academy Awards: Oscar, Black-and-White, Five Graves to Cairo. Academy Awards: Oscar, Best Cinematography, Black-and-White, Double Indemnity. Academy Awards: Oscar, Best Cinematography, Black-and-White, The Lost Weekend. Academy Awards: Oscar, Best Cinematography, Black-and-White. Golden Globes: Golden Globe Award, Best Cinematography and White, Sunset Blvd.. Academy Awards: Oscar, Best Cinematography, Color. Academy Awards: Oscar, Best Cinematography, Black-and-White. John F. Seitz on IMDb John F. Seitz at AllMovie John F. Seitz at the TCM Movie Database John F. Seitz at Film Reference John F. Seitz short film clips of his cinematography work at YouTube
Alan Walbridge Ladd was an American actor and film and television producer. Ladd found success in film in the 1940s and early 1950s in Westerns such as Shane and in films noir, he was paired with Veronica Lake, in noirish films such as This Gun for Hire, The Glass Key and The Blue Dahlia. His other notable credits include Two Years Before the Mast, Whispering Smith, his first Western and color film, The Great Gatsby, his popularity diminished in the late 1950s, though he continued to appear in popular films until his accidental death due to a lethal combination of alcohol, a barbiturate, two tranquilizers. Ladd was born in Hot Springs, Arkansas, on 3 September 1913, he was the only child of Ina Raleigh, Alan Ladd, a freelance accountant. His mother had migrated to the US in 1907 when she was nineteen, his father died of a heart attack. On 3 July 1918 a young Alan accidentally burned down the family home, his mother moved to Oklahoma City, where she married a housepainter. In the early 1920s an economic downturn led to Ladd's family moving to California, a journey which took four months.
They lived in a migrant camp in Pasadena at first before moving to the San Fernando Valley where Beavers went to work at FBO Studios as a painter. Ladd enrolled in North Hollywood High School on 18 February 1930, he became a high school swimming and diving champion and participated in high school dramatics in his senior year, including the role of "Koko" in The Mikado. His diving skills led to his appearance in an aquatic show, Marinella in July 1933. Ladd's performance in The Mikado was seen by a talent scout. In August 1933 Ladd was one of a group of young "discoveries" signed to a long-term contract with Universal Pictures; the contract had options which could go for seven years. Ladd appeared unbilled in a film, Once in a Lifetime, but the studio decided Ladd was too blond and too short and dropped him after six months. At 20, Ladd graduated from high school on 1 February 1934, he worked in the advertising department of the San Fernando Sun Valley Record becoming the newspaper's ad manager.
When the paper changed hands Ladd lost his job. He sold cash registers and borrowed $150 to open up his own hamburger and malt shop across from his old high school, which he called Tiny's Patio; however he was unable to make a success of the shop. In another attempt to break into the film industry, Ladd went to work at Warner Bros. as a grip, ended up staying two years. He was decided to quit. Ladd managed to save and borrow enough money to attend an acting school run by Ben Bard, who had taught him when he was under contract at Universal. Ladd wound up appearing in several stage productions for Bard. Bard recalled Ladd "was such a shy guy he just wouldn't speak up loud and strong. I had to get him to lower his voice too, it was too high. I insisted that he get himself a decent set of dentures."In 1936 Ladd played an unbilled role in Pigskin Parade. He had short term stints at MGM and RKO, but only got regular professional acting work when he turned to radio. Ladd's rich, deep voice was ideal for that medium and in 1936 he ended up being signed by station KFWB as their sole radio actor.
He stayed for three years at KFWB doing up to 20 shows a week. Ladd was playing the roles of a son on radio one night when heard by the agent Sue Carol, she was told it was the one person. She arranged to meet him and impressed by his looks she signed him to her books and enthusiastically promoted her new client in films as well as radio. Ladd's first notable part under Carol's management was the 1939 film Rulers of the Sea, in which he played a character named "Colin Farrell" at $250 a week, he received attention for a small part in Hitler – Beast of Berlin. Ladd tested unsuccessfully for the lead in Golden Boy but obtained many small roles, such as the serial The Green Hornet, Her First Romance, The Black Cat and the Disney film The Reluctant Dragon. Most notably he had a small uncredited part in Citizen Kane, playing a newspaper reporter towards the end of the film. Ladd's career gained extra momentum when he was cast in a featured role in a wartime drama made at RKO, Joan of Paris, it was only a small part but it involved a touching death scene which brought him attention within the industry.
RKO would offer Ladd a contract at $400 a week. However he soon received a better offer over at Paramount. Paramount had owned the film rights to Graham Greene's novel, A Gun for Sale since 1936 but waited until 1941 before making a movie out of it, changing the title to This Gun for Hire. Director Frank Tuttle was struggling to find a new actor to play the role of "Raven", a hitman with a conscience. Ladd auditioned and Paramount signed him to a long-term contract in September 1941 for $300 a week; the New York Times reported shortly afterwards that: Tuttle and the studio are showing more than a passing enthusiasm for Ladd. He has been trying to get a foothold in pictures for eight years but received no encouragement although he tried every angle known to town—extra work, bit parts, stock contracts, dramatic schools, assault of the casting offices. Sue Carol, the former silent star, now an agent, undertook to advance th
Anthony Caruso (actor)
Anthony Caruso was an American character actor in more than one hundred American films playing villains and gangsters, including the first season of Walt Disney's Zorro as Captain Juan Ortega. Born in Frankfort, the son of Italian immigrants Anthony Bagarelli Caruso and Augustina Taormina Caruso; when he was ten years old and his family moved to Long Beach, where he grew up. He made his film debut in Johnny Apollo. In some of his television roles, Caruso played sympathetic characters, like "Ash", on an early episode of CBS's Gunsmoke, he guest-starred on two of Rod Cameron's syndicated series, City Detective and COronado 9. In 1954, Caruso played Tiburcio Vásquez in an episode of Jim Davis's syndicated western series, Stories of the Century, he appeared in Crusader. Among Caruso's other Western credits was 1954's Cattle Queen of Montana. In 1957, he appeared in the fourth episode of the first season of the TV western, "Have Gun, Will Travel" entitled "The Winchester Quarantine". At Christmas 1957, Caruso appeared as a Roman Catholic priest in the episode "The Child" of NBC's The Restless Gun.
In 1959, he was cast as George Bradley in the episode "Annie's Old Beau" on the NBC children's western series, Buckskin. That same year, he portrayed Matt Cleary on CBS's Wanted: Dead or Alive episode "The Littlest Client", with Steve McQueen. 1959, he guest-starred on the ABC/Warner Brothers western series, Sugarfoot, in the episode "The Extra Hand", along with guest stars Karl Swenson and Jack Lambert and the series star, Will Hutchins. The same year he appeared in the'Syndicate Sanctuary' episode of "The Untouchables". In 1960, Caruso played a Cherokee Indian, Chief White Bull, in the episode "The Long Trail" of the NBC western series, starring Darren McGavin. In the storyline, a group of Indians are being moved by the river vessel, the Enterprise, rather than walking the Trail of Tears to their reservation in Indian Territory. Harry Lauter and Dennis Cross appear with Caruso in this episode. In 1961, he appeared twice on the ABC/Warner Brothers drama series, The Roaring 20s, including the role of Lucky Lombardi in "The Maestro".
He was cast with Will Hutchins in a second The Roaring 20s episode entitled, "Pie in the Sky." Early in 1961, he was cast as Velde in the episode "Willy's Millionaire" of the short-lived ABC adventure series, The Islanders, with Diane Brewster. Caruso guest-starred in an episode of the ABC western series, The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters, based on a Robert Lewis Taylor novel of the same name. Caruso guest-starred three times on CBS's Perry Mason. In 1962, he played Keith Lombard in "The Case of the Playboy Pugilist." In 1965, he made two appearances, both times as the murder victim: first as title character Enrico Bacio in "The Case of the Sad Sicilian," as Harvey Rettig in "The Case of the Runaway Racer." In 1966, Caruso guest-starred in the Barry Sullivan western series The Road West, set in Kansas, in the episode entitled "This Dry and Thirsty Land". In 1964, he guest-starred in the Bonanza episode'The Saga of Squaw Charlie' playing a Native American man shunned by everybody and with only two friends, Ben Cartwright and a little girl named Angela.
In 1969 he starred alongside Ricardo Montalban in Desperate Mission, a fictionalized telling of the life of Joaquin Murrieta. From 1966 to 1970 he guest-starred three times on the long-running NBC western The Virginian, starring James Drury. In 1965 he guest-starred on ABC's The Addams Family as Don Xavier Molinas; some of his more memorable roles were that of the alien gangster "Bela Oxmyx" in the classic Star Trek episode "A Piece of the Action", Chief Blackfish on the NBC series Daniel Boone, Mongo in the film Tarzan and the Leopard Woman, Sengo in Tarzan and the Slave Girl, Louis Ciavelli in The Asphalt Jungle. Caruso played the comical character of the Native American "Red Cloud" on the 1965 Get Smart episode "Washington 4, Indians 3". In 1970, Caruso made a guest appearance on the ABC crime drama The Silent Force in the episode "A Family Tradition." In 1974, he appeared in the final episode, entitled "The Fire Dancer," of the ABC police drama Nakia. Caruso met his future wife, Tonia at the Alcazar Theater in 1939 in San Francisco, when the play she was in was closing and the play he was in was opening.
In stark contrast to his screen image, Caruso was the consummate family man in private life married for 63 years, enjoying the simple pleasures of gardening and cooking. He was the father of son and daughter, Tina. Caruso died three days before his 87th birthday in Brentwood in California, his ashes were scattered into the Pacific Ocean. Anthony Caruso's mother was named Augustina Taormina Caruso. Anthony Caruso at Find a Grave Anthony Caruso on IMDb Anthony Caruso at Memory Alpha
Frank Gruber was an American writer. He was an author of stories for pulp fiction magazines, he wrote dozens of novels Westerns and detective stories. Gruber wrote many scripts for Hollywood movies and television shows, was the creator of three TV series, he sometimes wrote under the pen names Stephen Acre, Charles K. Boston and John K. Vedder. Gruber said that as a 9-year-old newsboy, he read his first book, "Luke Walton, the Chicago Newsboy" by Horatio Alger. During the next seven years he read a hundred more Alger books and said they influenced him professionally more than anything else in his life, they told how poor boys became rich, but what they instilled in Gruber was an ambition at age nine or 10, to be an author. He had written his first book before age 11. Age 13 or 14, his ambition died for a while but several years it rose again and he started submitting stories to various magazines, like Smart Set and Atlantic Monthly. Getting rejected, he lowered his sights to The Saturday Evening Post and Colliers, with no more success.
The pulps were getting noticed and Gruber tried those but with no success. As a story came back with a rejection slip, he would post it off again to someone else, so he could have as many as forty stories going back and forth at different times, costing him about a third of his earnings in postage. Erle Stanley Gardner called him the fighter. February 1927, he sold a story, it was bought by The United Brethren Publishing House of Dayton. It was called "The Two Dollar Raise" and he got a cheque through for three dollars and fifty cents. Answering an ad in the Chicago Tribune, he got. In September he soon found himself editing five farm papers, he had lots of money and wrote some articles for the papers but found he had no time to write the stories he wanted to write. In 1932 the Depression hit, he lost his job. 1932 to 1934 were his bad years. He wrote and wrote, many stories typed out on an old "Remington" but of the Sunday School stories, the spicy sex stories, the detective stories, the sports stories, the love stories few sold, with some companies paying him as little as a quarter of a cent per word.
He had a few successes and remained in Mt. Morris, Illinois for 14 months before deciding to head to New York on July 1, 1934. There were numerous publishing houses in New York and he could save money on postage but this led to him walking miles to deliver manuscripts as he had so little money, not enough for food most of the time, he stayed in a room in the Forty Fourth Street Hotel. In his book, The Pulp Jungle, Gruber details the struggles he had for a few years and numerous fellow authors he became friendly with, many of whom were famous or became famous. Early December 1934 and with endless rejection slips, he got a phone call from Rogers Terrill. Could he do a 5,500 word filler story for Operator #5 pulp magazine by next day? He got paid. Better, they wanted another one next month, another, he was asked to do a filler for Ace Sports pulp, which sold. Gruber's income from writing in 1934 was under $400. In 1935, his stories were wanted and he earned $10,000 that year, his wife came to live with him and he lived the good life, moving into a big apartment and buying a Buick.
January 1942, Gruber decided to try Hollywood, having heard about the huge sums some stories sold for and stayed there till 1946. Gruber—who stated that only seven types of Westerns existed—wrote more than 300 stories for over 40 pulp magazines, as well as more than sixty novels, which had sold more than ninety million copies in 24 countries, sixty five screenplays, a hundred television scripts. Twenty five of his books have sold to motion pictures, he created three TV series: Tales of Wells Fargo, The Texan and Shotgun Slade, his first novel, The Peace Marshall, rejected by every agent in New York at the time, became a film called "The Kansan", starting Richard Dix. The book has been reprinted many times with total sales of over one million copies, he bragged that he could write a complete mystery novel in 16 days and use the other 14 days of the month to knock out a historical serial for a magazine. His mystery novels included The Laughing Fox. Gruber said that, while in the Army, he learned how to manipulate the dice to throw 35 consecutive sevens, but that he had "lost this skill through lack of practice".
He was a social drinker in the thirties, being too busy to become a hard drinker, but just about gave up alcohol. List of Ace western double titles Works written by or about Frank Gruber at Wikisource Frank Gruber on IMDb Biography of Frank Gruber, with lists of works at The Thrilling Detective website