Washington Carroll Tevis
Washington Carroll Tevis known as Charles Carroll Tevis, Nassim Bey and Charles Carroll de Taillevis, was an American-born soldier of fortune who served in a variety of armies and conflicts during the 19th century. Washington C. Tevis was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on February 22, 1829, his parents were Benjamin Tevis, a Unitarian and an auctioneer and commission merchant and Mary Hunter. Born in Maryland, Benjamin served as a First Lieutenant with the 39th Regiment of Maryland Militia during the War of 1812. Benjamin was involved with the Hibernian Society of Philadelphia. In addition to Washington, the Tevis family had a daughter Martha Heloise Tevis, born on August 7, 1826 but died on August 8, 1827. Washington entered the University of Pennsylvania in 1842 and graduated in 1845 with a Master of Arts degree. With an ongoing situation of war with Mexico brewing, Tevis was appointed at large to the United States Military Academy at West Point on June 30, 1845, he graduated 24th in his class of 43 on the 1st of July, 1849, He was commissioned a Brevet Second Lieutenant with the Regiment of Mounted Riflemen.
Tevis trained at the School of Cavalry Practice but resigned his commission on May 12, 1850. From May 1850 to November 1851 Tevis was a member of the prestigious First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry. Financed by the inheritance from his late father Tevis traveled to Paris. There he began using the name "Charles Carroll Tevis", he converted to Roman Catholicism in 1853 where he received Baptism in the Chapel of the Archbishop of Paris, from the hands of Monsignor Georges Darboy, charged with Tevis's instruction and preparation in the faith. On February 4, 1854 he was commissioned a Major or Binbashi in the army of the Ottoman Empire and soon advanced to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel or Kaymakam, he adopted the name of "Nessim Bey". A staff officer Tevis led a force of Bashi-bazouks under General György Kmety in the Battle of Kurekdere, Battle of Indjédéré and the Siege of Kars, he was made an Officer in the Order of the Medjidie, a Grand Officer in the Order of Glory of the Ottoman Empire and was awarded the Medal for the Defence of Kars and the British Crimea Medal.
Tevis left the army in 1855 to return to Paris. There he published a book of warfare La Petite guerre et le service des avant-postes published by Guiraudet et Jouaust in 1855 and patented a revolver. Tevis returned to Philadelphia in 1859 and applied to have his name changed to Charles Carroll de Taillevis. Tevis eloped with Blanche Florance, the daughter of a wealthy Philadelphia family in November 1860, against her father's wishes; as a result, she was disinherited, though her father left her an inheritance after his death in 1867. Though an experienced cavalryman, Tevis was commissioned a Lieutenant Colonel of Infantry in the United States Volunteers. In addition to organising the regiment and serving with them at the defence of Baltimore he was involved in operations around Gloucester Point, Virginia. In June 1863 Lt. Col Tevis led a combined infantry force of 400 men, from several regiments in addition to his 4th Delaware, in an amphibious operation in the vicinity of Walkerton, Virginia where his men destroyed a large amount of Confederate supplies.
In September 1863 Lt. Col Tevis was selected by Brigadier General Robert C. Schenck to organise and lead an unusual cavalry regiment, the 3rd Maryland Volunteer Cavalry composed of hundreds of Confederate prisoners of war who agreed to serve the Union; the state of Maryland in the American Civil War contained large amounts of citizens loyal to both the Federal and Confederate governments. In addition to normal wartime military operations Tevis's regiment patrolled the areas of elections and made arrests. Tevis entered the forbidden zone of politics when on November 2, 1863 he issued a proclamation not only declaring that all qualified voters should engage in their right to vote, but to vote for the platform of the Unconditional Union Party as "recognized by the Federal authorities as loyal or worthy of the support of any one who desires the peace and restoration of the Union". Tevis's soldiers arrested several candidates in the election; as a result, Brigadier Schenck ordered the arrest of Tevis.
After further investigation Schenck ordered Tevis released believing that Tevis acted in good faith, though he was quite wrong to sign the proclamation, written by provost marshal and a candidate in the election, Captain John Frazier, however Tevis was honorably discharged July 20, 1864. Prior to the ending of hostilities, Tevis's friend and fellow Philadelphian Charles Godfrey Leland used his influence with John Weiss Forney to obtain a Brevet commission as a Brigadier General for Tevis. With the Civil War only ending, Tevis found himself in a new war at a much higher level of command; the Fenian Brotherhood Congress appointed Tevis a committeeman from the state of Pennsylvania. Brigadier General Thomas William Sweeny was made Secretary of War in late 1865 by the Fenian Brotherhood who had a scheme to gain the independence of Ireland through military attacks on Canada. In November 1865 Tevis was appointed Adjutant General of the organisation, with the rank of Brigadier General one of nine men in Sweeny's Fenian General Staff.
Tevis and Major William O'Reilly purchased 4,220 Pennsylvania militia muskets from the Bridesburg, Philadelphia arsenal, however plans to purchase cannon did not come to fruition. With the plans for Fenian Raids being devised, T
Queen Victoria Golden Jubilee Medal
The Golden Jubilee Medal was instituted in 1887 by Royal Warrant as a British decoration to be awarded to participants of Queen Victoria's golden jubilee celebrations. The medal was awarded to those involved in the official celebrations of Queen Victoria's golden jubilee, including members of the Royal Family, Royal Household and government officials, as well as Envoys, Foreign Ambassadors and Colonial Prime Ministers. Military recipients included selected officers and soldiers of the Royal Navy and Army, the Indian and colonial contingents, that participated in jubilee activities, including the London parade and the Royal Review at Spithead, where the commander of each ship received the medal in silver. A Police Golden Jubilee Medal of a different design was awarded to members of the Metropolitan and City of London Police Forces on duty during the jubilee celebrations; the Golden Jubilee Medal was struck to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Queen Victoria's reign. It measures 30 millimetres in diameter.
On the obverse Queen Victoria is depicted crowned and wearing a veil which falls over the back of the head and neck, with the text VICTORIA D. G. REGINA ET IMPERATRIX F. D.. The reverse bears the words IN COMMEMORATION OF THE 50TH YEAR OF THE REIGN OF QUEEN VICTORIA · 21 JUNE 1887 within a garland of roses and thistles; the bust of Queen Victoria on obverse was designed by Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm and the reverse wreath entwined with heraldic flowers designed by Clemens Emptmayer, recommended by Boehm. The ribbon is garter blue with wide white stripes towards each edge; when Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee was celebrated 10 years holders of the 1887 medal who qualified for the Diamond Jubilee Medal were awarded a bar inscribed'1897' to attach to the ribbon of their existing medal
Shabana Azmi is an Indian actress of film and theatre. The daughter of poet Kaifi Azmi and stage actress Shaukat Azmi, she is an alumna of Film and Television Institute of India of Pune. Azmi made her film debut in 1974 and soon became one of the leading actresses of Parallel Cinema, a new-wave movement known for its serious content and neo-realism and received government patronage during the times. Regarded as one of the finest actresses in India, Azmi's performances in films in a variety of genres have earned her praise and awards, which include a record of five wins of the National Film Award for Best Actress and several international honours, she has received five Filmfare Awards, was honored among "women in cinema" at the 30th International Film Festival of India. In 1988, the Government of India awarded her with Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian honour of the country. Azmi has appeared in over 120 Hindi and Bengali films in both mainstream and independent cinema, since 1988, she has acted in several foreign projects.
Several of her films have been cited as a form of progressivism which portrays Indian society, its customs and traditions. In addition to acting, Azmi is women's rights activist, she is the wife of screenwriter Javed Akhtar. She is a Goodwill Ambassador of the United Nations Population Fund. In appreciation of Azmi's life and works, the President of India gave her a nominated membership of the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of parliament. Shabana Azmi was born in Hyderabad, India, her parents are Kaifi Azmi and Shaukat Azmi, both of whom were members of the Communist Party of India. Her brother, Baba Azmi, is a cinematographer, her sister-in-law, Tanvi Azmi, is an actress. Shabana was named at the age of eleven by Ali Sardar Jafri, her parents used to call her Munni. Baba Azmi was named by Prof. Masood Siddiqui as Ahmer Azmi, her parents had an active social life, their home was always thriving with people and activities of the communist party. It was not unusual for her to wake up in the morning and find members of the communist party sleeping about, from a previous night's communist social that ran late.
Early in childhood, the environment in her home inculcated into her a respect for family ties and human values. Azmi attended Mumbai, she completed a graduate degree in Psychology from St. Xavier's College and followed it with a course in acting at the Film and Television Institute of India, Pune, she explained the reason she decided to attend the film institute, saying: "I had the privilege of watching Jaya Bhaduri in a film, I was enchanted by her performance because it was unlike the other performances I had seen. I marvelled at that and said,'My god, if by going to the Film Institute I can achieve that, that's what I want to do.'" Azmi topped the list of successful candidates of 1972. Azmi graduated from the FTII in 1973 and signed on to Khwaja Ahmad Abbas' Faasla and began work on Kanti Lal Rathod's Parinay as well, her first release, was Shyam Benegal's directorial debut Ankur. Belonging to the arthouse genre of neo-realistic films, Ankur is based on a true story which occurred in Hyderabad.
Azmi played Lakshmi, a married servant and villager who drifts into an affair with a college student who visits the countryside. Azmi was not the original choice for the film, several leading actresses of that time refused to do it; the film went on to become a major critical success, Azmi won the National Film Award for Best Actress for her performances. Famous independent filmmaker Satyajit Ray commented "In Ankur she may not have fitted into her rustic surroundings, but her poise and personality are never in doubt. In two high pitched scenes, she pulls out the stops to establish herself as one of our finest dramatic actresses", she went on to receive the National Film Award consecutively for three years from 1983 to 1985 for her roles in Arth and Paar. Godmother earned her another National Film Award. Azmi’s acting has been characterised by a real-life depiction of the roles played by her. In Mandi, she acted as a madam of a whorehouse. For this role, she put on weight and chewed betel. Real life portrayals continued in all her movies.
These included the role of a woman named Jamini resigned to her destiny in Khandhar and a typical urban Indian wife and mother in Masoom. She acted in experimental and parallel Indian cinema. Deepa Mehta's 1996 film Fire depicts her as Radha, in love with her sister-in-law; the on-screen depiction of lesbianism drew severe protests and threats from many social groups as well as by the Indian authorities. Her role as Radha brought her international recognition with the Silver Hugo Award for Best Actress at the 32nd Chicago Film Festival and Jury Award for Best Actress at Outfest, Los Angeles, she was the initial choice for Deepa Mehta's Water, planned to hit the floors in 2000. A few scenes were shot. Azmi had to shave her head with Nandita Das to portray the character of Shakuntala. However, due to political reasons, the film was shelved and shot in 2005 with Seema Biswas replacing Azmi; some of her notable films are Shyam Benegal's Nishant, Junoon and Antarnaad.
The Punjab spelled Panjab, is a geopolitical and historical region in South Asia in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. The boundaries of the region focus on historical accounts; until the Partition of Punjab in 1947, the British Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states and union territories of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi. It bordered the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, Rajasthan and Sindh to the south; the people of the Punjab today are called Panjabis, their principal language is Punjabi. The main religions of the Indian Punjab region are Hinduism; the main religions of the Pakistani Punjab region is Islam. Other religious groups are Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Ravidassia; the Punjab region has been inhabited by the Indus Valley Civilisation, Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-Scythians, has seen numerous invasions by the Persians, Kushans, Timurids, Pashtuns and others.
Historic foreign invasions targeted the most productive central region of the Punjab known as the Majha region, the bedrock of Punjabi culture and traditions. The Punjab region is referred to as the breadbasket in both India and Pakistan; the region was called Sapta Sindhu, the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean. The origin of the word Punjab can be traced to the Sanskrit "pancha-nada", which means "five rivers", is used as the name of a region in the Mahabharata; the name of the region, Punjab, is a compound of two Persian words, Panj and āb, introduced to the region by the Turko-Persian conquerors of India, more formally popularised during the Mughal Empire. Punjab thus means "The Land of Five Waters", referring to the rivers Jhelum, Ravi and Beas. All are tributaries of the Sutlej being the largest; the Greeks referred to the region as Pentapotamia. There are two main definitions of the Punjab region: the 1947 definition and the older 1846–1849 definition. A third definition incorporates both the 1947 and the older definitions but includes northern Rajasthan on a linguistic basis and ancient river movements.
The 1947 definition defines the Punjab region with reference to the dissolution of British India whereby the British Punjab Province was partitioned between India and Pakistan. In Pakistan, the region now includes Islamabad Capital Territory. In India, it includes the Punjab state, Chandigarh and Himachal Pradesh. Using the 1947 definition, the Punjab borders the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, Rajasthan and Sindh to the south. Accordingly, the Punjab region is diverse and stretches from the hills of the Kangra Valley to the plains and to the Cholistan Desert. Using the 1947 definition of the Punjab region, some of the major cities of the area include Lahore and Ludhiana; the older definition of the Punjab region focuses on the collapse of the Sikh Empire and the creation of the British Punjab province between 1846 and 1849. According to this definition, the Punjab region incorporates, in Pakistan, Azad Kashmir including Bhimber and Mirpur and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
In India the wider definition includes parts of Jammu Division. Using the older definition of the Punjab region, the Punjab region covers a large territory and can be divided into five natural areas: the eastern mountainous region including Jammu Division and Azad Kashmir; the formation of the Himalayan Range of mountains to the east and north-east of the Punjab is the result of a collision between the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The plates are still moving together, the Himalayas are rising by about 5 millimetres per year; the upper regions are snow-covered the whole year. Lower ranges of hills run parallel to the mountains; the Lower Himalayan Range runs from north of Rawalpindi through Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and further south. The mountains are young, are eroding rapidly; the Indus and the five rivers of the Punjab have their sources in the mountain range and carry loam and silt down to the rich alluvial plains, which are fertile. According to the older definition, some of the major cities include Jammu and parts of Delhi.
The third definition of the Punjab region adds to the definitions cited above and includes parts of Rajasthan on linguistic lines and takes into consideration the location of the Punjab rivers in ancient times. In particular, the Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh districts are included in the Punjab region; the climate is a factor contributing to the economy of the Punjab. It is not uniform over the whole region, with the sections adjacent to the Himalayas receiving heavier rainfall than those at a distance. There are two transitional periods. During the hot season from mid-April to the end of June, the temperature may reach 49 °C; the monsoon season, from July to September, is a period of heavy rainfall, providing
Maharani Jind Kaur was regent of the Sikh Empire from 1843 until 1846. She was the youngest wife of the first Maharaja of the Sikh Empire, Ranjit Singh, the mother of the last Maharaja, Duleep Singh, she was renowned for her beauty and strength of purpose and was popularly known as Rani Jindan, but her fame is derived chiefly from the fear she engendered in the British in India, who described her as "the Messalina of the Punjab", a seductress too rebellious to be controlled. After the assassinations of Ranjit Singh's first three successors, Duleep Singh came to power in September 1843 at the age of 5 and Jind Kaur became Regent on her son's behalf. After the Sikhs lost the First Anglo-Sikh War she was replaced in December 1846 by a Council of Regency, under the control of a British Resident. However, her power and influence continued and, to counter this, the British imprisoned and exiled her. Over thirteen years passed before she was again permitted to see her son, taken to England. In January 1861 Duleep Singh was allowed to meet his mother in Calcutta and take her with him back to England, where she remained until her death in Kensington, London, on 1 August 1863 at the age of 46.
She was temporarily buried in Kensal Green Cemetery and cremated the following year at Nashik, near Bombay. Her ashes were taken to the samadh in Lahore of her husband, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, by her granddaughter, Princess Bamba Sofia Jindan Duleep Singh. In 2010 the New York International Sikh Film Festival premiered the film The Rebel Queen, telling the story of the Maharani. Jind Kaur Aulakh was born in Chachar, the daughter of Manna Singh Aulakh,into a Aulakh Jat family the overseer of the royal kennels, she had an elder brother, Jawahar Singh Aulakh and an elder sister, who married Sardar Jawala Singh Padhania, the Chief of Padhana in the Lahore District. Manna Singh extolled Jind Kaur's beauty and virtues to Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who summoned and married her in 1835 by sending his'arrow and sword' to the village. On 6 September 1838 she gave birth to Duleep Singh. On 7 June 1864 her son Duleep Singh married Bamba Müller, daughter of Ludwig and Sofia Müller, by whom he had four sons, one of whom died in infancy, three daughters.
After the death of his first wife he married Ada Wetherill, daughter of Charles and Sarah Wetherill, had two more daughters. All his children died without issue. One, by Duleep Singh's first marriage, Princess Sophia Alexandra Duleep Singh, was active in the suffragette movement in the United Kingdom. After the death of Ranjit Singh, Jind Kaur and her son lived in relative obscurity under the care of Raja Dhian Siṅgh at Jammu. On 16 September 1843, after the assassination of Maharaja Sher Singh and his wazir, the army proclaimed the 5-year-old Duleep Singh as sovereign. At first the new wazir, Hira Singh, took little notice of his mother. Jind Kaur became fiercely defensive of the rights of her son and pleaded with the regimental committees to protect his position asking'who is the real sovereign, Duleep Singh or Hira Singh? If the former the Khālsā should ensure that he was not a king with an empty title.' The council supported her and she became the symbol of sovereignty. She cast off her veil.
As Regent, she reconstituted the Supreme Council of the Khalsa and restored a balance between the army and the civil administration. She held court and addressed the troops; the young Maharani was faced with many problems. Pashaura Singh Kanvar, half brother of Duleep Singh, was seeking to replace Duleep Singh as Maharaja; the feudal chiefs wanted a reduction in the taxation imposed on them by Hira Singh and the restoration of their jagirs, land grants from which they received income. The army wanted an increase in pay; the cost of the civil and military administration had increased and Gulab Singh Dogra, Raja of Jammu and uncle of Hira Singh, had taken most of the Lahore Treasury. The power struggle between the various Sikh factions was continuing and some were secretly negotiating with the British East India Company forces amassing on the border. In tackling these problems, the Maharani had the advice and support of the newly appointed council of elder statesmen and military leaders. To strengthen her power base, Jind Kaur betrothed Duleep Singh to the daughter of Chatar Singh Atarivala, the Governor of Hazara province and a powerful and influential member of the Sikh nobility.
Army pay was increased. Gulab Singh was brought to Lahore to face charges of treachery and his nephew, Hira Singh, was replaced as wazir by Jawahar Singh. Gulab Singh was allowed to return to Jammu after paying a fine of 6,800,000 rupees and promising future good behaviour. Pashaura Singh arrived in Lahore in January 1845, he was received with honour but was persuaded to return to his estates by the army and a promise of an increase in his jagir. However, in July he declared himself to be the ruler of the Punjab. A force commanded by Chatar Singh besieged the fort and forced him to surrender on the promise of a safe conduct; however Jawahar Singh had decided that he posed too great a risk to the young Maharaja and he was secretly taken back to Attock and strangled. For his involvement in this, Jawahar Singh was stabbed to death in front of his sister, the agonised Maharani. On 13 December 1845 the British Governor-General, Sir Henry Hardinge, issued a proclamation declaring war on the Sikhs; the causes and conduct of the First Anglo-Sikh War are described elsewhere.
The Sikhs lost the war, they claimed, to the treachery of their commander-in-chief, Raja Tej Singh, wh
Presidencies and provinces of British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods: Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" in several locations in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers, its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, the Netherlands and France. By the mid-18th century three "Presidency towns": Madras and Calcutta, had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it lost its mercantile privileges. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown.
In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended such as Upper Burma. However, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces". In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat, this became the company's first headquarters town, it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, in 1612 the company joined other established European trading companies in Bengal in trade. However, the power of the Mughal Empire declined from 1707, first at the hands of the Marathas and due to invasion from Persia and Afghanistan. By the mid-19th century, after the three Anglo-Maratha Wars the East India Company had become the paramount political and military power in south Asia, its territory held in trust for the British Crown. Company rule in Bengal from 1793, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857. From known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled by the British Crown as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, India was known after 1876 as the Indian Empire.
India was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament, the Princely States, ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds. These rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in population. In addition, there were French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh; the term British India applied to Burma for a shorter time period: starting in 1824, a small part of Burma, by 1886 two-thirds of Burma had come under British India. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony. British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate.
At its greatest extent, in the early 20th century, the territory of British India extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west. It included the Aden in the Arabian Peninsula; the East India Company, incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a small trading outpost in Madras in 1639. Bombay, ceded to the British Crown by Portugal as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company to be held in trust for the Crown. Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. A half-century after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly due to tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small villages renamed Calcutta, in 1686, making it the Company's new headquarters.
By the mid-18th century, the three principal trading settlements including factories and forts, were called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, the Bengal Presidency — each administered by a Governor. Madras Presidency: established 1640. Bombay Presidency: East India Company's headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687. Bengal Presidency: established 1690. After Robert Clive's victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the puppet government of a new Nawab of Bengal, was maintained by the East India Company. However, after the invasion of Bengal by the Nawab of Oudh in 1764 and his subsequent defeat in the Battle of Buxar, the Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal, which included the right to administer and collect land-revenue in Bengal