The New York Times International Edition
The New York Times International Edition is an English-language newspaper printed at 38 sites throughout the world and sold in more than 160 countries and territories. Founded under the title Paris Herald in 1887 in Paris as the European edition of the New York Herald, it changed owners and was renamed several times: it became the Paris Herald Tribune, global edition of the New York Herald Tribune in 1924 the International Herald Tribune in 1967, with The Washington Post and The New York Times as joint parent newspapers. In 2002, The New York Times Company took control of the International Herald Tribune, subtitled since The Global Edition of the New York Times. On October 15, 2013, the paper was renamed The International New York Times, in October 2016, it was integrated with its parent and renamed The New York Times International Edition. Autumn that year saw the closing of editing and preproduction operations in the Paris newsroom, where the paper, under its various names, had been headquartered since 1887.
The Paris Herald was founded on 4 October 1887, as the European edition of the New York Herald by the parent paper’s owner, James Gordon Bennett, Jr. The company was based in Neuilly-sur-Seine, a suburb of Paris, France. After the death of Bennett in 1918, Frank Andrew Munsey bought the New York Herald and the Paris Herald. Munsey sold the Herald newspapers in 1924 to the New York Tribune, the Paris Herald became the Paris Herald Tribune, while the New York paper became New York Herald Tribune; the newspaper became a mainstay of American expatriate culture in Europe. In Ernest Hemingway’s 1926 novel, The Sun Also Rises, the first thing the novel’s protagonist Jake Barnes does on returning from Spain to France is to buy the New York Herald from a kiosk in Bayonne and read it at a cafe. In Jean-Luc Godard’s 1960 film Breathless, the female lead character Patricia is an American student journalist who sells the New York Herald Tribune on the streets of Paris. Pages from the day’s paper can be seen tacked up through the office windows, a tradition, to continue with the International Herald Tribune.
In 1959 John Hay Whitney, a businessman and United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom, bought the New York Herald Tribune and its European edition. In 1966 the New York Herald Tribune was merged into the short-lived New York World Journal Tribune and ceased publication, but the Whitney family kept the Paris paper going through partnerships. In December 1966 The Washington Post became a joint owner; the New York Times became a joint owner of the Paris Herald Tribune in May 1967, whereupon the newspaper became known as the International Herald Tribune. In 1974, the IHT began transmitting facsimile pages of the paper between nations and opened a printing site near London. In 1977 the paper opened a second site in Zürich; the IHT began transmitting electronic images of newspaper pages from Paris to Hong Kong via satellite in 1980, making the paper available on opposite sides of the planet. This was the first such intercontinental transmission of an English-language daily newspaper and followed the pioneering efforts of the Chinese-language newspaper Sing Tao Daily.
In 1991, The Washington Post and The New York Times became sole and equal shareholders of the IHT. In February 2005 it opened its Asia newsroom in Hong Kong. In April 2001, the Japanese newspaper Asahi Shimbun tied up with the IHT and published an English-language newspaper, the International Herald Tribune/Asahi Shimbun. After The Washington Post sold their stake in the IHT, it continued being published under the name International Herald Tribune/Asahi Shimbun, but it was discontinued on February 2011. On 30 December 2002 The New York Times Company took control of the paper by buying the 50% stake owned by The Washington Post Company; the takeover ended a 35-year partnership between the two US domestic competitors. The Post was forced to sell when the Times threatened to pull out and start a competing paper; as a result, the Post entered into an agreement to publish selected Post articles in The Wall Street Journal’s European edition. After the takeover the IHT was subtitled The Global Edition of the New York Times instead of Published by The New York Times and The Washington Post.
In 2008, the NYT Company announced the merger of the New York Times and IHT websites. In March 2009 the IHT website became the global version of NYTimes.com. In 2013, the New York Times Company announced that the newspaper itself would be renamed The International New York Times to reflect the company’s focus on its core New York Times newspaper and to build its international presence. On 14 October 2013 the International Herald Tribune appeared on newsstands for the last time, it came with a supplemental section, titled Turning the Page, a retrospective on the Herald Tribune’s past articles and place in newspaper history. On October 15, 2013, the International New York Times debuted with a ‘Premier Edition’ flash above the masthead, it came with a supplement titled Turning the Page II, which discussed and predicted developments in many global areas including energy, finance and media. In October 2016, the newspaper was integrated with its parent and renamed The New York Times International Edition.
While the International Edition shares many columnists with The New York Times, it has its own voice in the field of culture. Well-known commentators include Alice Rawsthorn on design and Souren Melikian on art. Besides the daily edition, a weekly 16-page edition is published as The New York Times International Weekly featuring the best of New York Times articles for a week. Designed to complement and extend local reporting, it offers readers globally resonant coverage of ideas and trends, business
Douglas Fairbanks was an American actor, screenwriter and producer. He was best known for his swashbuckling roles in silent films including The Thief of Bagdad, Robin Hood, The Mark of Zorro but spent the early part of his career making comedies. Fairbanks was a founding member of United Artists, he was a founding member of The Motion Picture Academy and hosted the 1st Academy Awards in 1929. With his marriage to Mary Pickford in 1920, the couple became Hollywood royalty and Fairbanks was referred to as "The King of Hollywood", a nickname passed on to actor Clark Gable. Though considered as one of the biggest stars in Hollywood during the 1910s and 1920s, Fairbanks' career declined with the advent of the "talkies", his final film was The Private Life of Don Juan. Fairbanks was born Douglas Elton Thomas Ullman in Denver, the son of Hezekiah Charles Ullman and Ella Adelaide, he had two half-brothers, John Fairbanks, Jr. and Norris Wilcox, a full brother, Robert Payne Ullman. His father was born in Berrysburg and raised in Williamsport.
He was the fourth child in a Jewish family consisting of four daughters. Charles's parents, Lazarus Ullman and Lydia Abrahams, had immigrated to the U. S. in 1830 from Baden, Germany. When he was 17, Charles started a small publishing business in Philadelphia. Two years he left for New York to study law. Charles met Ella Adelaide Marsh after she married his friend and client John Fairbanks, a wealthy New Orleans sugar mill and plantation owner; the couple had a son and shortly thereafter John Senior died of tuberculosis. Ella, born into a wealthy southern Roman Catholic family, was overprotected and knew little of her husband's business, she was swindled out of her fortune by her husband's partners. The efforts of Charles Ullman, acting on her behalf, failed to regain any of the family fortune for her. Distraught and lonely, she met and married a courtly Georgian, Edward Wilcox, who turned out to be an alcoholic. After they had a son, she divorced Wilcox with Charles acting as her own lawyer in the suit.
The pretty southern belle soon became romantically involved with Charles and agreed to move to Denver with him to pursue mining investments. They arrived in Denver in 1881 with John, they were married and in 1882 had a child, Robert and a second son, Douglas, a year later. Charles purchased several mining interests in the Rocky Mountains, he re-established his law practice. Charles Ullman, after hearing of his wife's philandering, abandoned the family when Douglas was five years old. Douglas and his older brother Robert were brought up by their mother, who gave them the family name Fairbanks, after her first husband. Douglas Fairbanks began acting at an early age, in amateur theatre on the Denver stage, performing in summer stock at the Elitch Gardens Theatre, other productions sponsored by Margaret Fealy, who ran an acting school for young people in Denver, he attended Denver East High School, was expelled for cutting the wires on the school piano. He left school in the spring of 1899, at the age of 15.
He variously claimed to have attended Colorado School of Mines and Harvard University, but neither claim is true. He went with the acting troupe of Frederick Warde, beginning a cross country tour in September 1899, he toured with Warde for two seasons, functioning in dual roles, both as actor and as the assistant stage manager in his second year with the group. After two years he moved to New York, where he found his first Broadway role in Her Lord and Master, which premiered in February 1902, he worked as a clerk in a Wall Street office between acting jobs. His Broadway appearances included the popular A Gentleman from Mississippi in 1908–09. On July 11, 1907, Fairbanks married Anna Beth Sully, the daughter of wealthy industrialist Daniel J. Sully, in Watch Hill, Rhode Island, they had one son, Douglas Fairbanks Jr. a noted actor. In 1915, the family moved to Los Angeles. After moving to Los Angeles, Fairbanks signed a contract with Triangle Pictures in 1915 and began working under the supervision of D.
W. Griffith, his first film was titled The Lamb, in which he debuted the athletic abilities that would gain him wide attention among theatre audiences. His athleticism was not appreciated by Griffith, he was brought to the attention of Anita Loos and John Emerson, who wrote and directed many of his early romantic comedies. In 1916, Fairbanks established his own company, the Douglas Fairbanks Film Corporation, would soon get a job at Paramount. Fairbanks met actress Mary Pickford at a party in 1916, the couple soon began an affair. In 1917, they joined Fairbanks' friend Charlie Chaplin selling war bonds by train across the United States. Pickford and Chaplin were the two highest paid film stars in Hollywood at that time. To curtail these stars' astronomical salaries, the large studios attempted to monopolize distributors and exhibitors. By 1918, Fairbanks was Hollywood's most popular actor, within three years of his arrival, Fairbanks' popularity and business acumen raised him to the third-highest paid.
In 1917, Fairbanks capitalized on his rising popularity by publishing a self-help book and Live which extolled the power of positive thinking and self-confidence in raising one's health and social prospects. To avoid being controlled by the studios and to protect their independence, Fair
Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, love, anger – are communicated through the words, music and technical aspects of the entertainment as an integrated whole. Although musical theatre overlaps with other theatrical forms like opera and dance, it may be distinguished by the equal importance given to the music as compared with the dialogue and other elements. Since the early 20th century, musical theatre stage works have been called musicals. Although music has been a part of dramatic presentations since ancient times, modern Western musical theatre emerged during the 19th century, with many structural elements established by the works of Gilbert and Sullivan in Britain and those of Harrigan and Hart in America; these were followed by the numerous Edwardian musical comedies and the musical theatre works of American creators like George M. Cohan at the turn of the 20th century.
The Princess Theatre musicals and other smart shows like Of Thee I Sing were artistic steps forward beyond revues and other frothy entertainments of the early 20th century and led to such groundbreaking works as Show Boat and Oklahoma!. Some of the most famous musicals through the decades that followed include West Side Story, The Fantasticks, Hair, A Chorus Line, Les Misérables, The Phantom of the Opera, The Producers and Hamilton. Musicals are performed around the world, they may be presented in large venues, such as big-budget Broadway or West End productions in New York City or London. Alternatively, musicals may be staged in smaller venues, such as fringe theatre, Off-Broadway, Off-Off-Broadway, regional theatre, or community theatre productions, or on tour. Musicals are presented by amateur and school groups in churches and other performance spaces. In addition to the United States and Britain, there are vibrant musical theatre scenes in continental Europe, Australasia and Latin America.
Since the 20th century, the "book musical" has been defined as a musical play where songs and dances are integrated into a well-made story with serious dramatic goals, able to evoke genuine emotions other than laughter. The three main components of a book musical are its music and book; the book or script of a musical refers to the story, character development and dramatic structure, including the spoken dialogue and stage directions, but it can refer to the dialogue and lyrics together, which are sometimes referred to as the libretto. The music and lyrics together form the score of a musical and include songs, incidental music and musical scenes, which are "theatrical sequence set to music combining song with spoken dialogue." The interpretation of a musical is the responsibility of its creative team, which includes a director, a musical director a choreographer and sometimes an orchestrator. A musical's production is creatively characterized by technical aspects, such as set design, stage properties and sound.
The creative team and interpretations change from the original production to succeeding productions. Some production elements, may be retained from the original production. There is no fixed length for a musical. While it can range from a short one-act entertainment to several acts and several hours in length, most musicals range from one and a half to three hours. Musicals are presented in two acts, with one short intermission, the first act is longer than the second; the first act introduces nearly all of the characters and most of the music and ends with the introduction of a dramatic conflict or plot complication while the second act may introduce a few new songs but contains reprises of important musical themes and resolves the conflict or complication. A book musical is built around four to six main theme tunes that are reprised in the show, although it sometimes consists of a series of songs not directly musically related. Spoken dialogue is interspersed between musical numbers, although "sung dialogue" or recitative may be used in so-called "sung-through" musicals such as Jesus Christ Superstar, Les Misérables and Hamilton.
Several shorter musicals on Broadway and in the West End have been presented in one act in recent decades. Moments of greatest dramatic intensity in a book musical are performed in song. Proverbially, "when the emotion becomes too strong for speech, you sing. In a book musical, a song is ideally crafted to suit the character and their situation within the story; as The New York Times critic Ben Brantley described the ideal of song in theatre when reviewing the 2008 revival of Gypsy: "There is no separation at all between song and character, what happens in those uncommon moments when musicals reach upward to achieve their ideal reasons to be." Many fewer words are sung in a five-minute song than are spoken in a five-minute block of dialogue. Therefore, there is less time to develop drama in a musical than in a straight play of equivalent length, since a musical devotes more time to music than to dialogue. Within the compressed nature of a musical, the writers must develop the plot; the ma
Phoenix Theatre, London
The Phoenix Theatre is a West End theatre in the London Borough of Camden, located in Charing Cross Road. The entrances are on Charing Cross Road. Phoenix Theatre was built on the site of a former factory and Music hall Alcazar before; the theatre was designed by Bertie Crewe and Cecil Massey. It has a restrained neoclassical exterior, but an interior designed in an Italianate style by director and designer Theodore Komisarjevsky. Vladimir Polunin copied works by Tintoretto, Titian and Giorgione, it has a safety curtain. There are golden engravings in the auditorium, red seats and curtains; this look is based on traditional Italian theatres. There sculpted wooden doors throughout the building, it opened on 24 September 1930 with the premiere of Private Lives by Noël Coward, who appeared in the play, with Adrienne Allen, Gertrude Lawrence and Laurence Olivier. Coward returned to the theatre with Tonight at 8.30 in 1936 and Quadrille in 1952. On 16 December 1969, the long association with Coward was celebrated with a midnight matinee in honour of his 70th birthday, the foyer bar was renamed the Noel Coward Bar.
The Phoenix has had a number of successful plays including John Gielgud's Love for Love during the Second World War. Harlequinade and The Browning Version, two plays by Terence Rattigan, opened on 8 September 1948 at the theatre. In 1950 it staged Frederick Lonsdale's final play. In the mid-1950s, Paul Scofield and Peter Brook appeared at the theatre. In 1968, a musical version of Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales opened and ran for around two thousand performances. Night and Day, a 1978 play by Tom Stoppard, ran for two years; the theatre hosted many musicals in the 1980s and 1990s, including The Biograph Girl with Sheila White, The Baker's Wife by Stephen Schwartz directed by Trevor Nunn, Into the Woods by Stephen Sondheim, starring Julia McKenzie. There were a number of plays by William Shakespeare, its first pantomime was Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs starring Dana in 1983. The production of Blood Brothers, the Willy Russell musical that transferred from The Albery Theatre in November 1991, ended a 21-year run on 10 November 2012 after becoming the longest-running production at the theatre.
Following limited engagements of Goodnight Mr Tom and Midnight Tango. The theatre played host to the original West End production of Broadway musical Once, which opened in April 2013 and closed on 21 March 2015. Bend it Like Beckham: The Musical and Dolls and The Last Tango played in 2016, with Dirty Dancing and Peppa Pig's Surprise comprising the 2016 Christmas season; the Girls, a new musical by Gary Barlow and Tim Firth based on The Calendar Girls film, Played at the Phoenix Theatre with previews from 28 January 2017, opened on 21 February 2017. The production closed on 15 July 2017 Chicago the Musical opened at the Phoenix Theatre on 11 April 2018, starring Cuba Gooding Jr. as Billy Flynn, Sarah Soetaert as Roxie Hart, Josefina Gabrielle as Velma Kelly, Ruthie Henshall as Mama Morton. A cast change saw Martin Kemp take over the role of Billy Flynn, with Alexandra Burke as Roxie Hart, Mazz Murray as Mama Morton, Denise Van Outen as Velma Kelly; the show is set to close on 5 January 2019. In June 2018 it was announced that the hit Broadway musical Come from Away is set to transfer to The Phoenix in February 2019.
The theatre is owned by the Ambassador Theatre Group. Since 1973 it has been a Grade II Listed Building. Phoenix Garden Guide to British Theatres 1750–1950, John Earl and Michael Sell pp. 131 ISBN 0-7136-5688-3
West End theatre
West End theatre is a common term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of "Theatreland" in and near the West End of London. Along with New York City's Broadway theatre, West End theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. Seeing a West End show is a common tourist activity in London. Society of London Theatre has announced that 2017 was a record year for the capital’s theatre industry with attendances topping 15,000,000 for the first time since the organization began collecting audience data in 1986. Box office revenues exceeded £700,000,000. Famous screen actors and international alike appear on the London stage. Theatre in London flourished after the English Reformation; the first permanent public playhouse, known as The Theatre, was constructed in 1576 in Shoreditch by James Burbage. It was soon joined by The Curtain. Both are known to have been used by William Shakespeare's company. In 1599, the timber from The Theatre was moved to Southwark, where it was used in building the Globe Theatre in a new theatre district formed beyond the controls of the City corporation.
These theatres were closed in 1642 due to the Puritans who would influence the interregnum of 1649. After the Restoration, two companies were licensed to perform, the Duke's Company and the King's Company. Performances were held in converted buildings, such as Lisle's Tennis Court; the first West End theatre, known as Theatre Royal in Bridges Street, was designed by Thomas Killigrew and built on the site of the present Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. It was destroyed by a fire nine years later, it was replaced by a new structure designed by Christopher Wren and renamed the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. Outside the West End, Sadler's Wells Theatre opened in Islington on 3 June 1683. Taking its name from founder Richard Sadler and monastic springs that were discovered on the property, it operated as a "Musick House", with performances of opera. In the West End, the Theatre Royal Haymarket opened on 29 December 1720 on a site north of its current location, the Royal Opera House opened in Covent Garden on 7 December 1732.
The Patent theatre companies retained their duopoly on drama well into the 19th century, all other theatres could perform only musical entertainments. By the early 19th century, music hall entertainments became popular, presenters found a loophole in the restrictions on non-patent theatres in the genre of melodrama. Melodrama did not break the Patent Acts; these entertainments were presented in large halls, attached to public houses, but purpose-built theatres began to appear in the East End at Shoreditch and Whitechapel. The West End theatre district became established with the opening of many small theatres and halls, including the Adelphi in The Strand on 17 November 1806. South of the River Thames, the Old Vic, Waterloo Road, opened on 11 May 1818; the expansion of the West End theatre district gained pace with the Theatres Act 1843, which relaxed the conditions for the performance of plays, The Strand gained another venue when the Vaudeville opened on 16 April 1870. The next few decades saw the opening of many new theatres in the West End.
The Criterion Theatre opened on Piccadilly Circus on 21 March 1874, in 1881, two more houses appeared: the Savoy Theatre in The Strand, built by Richard D'Oyly Carte to showcase the comic operas of Gilbert and Sullivan, opened on 10 October, five days the Comedy Theatre opened as the Royal Comedy Theatre on Panton Street in Leicester Square. It abbreviated its name three years later; the theatre building boom continued until about World War I. During the 1950s and 1960s, many plays were produced in theatre clubs, to evade the censorship exercised by the Lord Chamberlain's Office; the Theatres Act 1968 abolished censorship of the stage in the United Kingdom. "Theatreland", London's main theatre district, contains forty venues and is located in and near the heart of the West End of London. It is traditionally defined by The Strand to the south, Oxford Street to the north, Regent Street to the west, Kingsway to the east, but a few other nearby theatres are considered "West End" despite being outside the area proper.
Prominent theatre streets include Drury Lane, Shaftesbury Avenue, The Strand. The works staged are predominantly musicals and modern straight plays, comedy performances. Many theatres in the West End are of late Victorian or Edwardian construction and are owned. Many are architecturally impressive, the largest and best maintained feature grand neo-classical, Romanesque, or Victorian façades and luxurious, detailed interior design and decoration. However, owing to their age, leg room is cramped, audience facilities such as bars and toilets are much smaller than in modern theatres; the protected status of the buildings and their confined urban locations, combined with financial constraints, make it difficult to make substantial improvements to the level of comfort offered. In 2003, the Theatres Trust estimated that an investment of £250 million over the following 15 years was required for modernisation, stated that 60% of theatres had seats from which the stage was not visible; the theatre owners unsuccessfully requested tax concessions to help them meet the costs.
From 2004 onwards there were several incidents of falling plasterwork or performances being cancelled because of urgent building repairs being required. These events culminated in the partial
The Biograph Company known as the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, was a motion picture company founded in 1895 and active until 1916. It was the first company in the United States devoted to film production and exhibition, for two decades was one of the most prolific, releasing over 3000 short films and 12 feature films. During the height of silent film as a medium, Biograph was America's most prominent film studio and one of the most respected and influential studios worldwide, only rivaled by Germany's UFA, Sweden's Svensk Filmindustri and France's Pathé; the company was home to pioneering director D. W. Griffith and such actors as Mary Pickford, Lillian Gish and Lionel Barrymore. An unrelated company, with the same name, was incorporated in California in 1991; as of 2012 its operations were suspended. The company was started by William Kennedy Dickson, an inventor at Thomas Edison's laboratory who helped pioneer the technology of capturing moving images on film. Dickson left Edison in April 1895, joining with inventors Herman Casler, Henry Marvin and businessman Elias Koopman to incorporate the American Mutoscope Company in New Jersey on December 30, 1895.
The firm manufactured the Mutoscope and made flip-card movies for it as a rival to Edison’s Kinetoscope for individual “peep shows”, making the company Edison’s chief competitor in the nickelodeon market. In the summer of 1896 the Biograph projector was released, offering superior image quality to Edison’s Vitascope projector; the company soon became a leader in the film industry, with distribution and production subsidiaries around the world, including the British Mutoscope Co. In 1899 it changed its name to the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, in 1908 to the Biograph Company. To avoid violating Edison’s motion picture patents, Biograph cameras from 1895-1902 used a large-format film, measuring 2-23/32 inches wide, with an image area of 2×2½ inches, four times that of Edison’s 35mm format; the camera used friction feed instead of Edison’s sprocket feed to guide the film to the aperture. The camera itself punched a sprocket hole on each side of the frame as the film was exposed at 30 frames per second.
A patent case victory in March 1902 allowed Biograph and other producers and distributors to use the less expensive 35 mm format without an Edison license, although Biograph did not phase out 68 mm production until autumn of 1903. Biograph offered prints in both formats to exhibitors until 1905, when it discontinued the larger format. Biograph films before 1903, were "actualities," documentary film footage of actual persons and events, each film less than two minutes long, such as the one of the Empire State Express, which premiered on October 12, 1896 in New York City; the occasional narrative film a comedy, was shot in one scene, with no editing. Spurred on by competition from Edison and British and European producers, Biograph production from 1903 onward was dominated by narratives; as the stories became more complex the films became longer, with multiple scenes to tell the story, although an individual scene was still presented in one shot without editing. Biograph's production of actualities ended by 1908 in favor of the narrative film.
The company's first studio was located on the roof of 841 Broadway at 13th St. in Manhattan, known as the Hackett Carhart Building and today as the Roosevelt Building. The set-up was similar to Thomas Edison's "Black Maria" in West Orange, NJ, with the studio itself being mounted on circular tracks to be able to get the best possible sunlight; the company moved in 1906 to a converted brownstone mansion at 11 East 14th St. near Union Square, a building, razed in the 1960s. This was Biograph's first indoor studio, the first movie studio in the world to rely on artificial light. Biograph moved again in 1913, as it entered feature film production, to a new state-of-the-art studio on 175th Street in the Bronx. There was the problem of the underground "duping" business, where people would illegally duplicate a copyrighted movie and remove the title screen with the company and copyright notice and sell it to theaters. In order to make the theater audience aware that they were watching an American Biograph movie the AB logo would be prominently placed in random parts of the movie.
Director D. W. Griffith joined Biograph in 1908 as a writer and actor, but within months became its principal director. In 1908 the company's head director Wallace McCutcheon grew ill, his son Wallace McCutcheon Jr. took his place but was not able to make a successful film for the company. As a result of these failed productions, studio head Henry Marvin gave the position of head director to Griffith, whose first film was The Adventures of Dollie. Griffith helped establish many of the conventions of narrative film, including cross-cutting to show events occurring in different places, the flashback, the fade-in/fade-out, the interposition of closeups within a scene, a moderated acting style more suitable for film. Although Griffith did not invent these techniques, he made them a regular part of the film vocabulary, his prolific output--often one new film a week--and willingness to experiment in many different genres helped the company become a major commercial success. Many early movie stars were Biograph performers, including Mary Pickford, Lionel Barrymore, Lillian Gish, Dorothy Gish, Robert Harron, Arthur V. Johnson, Florence Auer, Robert G. Vignola, Owen Moore, Alan Hale, Sr. Florence Lawrence, Blanche Sweet, Harry Carey, James Kirkwood Sr. Mabel Normand, Henry B.
Walthall, Mae Marsh, Dorothy Davenport. Mack Sennett h