Caroline Rhea is a Canadian stand-up comedian and actress, best known for her role as Hilda Spellman on the ABC show Sabrina the Teenage Witch. She has performed numerous comedy specials, including three one-hour standup specials for HBO, Bravo, she is known as the voice of Linda Flynn-Fletcher on the Disney Channel series Phineas and Ferb and as a regular on Hollywood Squares with her friend Whoopi Goldberg. Rhea was chosen by Rosie O'Donnell as the new hostess of her syndicated talk show, renamed The Caroline Rhea Show and hosted the reality television show The Biggest Loser on NBC for the first three seasons, she appears on ABC's Match Game with Alec Baldwin and is reprising her roles as Eugenia Scrimmage in the Bruno & Boots movie franchise and Noleta Nethercott in A Very Sordid Wedding. Rhea was born and raised in Westmount, the daughter of Margery and David Rhea, an obstetrician and gynecologist, she has two sisters and Celia. She attended an all-girls private school in Westmount, Quebec.
Rhea moved to New York in 1986 to pursue a career as a actress. She began performing at venues like Catch a Rising Star and The Comic Strip, where she performed along with comedians including Chris Rock, Louis C. K. Dave Attell, Marc Maron, Jim Gaffigan. Rhea made her first filmed standup appearances on MTV's Half-Hour Comedy Hour, Comic Strip Live and Caroline's Comedy Hour. Rhea was given a one-hour special for HBO, called One Night Stand, she followed this up with Rhea's Anatomy, her one-hour special for Bravo, Give Me My Remote for Showtime. After finding success in New York as a comedian, Caroline moved to Los Angeles to pursue an acting career in Hollywood, debuting on NBC's television series Pride & Joy, where she co-starred with Jeremy Piven, she gained widespread fame for her role as Aunt Hilda on the ABC television show, Sabrina the Teenage Witch, for her recurring role on the latest incarnation of Hollywood Squares. Rhea is well known for her role as Linda Flynn-Fletcher on the long-running Disney show Phineas and Ferb, for her syndicated daytime talk show, The Caroline Rhea Show, as the original host of The Biggest Loser on NBC, for playing Noleta Nethercott on the TV series Sordid Lives: The Series for Logo, rebooted as a feature called A Very Sordid Wedding, which premiered in March 2017 in Palm Springs.
In 2004, she appeared in the cult-classics Disney's Mom's Got a Date with a Vampire and in Christmas with the Kranks. In 2005, Rhea appeared in The Perfect Man, playing a co-worker of Jean and had a recurring role on the hit Disney Channel Original Series, The Suite Life of Zack & Cody as Ilsa Shickelgubermeiger-Von Helsing der Keppelugerhofer, an inspector turned manager of the rival hotel. In 2007, she starred in the original Lifetime Television movie To Be Fat Like Me opposite Kaley Cuoco and in the Fox animated series Two Dreadful Children. In 2008, Rhea starred alongside Justin Guarini and Mircea Monroe in the MarVista Entertainment production of Fast Girl. In 2013, Rhea hosted a travelling live stage show version of the game show Family Feud which toured fairs in the US and Canada, including the Calgary Stampede. In 2017, she has had a recurring role on ABC's revival of Match Game. Rhea has competed on Bravo's Celebrity Poker Showdown and GSN's World Series of Blackjack, done a live webcast with author, Meg Cabot.
In 2018, Rhea began hosting Caroline & Friends on GSN. The series features funny videos of children; the studio audience votes for the best video chosen by her two guest comedian co-hosts. In 2019, Rhea began appearing as Judy, the grandmother, in the Disney Channel sitcom Sydney to the Max, which premiered January 25. Rhea has appeared at Comic Relief as well as the Ms. Foundation's "Women of Comedy from Caroline's Comedy Club", she appeared as a contestant in 2001 on a special edition of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire, winning $125,000 for her charity. Rhea and her former partner, comedian Costaki Economopoulos, have a daughter, born in October 2008. List of Quebec comedians List of Canadian comedians CarolineRhea.com Caroline Rhea on IMDb Caroline Rhea at the Internet Off-Broadway Database TV.com - The Caroline Rhea Show
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
Alison Ann Sweeney is an American actress, reality show host and author. Sweeney is best known for her portrayal of Samantha "Sami" Brady on the NBC soap opera Days of Our Lives, a role she has played under contract with the show since January 6, 1993. In this role, she has earned a Daytime Emmy Award nomination, four Soap Opera Digest Awards and a Fan Voted Daytime Emmy Award. In 2007, she became the host of The Biggest Loser, left the series at the end of the sixteenth season in 2015, she co-stars in Heartland. Sweeney is of Irish descent. Sweeney has two brothers, she left due to her commitment to Days of Our Lives. On July 8, 2000, Sweeney married David Sanov, after dating for nearly three years; the couple has two children: a son born on February 25, 2005, a daughter born on January 12, 2009. The family lives in Los Angeles, her television debut was at age five in a Kodak advertisement. A few years she was in the episode "I Can't Help Saying Goodbye" of the horror series Tales from the Darkside, playing a young girl who could sense when others were going to die shortly before their deaths.
In 1988, she appeared on the short-lived ABC sitcom Family Man, the following year, was cast as Christy McCray on Brand New Life, a miniseries from future X-Files creator Chris Carter that aired within NBC's Magical World of Disney in October 1989. The miniseries, which co-starred Barbara Eden as Sweeney's mother and Don Murray as her new stepfather, was considered for pick-up as a stand-alone series beyond its Disney tryout, but the regular series never materialized. On January 6, 1993 16-year-old Sweeney first appeared in the role of Samantha "Sami" Brady in the NBC soap opera Days of Our Lives—a show of which she was a fan. In the 1990s, Sweeney struggled with her weight, she was a US dress size 12, not obese by medical standards, but still larger than her television peers. She documented all the tabloid talk and personal anguish in her 2004 memoir, All The Days of My Life. In 2002, she appeared on a celebrity episode of the NBC reality game show Fear Factor, she has appeared in other NBC shows such as Friends, where she played an actress on Days of Our Lives, Las Vegas.
In 2007, she joined the Jerry Lewis MDA Telethon as a co-host for the live television broadcast. She returned to her co-hosting duties for the 2008, 2009, 2010 telethons. In 2007, Sweeney took over hosting duties on The Biggest Loser, replacing Caroline Rhea since the fourth season, she was surprised but happy to be offered the role, where she is able to cheer on contestants and share their victories. Sweeney has written three books: "The Star Attraction", "Scared Scriptless: A Novel" and "Opportunity Knocks". In July 2013, Sweeney appeared in Second Chances, a Hallmark Original Movie, alongside Days co-star Greg Vaughan; the movie was filmed before Vaughn became siblings on Days of Our Lives. On January 20, 2014, Sweeney announced on The Ellen DeGeneres Show that after 21 years of being on the air on Days of Our Lives, she will be leaving the show, to focus on spending more time with her family, as well as more time to work on her other show, The Biggest Loser, she stated in the interview that she would be on the show throughout 2014, that she would like her character on the show to have a happy ending with a Breaking Bad twist.
On July 9, 2014, it was announced that Sweeney would be joining General Hospital behind the scenes as a director, starting that month On April 26, 2015, Sweeney announced that she will be returning to Days of Our Lives to be part of the show's 50th anniversary celebrations. From 2015 to 2017, Sweeney has appeared in the Hallmark Movies & Mysteries film series Murder, She Baked, based on Joanne Fluke's books. On August 25, 2015, it was announced. Beginning on October 13, 2017, Sweeney will reprise her long-term role as Sami Brady on Days of Our Lives, over 24 years after her first appearance as a teenaged Sami Brady. Alison Sweeney on IMDb Alison Sweeney on Facebook
Jillian Michaels is an American personal trainer, businesswoman and television personality from Los Angeles, California. Michaels is best known for her appearances on NBC The Biggest Loser, she has made an appearance on the talk show The Doctors. In fall 2015, she hosted and co-judged a series on Spike titled Sweat, INC. In January 2016, her reality television series Just Jillian premiered on E!. Michaels was born in Los Angeles, the daughter of JoAnn and Douglas McKarus, a lawyer, she was raised in Santa Monica. Michaels has recalled a traumatic childhood that included night terrors, her parents' divorce, suffering verbal abuse by classmates as a 5-foot, 2-inch, 175-pound eighth-grader. Michaels attended California State University, supporting herself as a bartender and personal trainer during that time. After working as an agent with International Creative Management, in 2002, Michaels opened the sports medicine facility Sky Sport & Spa in Beverly Hills; as a personal trainer and black belt owner, Jillian Michaels uses a blend of strength training techniques with her clients including kickboxing, Pilates and weight training.
Since 1993, Jillian has held two personal training certificates from the National Exercise & Sports Trainers Association and The Aerobics and Fitness Association of America. In addition, she is Kettlebell Concepts certified, she plays Lloyd Garmadon in LEGO Ninjago: Maters of Spinjitzu. Jillian has developed a continuing education series for trainers with AFAA and holds a nutrition and wellness consultant certificate with the American Fitness Professionals and Associates. In January 2012, Michaels released a 90-day weight loss program titled "Body Revolution", she launched BODYSHRED, her 30-minute workout class at GoodLife gyms in Canada and in the US with clubs like Lifetime fitness, Crunch and UFC Gyms. In 2015, she launched a 60-day at-home workout program. Michaels' business partner and manager is Giancarlo Chersich. Together, they operate Empowered Media, LLC. In addition to her DVDs, Michaels has authored several books on health and wellness topics. Several of these books, including Master Your Metabolism and Unlimited, have made the New York Times Best Seller list.
Michaels hosted a Sunday talk radio show on Los Angeles's KFI from 2006 through 2009. Since February 2011, Michaels has hosted a weekly podcast, The Jillian Michaels Show, through iTunes. In December 2011, the show was among the podcasts honored by Apple in its App Store Rewind 2011, winning in the Best New Audio Podcast category. On October 21, 2008, she launched a video game for the Wii, Jillian Michaels' Fitness Ultimatum 2009. A year she launched a sequel called Fitness Ultimatum 2010. In 2011, Michaels released two more games, Jillian Michaels Fitness Ultimatum 2011 and Jillian Michaels Fitness Adventure for the Xbox 360. Jillian launched her company Empowered Media LLC in 2008 and released her fitness video membership website called Fitfusion.com referred to as the Netflix of fitness, featuring top fitness and yoga trainers and celebrities including Dashama Konah Gordon, Tara Stiles, Cassey Ho, Crunch Fitness, Jennifer Nicole Lee, Billy Blanks, others. Fitfusion is associated and broadcasts on AT&T U-verse, BroadbandTV Corp, Bell TV Canada, other TV channels, as well as Roku, Apple TV, Fitness on Demand reaching audiences in Marriott, Hilton Worldwide and Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts.
Michaels was an original trainer on the reality series The Biggest Loser when the show debuted in October 2004. On the show, she assumed the role of Red Team trainer and remained in that capacity for the first two seasons. After her departure in 2006, she was replaced by Kim Lyons, she returned to the show in 2007 as the Black Team trainer competing against Lyons' Red Team and Bob Harper's Blue Team. Along with Harper, Michaels was a trainer in the Australian version of the show from 2006 to 2008. On December 7, 2010, Michaels announced via Twitter that the eleventh season of the show would be her last. Michaels made her last appearance on The Biggest Loser on May 24, 2011. On September 4, 2012, it was announced that Michaels will return to The Biggest Loser in Season 14. Michaels returned for Season 15, which premiered on October 15, 2013 on NBC, but did not return for Season 16 which aired in the fall of 2014. On June 1, 2010, NBC debuted Losing It With a spin-off of The Biggest Loser. In the show, Michaels visits the home and workplaces of family members for a week.
Losing It With Jillian ran on NBC in June and July 2010. As of January 2012, all eight episodes of the series are available for viewing online. On May 6, 2011, CBS Television Distribution announced that Michaels had signed a multi-year deal to become a co-host of the panel-discussion show The Doctors, as well as to serve as a special correspondent on the CTD program Dr. Phil. Michaels had been a guest on The Doctors several times previously. On the show, Michaels hosted a recurring segment called Ask Jillian, which dealt with nutrition and diet topics. Michaels left The Doctors in January 2012 after half a season, she claimed, the arrangement "wasn't the fit both the show and I hoped for". Michaels is involved in a variety of charities including the NFL's Play 60, the Clinton Foundation's Alliance for a Healthier Generation, Stand Up to Cancer, Working Wardrobes, Hope for Haiti, Sow a Seed and Dress for Success. Michaels devotes time to animal welfare causes, she helped PETA rescue a racehorse from the slaughterhouse.
Michaels serves as an adviser to the National Day of Dance for Heart Health, an organization that encourages people to exercise. In J
Bob Harper (personal trainer)
Robert Harper is an American personal trainer and author. He appears on the American television series The Biggest Loser. On September 8, 2015, Harper was announced as new host of The Biggest Loser, succeeding Alison Sweeney, he was an advisor on The New Celebrity Apprentice. Harper has worked as a personal trainer including Jennifer Jason Leigh. In 1999, he was cast as an extra in Melissa Etheridge's hit video for the song "Angels Would Fall" from her album Breakdown, he is featured as a trainer on the United States version of The Biggest Loser reality television series. He has been a trainer on the NBC show since 2004 and has appeared in several Biggest Loser DVD workouts. Harper is featured in the first three seasons of the Australian version of the show. In addition to his appearances, speaking dates, writing, Harper teaches regular classes in Los Angeles and works as a yoga instructor. In early 2010, Harper launched mytrainerbob.com, a website where subscribers can discuss weight loss and receive coaching.
The success of his site led to the release of his first workout DVD series in May, titled "Bob Harper: Inside Out Method." Harper has contributed workouts to the Shape magazine website. Harper was born August 1965 in Nashville, Tennessee, he attended Austin Peay State University in Clarksville, but did not graduate. After reading the book Skinny Bitch, Harper became a vegetarian. In 2010, he became a vegan; that same year, PETA voted. In 2013 Harper stopped following a vegan diet because "my body got to a point where I needed something more." He practices Transcendental Meditation. He is an avid CrossFit athlete. Harper has spoken out against puppy mills and has adopted a black and white dog from the Animal Advocates Alliance in Baldwin Park, California, he named the dog Karl, because of the dog's color. Harper is Farm Sanctuary's 2010 Walk for Farm Animals national spokesman. Harper publicly came out as gay in the seventh episode of the fifteenth season of The Biggest Loser, while talking to a contestant, having difficulty telling his parents about his sexuality.
Harper revealed he came out to his parents at 17, but that this was his first time addressing his sexuality publicly in his career. The episode aired on November 28, 2013. On February 12, 2017, Harper suffered a heart attack. Harper, Bob. Are You Ready!: Take Charge, Lose Weight, Get in Shape, Change. Harmony Books. ISBN 978-0-767-92872-4. Harper, Bob; the Skinny Rules: The Simple, Nonnegotiable Principles for Getting to Thin. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-53312-8. Harper, Bob. Jumpstart to Skinny: The Simple 3-Week Plan for Supercharged Weight Loss. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-54510-7. Harper, Bob. Skinny Meals: Everything You Need to Lose Weight-Fast!. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-804-17889-1. Harper, Bob; the Super Carb Diet. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-1-250-14660-1. MyTrainerBob.com Bob Harper at NBC CrossFit athlete profile Bob Harper on IMDb
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Reality television is a genre of television programming that documents purportedly unscripted real-life situations starring unknown individuals rather than professional actors. Reality television came to prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000s with the global successes of the series Survivor and Big Brother, all of which became global franchises. Reality television shows tend to be interspersed with "confessionals", short interview segments in which cast members reflect on or provide context for the events being depicted on-screen. Competition-based reality shows feature gradual elimination of participants, either by a panel of judges or by the viewership of the show. Documentaries, television news, sports television, talk shows, traditional game shows are not classified as reality television; some genres of television programming that predate the reality television boom are retroactively labeled reality television, including hidden camera shows, talent-search shows, documentary series about ordinary people, high-concept game shows, home improvement shows, court shows featuring real-life cases.
Reality television has faced significant criticism since its rise in popularity. Critics argue reality television shows do not reflect reality, in ways both implicit, deceptive; some have been accused of underdog to win. Other criticisms of reality television shows include that they are intended to humiliate or exploit participants. Television formats portraying ordinary people in unscripted situations are as old as the television medium itself. Producer-host Allen Funt's Candid Camera, in which unsuspecting people were confronted with funny, unusual situations and filmed with hidden cameras, first aired in 1948, is seen as a prototype of reality television programming. Precedents for television that portrayed people in unscripted situations began in the late 1940s. Queen for a Day was an early example of reality-based television; the 1946 television game show Carry sometimes featured contestants performing stunts. Debuting in 1948, Allen Funt's hidden camera show Candid Camera broadcast unsuspecting ordinary people reacting to pranks.
In 1948, talent search shows Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour and Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts featured amateur competitors and audience voting. In the 1950s, game shows Beat the Clock and Truth or Consequences involved contestants in wacky competitions and practical jokes. Confession was a crime/police show which aired from June 1958 to January 1959, with interviewer Jack Wyatt questioning criminals from assorted backgrounds; the radio series Nightwatch tape-recorded the daily activities of Culver City, California police officers. The series You Asked for It incorporated audience involvement by basing episodes around requests sent in by postcard from viewers. "You're Another", a science fiction short story by American writer Damon Knight, first appeared in the June 1955 issue of The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction and contains the earliest fictional depiction of what is now called reality television. First broadcast in the United Kingdom in 1964, the Granada Television documentary Seven Up!, broadcast interviews with a dozen ordinary 7-year-olds from a broad cross-section of society and inquired about their reactions to everyday life.
Every seven years, a film documented the life of the same individuals during the intervening period, titled the Up Series, episodes include "7 Plus Seven", "21 Up", etc.. The program was structured as a series of interviews with no element of plot. However, it did have the then-new effect of turning ordinary people into celebrities; the first reality show in the modern sense may have been the series The American Sportsman, which ran from 1965 to 1986 on ABC in the United States. A typical episode featured one or more celebrities, sometimes their family members, being accompanied by a camera crew on an outdoor adventure, such as hunting, hiking, scuba diving, rock climbing, wildlife photography, horseback riding, race car driving, the like, with most of the resulting action and dialogue being unscripted, except for the narration. In the 1966 Direct Cinema film Chelsea Girls, Andy Warhol filmed various acquaintances with no direction given; the 12-part 1973 PBS series An American Family showed a nuclear family going through a divorce.
In 1974 a counterpart program, The Family, was made in the UK, following the working class Wilkins family of Reading. Other forerunners of modern reality television were the 1970s productions of Chuck Barris: The Dating Game, The Newlywed Game, The Gong Show, all of which featured participants who were eager to sacrifice some of their privacy and dignity in a televised competition; the 1976-1980 BBC series The Big Time showed, in each of its 15 episodes, a different amateur in some field trying to succeed professionally in that field, with help from notable experts. The series is credited with starting the career of Sheena Easton, selected to appear in the episode showing an aspiring pop singer trying to enter the music business. In 1978, Living in the Past recreated life in an