East Finchley tube station
East Finchley is a London Underground station in East Finchley in the London Borough of Barnet, north London. The station is on the High Barnet branch of the Northern line, between Highgate and Finchley Central stations and is in Travelcard Zone 3; the station was opened in 1867 as part of the Great Northern Railway's line between Finsbury Park and Edgware stations. As part of London Underground's only completed Northern Heights plan, the station was rebuilt with additional tracks in the late 1930s. Northern line trains started serving the station in 1939 and main line passenger services ended in 1941. East Finchley station was built by the Edgware and London Railway on its line from Finsbury Park station to Edgware station. Before the line was opened it was purchased in July 1867 by the larger Great Northern Railway, whose main line from King's Cross ran through Finsbury Park on its way to Potters Bar and the north; the station named East End, opened along with the railway to Edgware on 22 August 1867.
The station was given its current name on 1 February 1887 or 1886. As a result of the 1921 Railways Act, which created the "Big Four" railway companies, the GNR amalgamated with several other railways to create the London & North Eastern Railway in 1923. At the start of the 1930s, the station had around 54 trains daily from High Barnet and a few through trains from Edgware. Services ran to Finsbury Park and either King's Cross, Moorgate or Broad Street. In 1935, the London Passenger Transport Board announced a proposal, which became known as the Northern Heights project, to take over the LNER lines from Finsbury Park to Edgware, High Barnet and Alexandra Palace, link them to both the Northern line at East Finchley and to the Northern City line at Finsbury Park; the construction of the first phase of this project involved extending tube train services from the Northern line's existing terminus at Archway station, through a new section of paired tunnels under the LNER's Highgate station to emerge south-east of East Finchley station, where track connections to the LNER line were made.
For the introduction of London Underground services, the original station was demolished and rebuilt. The station was provided with two additional platforms; the platforms comprise two parallel islands with tracks on both sides. This was necessary as the intention of the Northern Heights project was that trains would be able to run south from East Finchley to Highgate via both the surface and the underground routes; the inner pair of tracks served the surface route, whilst the outer pair serve the tunnel route. Northern line trains first served the station on 3 July 1939. After completion of the electrification of the line to High Barnet, Underground services were extended northwards on 14 April 1940; the station continued to be served by LNER steam trains from Highgate until 2 March 1941 when that service was discontinued. The inner platforms are now used only by northbound trains entering service or southbound trains terminating at East Finchley on their way to or from Highgate Wood depot south of the station.
After the war, plans to complete the Northern Heights project were reviewed but no work was carried out. Maintenance works and reconstruction of war damage on the existing network had the greatest call on London Underground funds. Funds for new works were limited and priority was given to the completion of the western and eastern extensions of the Central line to West Ruislip and Hainault. Despite being shown as under construction on underground maps as late as 1950, work never restarted on the unimplemented parts of the Northern Heights project. British Rail freight trains continued to serve the station's goods yard until 1 October 1962, when it was closed; the new station was constructed in an Art Deco/Streamline Moderne design by Charles Holden with L H Bucknell. Like Holden's other designs for London Underground in the 1930s, East Finchley station was inspired by European architecture that Holden had seen on trips to the continent during that decade; the track here runs north-west to south-east.
The imposing station building, built on rising ground adjacent to the railway bridge over High Road, has three entrances. The two main entrances to the ticket hall are on the north side of the tracks facing High Road and the third, minor entrance, is on the south side; the entrances are linked by a passage under the tracks. A strong feature of the station is the semi-circular glazed stairways leading to the enclosed bridge over the tracks occupied by staff offices. Prominent from the platforms and dominating the main entrance façade is The Archer, a 10-foot-tall statue by Eric Aumonier of a kneeling archer captured as if having just released an arrow; the archer is intended to commemorate Finchley's ancient association with hunting in the nearby Royal Forest of Enfield. The station is a Grade II listed building; the station is between Finchley Central and Highgate stations. Train frequencies vary throughout the day, but operate every 3–7 minutes between 05:40 and 01:01 northbound and 05:34 and 00:12 southbound.
London Buses routes 102, 143, 234, 263, 603 and H3 and night route N20 serve the station. London Transport Museum Photographic Archive Original East Finchley station in 1935 prior to reconstruction New station building in 1942 – main elevation with view of Archer statue New station building in 1942 – secondary entrance New station building in 1942 – platform view of overbridge containing staff offices Archer statue being worked on by its Sculptor, Eric Aumonier, 1940 Tupman, David. "Ship Shape Tube". The A
Kazakhstan the Republic of Kazakhstan, is the world's largest landlocked country, the ninth largest in the world, with an area of 2,724,900 square kilometres. It is a transcontinental country located in Asia. Kazakhstan is the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the region's GDP through its oil and gas industry, it has vast mineral resources. Kazakhstan is a democratic, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. Kazakhstan shares borders with Russia, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan, adjoins a large part of the Caspian Sea; the terrain of Kazakhstan includes flatlands, taiga, rock canyons, deltas, snow-capped mountains, deserts. Kazakhstan has an estimated 18.3 million people as of 2018. Given its large land area, its population density is among the lowest, at less than 6 people per square kilometre; the capital is Astana, where it was moved in 1997 from the country's largest city. The territory of Kazakhstan has been inhabited by groups included the nomadic groups and empires.
In antiquity, the nomadic Scythians have inhabited the land and the Persian Achaemenid Empire expanded towards the southern territory of the modern country. Turkic nomads who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as Turkic Khaganate etc have inhabited the country throughout the country's history. In the 13th century, the territory joined the Mongolian Empire under Genghis Khan. By the 16th century, the Kazakh emerged as a distinct group, divided into three jüz; the Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, by the mid-19th century, they nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganised several times. In 1936, it was made part of the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Nursultan Nazarbayev, the first President of Kazakhstan, was characterized as an authoritarian, his government was accused of numerous human rights violations, including suppression of dissent and censorship of the media.
Nazarbayev resigned in March 2019, with Senate Chairman Kassym-Jomart Tokayev taking office as Interim President. Kazakhstan has worked to develop its economy its dominant hydrocarbon industry. Human Rights Watch says that "Kazakhstan restricts freedom of assembly and religion", other human rights organisations describe Kazakhstan's human rights situation as poor. Kazakhstan's 131 ethnicities include Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Germans and Uyghurs. Islam is the religion of about 70% of the population, with Christianity practised by 26%. Kazakhstan allows freedom of religion, but religious leaders who oppose the government are suppressed; the Kazakh language is the state language, Russian has equal official status for all levels of administrative and institutional purposes. Kazakhstan is a member of the United Nations, WTO, CIS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Eurasian Economic Union, CSTO, OSCE, OIC, TURKSOY; the name "Kazakh" comes from the ancient Turkic word qaz, "to wander", reflecting the Kazakhs' nomadic culture.
The name "Cossack" is of the same origin. The Persian suffix -stan means "land" or "place of", so Kazakhstan can be translated as "land of the wanderers". Though traditionally referring only to ethnic Kazakhs, including those living in China, Turkey and other neighbouring countries, the term "Kazakh" is being used to refer to any inhabitant of Kazakhstan, including non-Kazakhs. Kazakhstan has been inhabited since the Paleolithic. Pastoralism developed during the Neolithic as the region's climate and terrain are best suited for a nomadic lifestyle; the Kazakh territory was a key constituent of the Eurasian Steppe route, the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Roads. Archaeologists believe. During recent prehistoric times Central Asia was inhabited by groups like the Proto-Indo-European Afanasievo culture early Indo-Iranians cultures such as Andronovo, Indo-Iranians such as the Saka and Massagetae. Other groups included the nomadic Scythians and the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the southern territory of the modern country.
In 329 BC, Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army fought in the Battle of Jaxartes against the Scythians along the Jaxartes River, now known as the Syr Darya along the southern border of modern Kazakhstan. The Cuman entered the steppes of modern-day Kazakhstan around the early 11th century, where they joined with the Kipchak and established the vast Cuman-Kipchak confederation. While ancient cities Taraz and Hazrat-e Turkestan had long served as important way-stations along the Silk Road connecting Asia and Europe, true political consolidation began only with the Mongol rule of the early 13th century. Under the Mongol Empire, the largest in world history, administrative districts were established; these came under the rule of the emergent Kazakh Khanate. Throughout this period, traditional nomadic life and a livestock-
Dame Gracie Fields, was an English actress and comedienne and star of both cinema and music hall. She spent the part of her life on the isle of Capri, Italy. Fields was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire for "services to entertainment" in 1938, in 1979, seven months before her death, she was invested a Dame by Queen Elizabeth II. Fields was born Grace Stansfield, over a fish and chip shop owned by her grandmother, Sarah Bamford, in Molesworth Street, Lancashire, she made her first stage appearance as a child in 1905, joining children's repertory theatre groups such as'Haley's Garden of Girls' and the'Nine Dainty Dots'. Her two sisters and Betty, brother, all went on to appear on stage, but Gracie was the most successful, her professional debut in variety took place at the Rochdale Hippodrome theatre in 1910 and she soon gave up her job in the local cotton mill, where she was a half-timer, spending half a week in the mill and the other half at school. Fields met the comedian and impresario Archie Pitt and they began working together.
Pitt gave Fields champagne on her 18th birthday, wrote in an autograph book to her that he would make her a star. Pitt began to manage her career and they began a relationship, their first revue was called Yes I Think So in 1915 and the two continued to tour Britain together until 1924. That year they appeared in the revue Mr Tower of London, with other shows By Request, It's A Bargain and The Show's The Thing, during the following years. Pitt was the brother of Bert Aza, founder of the Aza agency, responsible for many entertainers of the day including the actor and comedian Stanley Holloway, introduced to Aza by Fields. Fields and Holloway first worked together on her film Sing As We Go in 1934 and the two remained close friends for the rest of their lives. Fields came to major public notice in Mr Tower of London, her career accelerated from this point with legitimate dramatic performances and the beginning of a recording career. At one point, Fields was playing three shows a night in London's West End.
She appeared in the Pitt production SOS with Gerald Du Maurier, a legitimate production staged at the St James's Theatre. Fields' most famous song, which became her theme, "Sally", was worked into the title of her first film, Sally in Our Alley, a major box office hit, she went on to make several films in Britain and in the United States. Regardless, she never enjoyed performing without a live audience, found the process of film-making boring, she tried to opt out of filming, before director Monty Banks persuaded her otherwise, landing her the lucrative Hollywood deal. Fields demanded that the four films be filmed in Britain and not Hollywood, this was the case; the final few lines of the song "Sally", which Fields sang at every performance from 1931 onwards, were written by her husband's mistress, Annie Lipman. Fields claimed in life that she wanted to "Drown blasted Sally with Walter with the aspidistra on top!", a reference to two other of her well-known songs, "Walter, Walter", "It's the Biggest Aspidistra in the World".
The famous opera star Luisa Tetrazzini heard her singing an aria and asked her to sing in grand opera. Gracie decided to stay "where I knew I belonged." In the 1930s her popularity peaked and she was given many honours: the Officer of the Venerable Order of St. John, the Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1938 and the Freedom of the Borough of Rochdale in 1937, she donated her house in The Bishops Avenue, north London to an orphanage after the marriage broke down. In 1939, she became ill with cervical cancer; the public sent over 250,000 goodwill messages and she retired to her villa on Capri. After she recovered, she recorded a special 78rpm record called Gracie's Thanks, in which she thanks the public for the many cards and letters she received while in hospital. During World War II, she paid for all servicemen/women to travel free on public transport within the boundaries of Rochdale. Fields helped Rochdale F. C. in the 1930s when they were struggling to pay fees and buy sports equipment.
In 1933 she set up the Gracie Fields Children's Home and Orphanage at Peacehaven, for children of those in the theatre profession who could not look after their children. She kept this until 1967; this was near her own home in Peacehaven, Fields visited, with the children all calling her'Aunty Grace'. In 1939, Fields went to Capri to recuperate. World War II was declared while she was recovering in Capri, Fields – still ill after her cancer surgery – threw herself into her work and signed up for the Entertainments National Service Association headed by her old film producer, Basil Dean. Fields travelled to France to entertain the troops in the midst of air-raids, performing on the backs of open lorries and in war-torn areas, she was the first artist to play behind enemy lines in Berlin. Following her divorce from Archie Pitt, she married Italian-born film director Monty Banks in March 1940. However, because Banks remained an Italian citizen and would have been interned in the United Kingdom after Italy declared war in 1940, she went with him to North America at the suggestion of Winston Churchill who told her to "Make American Dollars, not British Pounds", which she did, in aid of the Navy League and
Forbes is an American business magazine. Published bi-weekly, it features original articles on finance, industry and marketing topics. Forbes reports on related subjects such as technology, science and law, its headquarters is located in New Jersey. Primary competitors in the national business magazine category include Fortune and Bloomberg Businessweek; the magazine is well known for its lists and rankings, including of the richest Americans, of the world's top companies, The World's Billionaires. The motto of Forbes magazine is "The Capitalist Tool", its chair and editor-in-chief is Steve Forbes, its CEO is Mike Federle. It was sold to Integrated Whale Media Investments. B. C. Forbes, a financial columnist for the Hearst papers, his partner Walter Drey, the general manager of the Magazine of Wall Street, founded Forbes magazine on September 15, 1917. Forbes provided the money and the name and Drey provided the publishing expertise; the original name of the magazine was Forbes: Devoted to Doings.
Drey became vice-president of the B. C. Forbes Publishing Company, while B. C. Forbes became editor-in-chief, a post he held until his death in 1954. B. C. Forbes was assisted in his years by his two eldest sons, Bruce Charles Forbes and Malcolm Stevenson Forbes. Bruce Forbes took over on his father's death, his strengths lay in streamlining operations and developing marketing. During his tenure, 1954–1964, the magazine's circulation nearly doubled. On Bruce's death, his brother Malcolm Stevenson "Steve" Forbes Jr. became President and Chief executive of Forbes and Editor-in-Chief of Forbes magazine. Between 1961 and 1999 the magazine was edited by James Michaels. In 1993, under Michaels, Forbes was a finalist for the National Magazine Award. In 2006, an investment group Elevation Partners that includes rock star Bono bought a minority interest in the company with a reorganization, through a new company, Forbes Media LLC, in which Forbes Magazine and Forbes.com, along with other media properties, is now a part.
A 2009 New York Times report said: "40 percent of the enterprise was sold... for a reported $300 million, setting the value of the enterprise at $750 million". Three years Mark M. Edmiston of AdMedia Partners observed, "It's not worth half of that now", it was revealed that the price had been US$264 million. In January 2010, Forbes reached an agreement to sell its headquarters building Fifth Avenue in Manhattan to New York University; the company's headquarters subsequently moved to the Newport section of downtown Jersey City, New Jersey, in 2014. In November 2013, Forbes Media, which publishes Forbes magazine, was put up for sale; this was encouraged by minority shareholders Elevation Partners. Sale documents prepared by Deutsche Bank revealed that the publisher's 2012 EBITDA was US$15 million. Forbes sought a price of US$400 million. In July 2014, the Forbes family bought out Elevation and sold a 51 per cent majority of the company to Integrated Whale Media Investments. Apart from Forbes and its lifestyle supplement, Forbes Life, other titles include Forbes Asia and fifteen local language editions.
Steve Forbes and his magazine's writers offer investment advice on the weekly Fox TV show Forbes on Fox and on Forbes on Radio. Other company groups include Forbes Conference Group, Forbes Investment Advisory Group and Forbes Custom Media. From the 2009 Times report: "Steve Forbes returned from opening up a Forbes magazine in India, bringing the number of foreign editions to 10." In addition, that year the company began publishing ForbesWoman, a quarterly magazine published by Steve Forbes's daughter, Moira Forbes, with a companion Web site. The company published American Legacy magazine as a joint venture, although that magazine separated from Forbes on May 14, 2007; the company formerly published American Heritage and Invention & Technology magazines. After failing to find a buyer, Forbes suspended publication of these two magazines as of May 17, 2007. Both magazines were purchased by the American Heritage Publishing Company and resumed publication as of the spring of 2008. Forbes has published the Forbes Travel Guide since 2009.
On January 6, 2014, Forbes magazine announced that, in partnership with app creator Maz, it was launching a social networking app called "Stream". Stream allows Forbes readers to save and share visual content with other readers and discover content from Forbes magazine and Forbes.com within the app. Forbes.com is part of Forbes Digital, a division of Forbes Media LLC. Forbes's holdings include a portion of RealClearPolitics. Together these sites reach more than 27 million unique visitors each month. Forbes.com employs the slogan "Home Page for the World's Business Leaders" and claimed, in 2006, to be the world's most visited business web site. The 2009 Times report said that, while "one of the top five financial sites by traffic off an estimated $70 million to $80 million a year in revenue, never yielded the hoped-for public offering". Forbes.com uses a "contributor model" in which a wide network of "contributors" writes and publishes articles directly on the website. Contributors are paid based on traffic to their respective Forbes.com pages.
Forbes allows advertisers to publish blog posts on its website alongside regular editorial content through a program called BrandVoice, which accounts for more than 10 pe
East Finchley is an area in north London, in the London Borough of Barnet, situated 5.4 miles northwest of Charing Cross. Formally a town in Middlesex until 1965, geographically it is somewhat separate from the rest of Finchley, with North Finchley and West Finchley to the north, Finchley Central to the west; the land on which most of East Finchley now stands was once part of the Bishop of London's hunting ground, named Finchley Common, first recorded around 1400. The Bishop of London built a road through his land which weaved through what is now Market Place, The Walks, King Street and Oak Lane up to the north; as a result, pubs such as The White Lion, The Bald Faced Stag and The Five Bells, all of which survive today, sprang up to provide rest for the people using the road. The area of "East Finchley Village" around Church Lane was west of the common and Bulls Lane dates back to at least the 17th century. With the coming of the Great Northern Railway in 1868 the area began to emerge, property was built between the 1870s and the 1930s.
However, it was not until 1914 that a more recognisable East Finchley High Road and surrounding area was visible. East Finchley Underground station is marked by a well-known statue of an archer by Eric Aumonier in the Art Deco style; the archer is pointing his arrow towards the entrance to the tunnel which starts south of the station and runs for 17.3 miles to the end of the Northern line at Morden. For many years this was the longest tunnel in the world. There was an arrow at Morden Station to match the archer at East Finchley, but this was stolen a few months after the station was opened; the station is on the High Barnet branch of the Northern line which serves the city and the west end with trains every 2–3 minutes. Buses serve the high street with the 263 route going from Barnet Hospital to Highbury Barn. Housing in East Finchley is diverse in its nature, encompassing many housing styles, from 19th-century terraced housing, large 30s houses, multimillion-pound mansions on The Bishop's Avenue.
The three eleven-storey tower blocks of Prospect Ring & Norfolk Close, near to the centre of East Finchley, are visible for miles around. East Finchley has several state primary schools, including Our Lady of Lourdes RC primary school, Martin Primary School, Holy Trinity Primary School. There are two secondary schools in East Finchley itself—Bishop Douglass RC High School and Christ's College; the Archer Academy, a new non-denominational, non-selective community secondary school opened in East Finchley in September 2013 and is oversubscribed. Many local children attend schools elsewhere in the London Borough of Barnet. For those living in the direction of Muswell Hill to the east of the High Road, Fortismere School is an option and many East Finchleans fall into the catchment area for Brookland Junior School, which neighbours Christ's College; the Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute's new facilities are on the High Road. 52 % of the ward's population is 16 % is Other White, according to the 2011 census.
The independent Phoenix Cinema is located on the High Road, shows films with more individual appeal than is the case with the cinema chains. It is the oldest purpose-built cinema in the UK. Time Out, the arts magazine, describes the Phoenix as the best single-screen cinema in London. Film critic Mark Kermode has written that the Phoenix Cinema "remains the single most significant cinema in my development as a bona fide cinema obsessive."There is a listed Neo-Georgian public library located on the High Road opposite Leslie Road. Behind the library are some award-winning allotments, owned by Barnet Council. Adjacent to these are the Fuelland allotments; the massive St. Pancras and Islington Cemetery is located on the High Road. Established in 1854, it is the oldest municipal cemetery in the largest; the Victorian painter Ford Madox Brown is buried there. Opposite the tube station is approx. 4.5 ha in size, contains both woodland and grassland. Nearby parks include Coldfall Wood to the north, Highgate Wood, Queens Wood, Hampstead Heath to the south.
Opposite the tube station is the head office to McDonald's UK, this is seen by the flags and logos on the building. The Archer, founded in 1993, is East Finchley's free monthly community newspaper, run by volunteers, it takes its name from the eponymous statue at East Finchley tube station. In Evelyn Waugh's satirical novel Scoop, Lord Copper, owner of the newspaper Daily Beast, lived in East Finchley. "That evening, Mr Salter, foreign editor of The Beast, was summoned to dinner at his chief's country seat at East Finchley." Peter Sellers lived with his mother at 211b High Road, in his Goon Show persona as Bluebottle was referred to as an East Finchley boy scout. Singer George Michael was born in Church Lane. Sir Ronald Fisher was born in East Finchley. Gracie Fields lived in The Bishop's Avenue. Thomas Pierrepoint, the official British hangman in the early 1900s, lived in Huntingdon Road, by chance not far where the 18th-century gibbet had stood in Lincoln Road; the poet and educator Clive Sansom was born in East Finchley in 1910.
Jerry Springer grew up in East Finchley before moving to the United S
West End theatre producer
A West End theatre producer is a theatre producer who causes theatrical productions to be presented in one or more of the 40 West End theatres of London, as defined by the governing body of West End producers, The Society of London Theatre. Not to be confused with a Regional theatre producer who has never, or does not choose, to produce in the theatres of the West End of London, their governing body is the Theatrical Management Association. What's On in Theatre - Daily news service about London's West End Society of London Theatre - trade body for the London theatre industry
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately