The Big Sleep (1946 film)

The Big Sleep is a 1946 film noir directed by Howard Hawks, the first film version of the 1939 novel of the same name by Raymond Chandler. The film stars Humphrey Bogart as private detective Philip Marlowe and Lauren Bacall as Vivian Rutledge in a story about the "process of a criminal investigation, not its results". William Faulkner, Leigh Brackett and Jules Furthman co-wrote the screenplay. In 1997, the U. S. Library of Congress deemed the film "culturally or aesthetically significant," and added it to the National Film Registry. Parts of the original, unreleased 1945 cut were rescripted and shot to take advantage of the public's fascination with "Bogie and Bacall"; the original 1945 version was restored and released in 1997. Private detective Philip Marlowe is summoned to the mansion of General Sternwood; the general wants to resolve the ‘gambling debts’ that his daughter Carmen owes to bookseller Arthur Gwynn Geiger. As Marlowe is leaving, Sternwood's older daughter, the divorced Mrs. Vivian Rutledge, stops him.

She suspects her father's true motive for calling in a detective is to find his protégé Sean Regan, who had mysteriously disappeared a month earlier. Marlowe goes to Geiger's shop, minded by Agnes Louzier, follows Geiger home. Hearing a gunshot and a woman’s scream, he breaks in to find Geiger's body and a drugged Carmen, as well as a hidden camera empty of film. After taking Carmen back home, he discovers the body has disappeared. Vivian comes to Marlowe's office the next morning with scandalous pictures of Carmen that she received with a blackmail demand for the negatives. Marlowe returns to Geiger's bookstore and follows a car to the apartment of Joe Brody, a gambler who blackmailed General Sternwood, he finds Carmen in Geiger's house, where she insists that it was Brody who killed Geiger. They are interrupted by small-time gangster Eddie Mars. Marlowe goes to Brody's apartment, they are interrupted by Carmen. Marlowe sends Vivian and Carmen home. Brody admits that it was he, behind the blackmailing has to answer the door and is shot.

Marlowe chases the killer and apprehends Carol Lundgren, Geiger's former driver, who believes Brody is swindling him. Marlowe arranges for them to come and arrest the killer. Marlowe visits Mars' casino, where he asks about Regan, supposed to have run off with Mars' wife. Mars tells Marlowe that Vivian is running up gambling debts. Vivian wins a big wager and wants Marlowe to take her home. A stooge of Mars' attempts to rob Vivian. While driving back, Marlowe presses Vivian on her connection with Mars. Back at his own home, Marlowe finds a flirtatious Carmen waiting for him, she says she mentions that Mars calls Vivian frequently. When she attempts to seduce Marlowe, he throws her out of his apartment; the next day, Vivian tells him. Mars has Marlowe beaten up to stop him investigating further, he is found by an associate of Brody's who wants to marry Agnes. Jones conveys an offer from her to reveal the location of Mars' wife for $200; when Marlowe goes to meet him and be taken to where she is hiding, he spots Canino, a gunman hired by Mars, there to find Agnes himself.

Canino poisons Jones after he discloses Agnes' location. Agnes telephones the office while Marlowe is still there and he arranges to meet her, she reveals. When he gets there, Marlowe is attacked by Canino, he wakes to find himself tied up, with Mona watching over him. Vivian frees Marlowe, allowing him to get to his gun and kill Canino, they drive back together and Marlowe calls Mars from Geiger's house, pretending to be still in Realito. Mars arrives with four men; when Mars enters, Marlowe reveals that he has discerned the truth: Mars has been blackmailing Vivian, claiming that her sister Carmen had killed Regan. He forces Mars outside, where he is shot by his own men. Marlowe calls the police, telling them that Mars was the one who killed Regan, he convinces Vivian that her sister needs psychiatric care. The composition of the screenplay involved three writers, including the American novelist William Faulkner; the writing was influenced by a primary focus of the Hays Office censorship policies which were used to restrict sexual themes.

In the novel, Geiger is selling pornography and associated with organized crime, is a homosexual having a relationship with Lundgren. Carmen is described as being nude in Geiger's house, nude and in Marlowe's bed. To ensure the film would meet the production code and gain the approval of the Hays Office, changes were made. Carmen had to be dressed, the pornographic elements could only be alluded to with cryptic references to photographs of Carmen wearing a "Chinese dress" and sitting in a "Chinese chair"; the sexual orientation of Geiger and Lundgren goes unmentioned in the film because explicit references to homosexuality were prohibited. The scene of Carmen in Marlowe's bed was replaced with a scene in which she appears dressed, sitting in Marlowe's apartment, when he promptly kicks her out; the scene, shot in 1944, was omitted in the 1945 cut but restored for the 1946 version. The Big Sleep is known for its convoluted plot. During filming, neither the director nor the cast knew whether the chauffeur Owen Taylor had killed himself or was murdered.

A cable was sent to Chandler, who tol

Hilda Tadria

Hilda M. Tadria is a Ugandan women's rights activist, a gender and social development specialist, the executive director of the Mentoring and Empowerment Programme for Young Women in Uganda, she has advised NGOs worldwide on gender, institutional management and social development, has been an associate professor at Makerere University. Tadria has a bachelor's degree in sociology from Makerere University, a master's degree in social anthropology from Newnham College, England, a PhD in social anthropology from the University of Minnesota, US. Tadria has worked as a consultant on gender, institutional management and social development for the World Bank, UNDP, UNIFEM, the Ugandan government, the Canadian International Development Agency and NOVIB. Tadria was an associate professor in the Department of Sociology at Makerere University, while there founded the non-governmental organisation, Action for Development. In September 2017, she led a workshop for a group of "leading African feminists" at the South African organisation Masimanyane Women's Rights International, together with Dorcas Coker-Appiah, the executive director of Ghana's Gender Studies and Human Rights Documentation Centre, provided a "powerful workshop unpacking the patriarchy system"

Nedo Sonetti

Nedo Sonetti is an Italian football manager and former player, who played as a defender. Sonetti lives now in Gorle; as a defender, Sonetti played in Serie C for Spezia Calcio 1906 and Reggina. As a manager, Sonetti has had a long career at the helm of several Serie A and Serie B teams in the whole country. Among the several teams he led, he had his major successes with Atalanta B. C. which he led from Serie B to a ninth place in Serie A, coaching the team for four seasons. He is considered a "replacement" coach, as he was appointed in his career to replace fired managers from Serie A teams fighting to avoid relegation, or Serie B teams which managed to promote. More Sonetti joined Cagliari on November 2005, replacing Davide Ballardini, becoming the fourth coach appointed by the Sardinian team in a couple of months, he succeeded in maintaining his job until the end of the tournament, in leading the rossoblù to maintain a place in the next Serie A. On 14 November 2006, Sonetti was appointed to replace Attilio Tesser at the helm of last-placed relegation-battling Serie A Ascoli.

He did not manage to save his side from falling to Serie B, ended his experience in Ascoli at the end of the season with a second-last place. On November 2007 he returned at Cagliari for his third time, as he was appointed to replace Marco Giampaolo at the helm of the Sardinians, he resigned from his post on 19 December, but was confirmed by the club the next day after Marco Giampaolo rejected to return at the helm of the club. However, Sonetti was sacked only a few days after a 5–1 loss to Fiorentina, leaving the team last-placed in the league table, being replaced by Davide Ballardini. From 25 September 2008, he has been called back to Brescia replacing Serse Cosmi. On 19 May 2009 he was sacked himself, following a 2–1 loss to promotion rivals Grosseto that left Brescia in fourth placed, but with only a two-point lead to 7th-placed Triestina. On 28 March 2010 69-year-old Sonetti returned into management, replacing Rolando Maran as head coach of Serie B relegation battlers Vicenza, his stint as Vicenza head coach, as he was sacked on 15 April after only three games in charge, ended with two draws and a loss