Thriller is a broad genre of literature and television, having numerous overlapping subgenres. Thrillers are characterized and defined by the moods they elicit, giving viewers heightened feelings of suspense, surprise and anxiety. Successful examples of thrillers are the films of Alfred Hitchcock. Thrillers keep the audience on the "edge of their seats" as the plot builds towards a climax; the cover-up of important information is a common element. Literary devices such as red herrings, plot twists, cliffhangers are used extensively. A thriller is a villain-driven plot, whereby he or she presents obstacles that the protagonist must overcome. Homer's Odyssey is one of the oldest stories in the Western world and is regarded as an early prototype of the genre. Writer Vladimir Nabokov, in his lectures at Cornell University, said: "In an Anglo-Saxon thriller, the villain is punished, the strong silent man wins the weak babbling girl, but there is no governmental law in Western countries to ban a story that does not comply with a fond tradition, so that we always hope that the wicked but romantic fellow will escape scot-free and the good but dull chap will be snubbed by the moody heroine."Thrillers may be defined by the primary mood that they elicit: suspenseful excitement.
In short, if it "thrills", it is a thriller. As the introduction to a major anthology argues:... Thrillers provide such a rich literary feast. There are all kinds; the legal thriller, spy thriller, action-adventure thriller, medical thriller, police thriller, romantic thriller, historical thriller, political thriller, religious thriller, high-tech thriller, military thriller. The list goes on and on, with new variations being invented. In fact, this openness to expansion is one of the genre's most enduring characteristics, but what gives the variety of thrillers a common ground is the intensity of emotions they create those of apprehension and exhilaration, of excitement and breathlessness, all designed to generate that all-important thrill. By definition, if a thriller doesn't thrill, it's not doing its job. Suspense is a crucial characteristic of the thriller genre, it gives the viewer a feeling of pleasurable fascination and excitement mixed with apprehension and tension. These develop from unpredictable and rousing events during the narrative, which makes the viewer or reader think about the outcome of certain actions.
Suspense builds. The suspense in a story keeps the person hooked to reading or watching more until the climax is reached. In terms of narrative expectations, it may be contrasted with surprise; the objective is to deliver a story with sustained tension, a constant sense of impending doom. As described by film director Alfred Hitchcock, an audience experiences suspense when they expect something bad to happen and have a superior perspective on events in the drama's hierarchy of knowledge, yet they are powerless to intervene to prevent it from happening. Suspense in thrillers is intertwined with hope and anxiety, which are treated as two emotions aroused in anticipation of the conclusion - the hope that things will turn out all right for the appropriate characters in the story, the fear that they may not; the second type of suspense is the "...anticipation wherein we either know or else are certain about what is going to happen but are still aroused in anticipation of its actual occurrence."According to Greek philosopher Aristotle in his book Poetics, suspense is an important building block of literature, this is an important convention in the thriller genre.
Thriller music has been shown to create a distrust and ominous uncertainty between the viewer of a film and the character on screen at the time when the music is playing. Common methods and themes in crime and action thrillers are ransoms, heists, kidnappings. Common in mystery thrillers are the whodunit technique. Common elements in dramatic and psychological thrillers include plot twists, psychology and mind games. Common elements of science-fiction thrillers are killing robots, machines or aliens, mad scientists and experiments. Common in horror thrillers are serial killers, stalking and horror-of-personality. Elements such as fringe theories, false accusations and paranoia are common in paranoid thrillers. Threats to entire countries, espionage, conspiracies and electronic surveillance are common in spy thrillers. Characters may include criminals, assassins, innocent victims, menaced women, psychotic individuals, spree killers, agents, terrorists and escaped cons, private eyes, people involved in twisted relationships, world-weary men and women, psycho-fiends, more.
The themes include terrorism, political conspiracy, pursuit, or romantic triangles leading to murder. Plots of thrillers involve characters which come into conflict with each other or with outside forces; the protagonist of these films is set against a problem. No matter what subgenre a thriller film falls into, it will emphasize the danger that the protagonist faces; the protagonists are ordinary citizens unaccustomed to danger, although in crime and action thrillers, they may be "hard men" accustomed to danger such as police officers and detectives. While protagonists of thrillers have traditionally been men, women lead characters are common. In psychological thrillers, the protagonists are reliant on their mental resources, whether it be by battling wits with the antagonist or by battling for equilibrium in the cha
West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering East Sussex to the east, Hampshire to the west and Surrey to the north, to the south the English Channel. West Sussex is the western part of the historic county of Sussex a medieval kingdom. With an area of 1,991 square kilometres and a population of over 800,000, West Sussex is a ceremonial county, with a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff. Chichester in the south-west is the only city in West Sussex. West Sussex has a range of scenery, including wealden and coastal; the highest point of the county is at 280 metres. It has a number of stately homes including Goodwood, Petworth House and Uppark, castles such as Arundel Castle and Bramber Castle. Over half the county is protected countryside, offering walking and other recreational opportunities. Although the name Sussex, derived from the Old English'Sūþsēaxe', dates from the Saxon period between AD 477 to 1066, the history of human habitation in Sussex goes back to the Old Stone Age; the oldest hominin remains known in Britain were found at Boxgrove.
Sussex has been occupied since those times and has succumbed to various invasions and migrations throughout its long history. Prehistoric monuments include the Devil's Jumps, a group of Bronze Age burial mounds, the Iron Age Cissbury Ring and Chanctonbury Ring hill forts on the South Downs; the Roman period saw the building of Fishbourne Roman Palace and rural villas such as Bignor Roman Villa together with a network of roads including Stane Street, the Chichester to Silchester Way and the Sussex Greensand Way. The Romans used the Weald for iron production on an industrial scale; the foundation of the Kingdom of Sussex is recorded by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for the year AD 477. The foundation story is regarded as somewhat of a myth by most historians, although the archaeology suggests that Saxons did start to settle in the area in the late 5th century; the Kingdom of Sussex became the county of Sussex. With its origins in the kingdom of Sussex, the county of Sussex was traditionally divided into six units known as rapes.
By the 16th century, the three western rapes were grouped together informally, having their own separate Quarter Sessions. These were administered by a separate county council from 1888, the county of Sussex being divided for administrative purposes into the administrative counties of East and West Sussex. In 1974, West Sussex was made a single ceremonial county with the coming into force of the Local Government Act 1972. At the same time a large part of the eastern rape of Lewes was transferred into West Sussex; until 1834 provision for the poor and destitute in West Sussex was made at parish level. From 1835 until 1948 eleven Poor Law Unions, each catering for several parishes, took on the job. Most settlements in West Sussex are either along the south coast or in Mid Sussex, near the M23/A23 corridor; the town of Crawley is the largest in the county with an estimated population of 106,600. The coastal settlement of Worthing follows with a population of 104,600; the seaside resort of Bognor Regis and market town Horsham are both large towns.
Chichester, the county town, has a cathedral and city status, is situated not far from the border with Hampshire. Other conurbations of a similar size are Burgess Hill, East Grinstead and Haywards Heath in the Mid Sussex district, Littlehampton in the Arun district, Lancing and Shoreham in the Adur district. Much of the coastal town population is part of the Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation. Rustington and Southwater are the next largest settlements in the county. There are several more towns in West Sussex; the smaller towns of the county are Arundel, Petworth and Steyning. The larger villages are Billingshurst, Crawley Down, Henfield, Hurstpierpoint, Lindfield and Storrington; the current total population of the county makes up 1.53% of England's population. West Sussex is bordered by Hampshire to Surrey to the north and East Sussex to the east; the English Channel lies to the south. The area has been formed from Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous rock strata, part of the Weald–Artois Anticline.
The eastern part of this ridge, the Weald of Kent and Surrey has been eroded, with the chalk surface removed to expose older Lower Cretaceous rocks of the Wealden Group. In West Sussex the exposed rock becomes older towards the north of the county with Lower Greensand ridges along the border with Surrey including the highest point of the county at Blackdown. Erosion of softer sand and clay strata has hollowed out the basin of the Weald leaving a north facing scarp slope of the chalk which runs east and west across the whole county, broken only by the valleys of the River Arun and River Adur. In addition to these two rivers which drain most of the county a winterbourne, the River Lavant, flows intermittently from springs on the dip slope of the chalk downs north of Chichester; the county makes up 1.52% of the total land of England, making it the 30th largest county in the country. West Sussex is the sunniest county in the United Kingdom, according to Met Office records. Over the last 29 years it has averaged 1902 hours of sunshine per year.
Sunshine totals are highest near the coast wi
David Brown (producer)
David Brown was an American film and theatre producer and writer, best known for coproducing the 1975 film Jaws based on the best-selling novel by Peter Benchley. He was born in the son of Lillian and Edward Fisher Brown. Brown was a graduate of Stanford University and the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, he began his professional career as a journalist, contributing to magazines including The Saturday Evening Post, Harper's and Collier's, before becoming an editor himself. He was a managing editor of Cosmopolitan before Helen Gurley Brown, joined the magazine. In 1951, the producer Darryl F. Zanuck hired Brown to head the story department at Zanuck's studio, 20th Century-Fox. Brown rose to become executive vice president of creative operations, he and Richard D. Zanuck, Darryl's son, left Fox in 1971 for Warner Bros. but the following year they set out to form their own production company. The caper film The Sting starring Paul Newman and Robert Redford was a Zanuck/Brown "presentation".
In 1974, the company produced, along with Universal Pictures, The Sugarland Express, Steven Spielberg's directorial debut, for a motion picture. Thereafter, the pair were credited as producers or executive producers of more than a dozen films, including the courtroom drama The Verdict, directed by Sidney Lumet and starring Paul Newman. Driving Miss Daisy won four Academy Awards, including the Best Picture award. Without Zanuck, Brown went on to produce films including the drama Angela's Ashes and the romance Chocolat, he and partner Zanuck were jointly awarded the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 1990 for their achievements in producing films including the horror thriller Jaws, directed by Steven Spielberg. Brown produced various Broadway musicals, including Sweet Smell of Success: The Musical, Dirty Rotten Scoundrels, the off-Broadway Jerry Herman musical revue Showtune, he bought the film and stage rights to the drama play A Few Good Men, written by playwright Aaron Sorkin.
The play ran for 500 performances. The film of the same name stars Jack Nicholson. From 1959, for fifty-one years, until his death, Brown was the husband of Helen Gurley Brown, editor of Cosmopolitan magazine for 32 years, author of Sex and the Single Girl. Brown had one son, from a prior marriage, who predeceased him, a half brother, Edward Fisher Brown Jr, he was known for his mannerliness, fine wardrobe, distinctive mustache and for championing writers. He had strong connections with agents. Brown wrote Brown's Guide to the Good Life: Tears and Boredom, which gives advice on life, he wrote Let Me Entertain You, an anecdotal autobiography. He died, age 93, at his home in Manhattan from renal failure on February 1, 2010, his widow, died on August 13, 2012, age 90. Mr. and Mrs. Brown were laid to rest in late November 2012 in adjacent graves at Sisco Cemetery, Helen's maternal family cemetery just south of the village of Osage in Carroll County, Arkansas. Sssssss The Sting Willie Dynamite The Sugarland Express The Black Windmill The Girl from Petrovka The Eiger Sanction Jaws MacArthur Jaws 2 The Island Neighbors The Verdict Cocoon Target Cocoon: The Return Driving Miss Daisy The Player Rich in Love A Few Good Men The Cemetery Club Watch It Canadian Bacon The Saint Kiss the Girls Deep Impact Angela's Ashes Chocolat Along Came a Spider David Brown at the Internet Broadway Database David Brown on IMDb David Brown at the Internet Off-Broadway Database David Brown at Find a Grave The David Brown papers at the American Heritage Center
Hermione Youlanda Ruby Clinton-Baddeley was an English actress and voice actress. She played brash, vulgar characters referred to as "brassy" or "blowsy", she found her milieu in revue, in which she played from the 1930s to the 1950s, co-starring several times with Hermione Gingold. She was best known for her roles as Ellen in Mary Poppins, Mrs. Naugatuck in the TV series Maude, Madame Adelaide Bonfamille in The Aristocats, Auntie Shrew in The Secret of NIMH. Baddeley was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance in Room at the Top and a Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Play for The Milk Train Doesn't Stop Here Anymore in 1963. In 1975, she won a Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress in a Television Series for her portrayal of Nell Naugatuck in Maude. Baddeley was born in Broseley, England to W. H. Clinton-Baddeley. Baddeley was a descendent of British American Revolutionary War General Sir Henry Clinton, her elder sister, Angela Baddeley, was an actress.
Her half-brother, William Baddeley, was a Church of England priest who became Rural Dean of Westminster. Although she first began making films in the 1920s, Baddeley was known for supporting performances in films such as Passport to Pimlico, Tom Brown's Schooldays, A Christmas Carol, The Pickwick Papers, The Belles of St Trinian's, Mary Poppins, The Unsinkable Molly Brown. One of her more important roles was in Brighton Rock, in which she played Ida, one of the main characters, whose personal investigation into the disappearance of a friend threatens the anti-hero Pinkie, she had a stage career. She had a long professional relationship with Noël Coward, appearing in many of his plays throughout the 1940s and 1950s; the most successful was her teaming with Hermione Gingold in Coward's comedy Fallen Angels, though the two women were "no longer of speaking terms" by the end of the run. She was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her portrayal of Simone Signoret's best friend in Jack Clayton's Room at the Top.
With just 2 minutes and 32 seconds, hers is the shortest role. In 1960 she played prostitute Doll Tearsheet in the BBC's series of Shakespeare history plays An Age of Kings, acting alongside her sister Angela as Mistress Quickly. In 1963, she was nominated for Broadway's Tony Award as Best Actress for The Milk Train Doesn't Stop Here Anymore, she was known to American audiences for roles in Bewitched, Little House on the Prairie, Camp Runamuck and Maude. Toward the end of her career, Baddeley was a voice-over actress, including roles in The Aristocats and The Secret of NIMH. In 1928 Baddeley married socialite David Tennant, she arrived an hour late for the wedding. They rented Teffont Evias Manor, she had Pauline Laetitia Tennant. In 1940 Baddeley married J. H. "Dozey" Willis. They divorced in 1946, she had a brief relationship with actor Laurence Harvey, a man 22 years her junior. Although Harvey proposed marriage to her, Baddeley thought. Baddeley was known for her devotion to animals, she dedicated The Unsinkable Hermione Baddeley, to her pet dog.
She continued to work in television until shortly before her death. She died following a series of strokes on 19 August 1986, aged 79, at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, she was survived from her first marriage. She was interred in St Melor Parish Church in Amesbury, Wiltshire. List of Academy Award records Hermione Baddeley on IMDb Hermione Baddeley at the Internet Broadway Database Hermione Baddeley at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Performances in the Theatre Archive University of Bristol Hermione Baddeley profile at BFI Screenonline
Donald Henry Pleasence was an English actor. His best known film roles include psychiatrist Dr. Samuel Loomis in Halloween and four of its sequels, the villain Ernst Stavro Blofeld in the James Bond film You Only Live Twice, RAF Flight Lieutenant Colin Blythe in The Great Escape, SEN 5241 in THX 1138, Clarence "Doc" Tydon in Wake in Fright, the President of the United States in Escape from New York. Pleasence was born in Worksop, England, the son of Alice and Thomas Stanley Pleasence, a railway stationmaster, he was brought up as a strict Methodist in the small village of Lincolnshire. He received his formal education at Crosby Junior School and Ecclesfield Grammar School, in Sheffield, South Yorkshire. After working as the Clerk-in-Charge at Swinton railway station in South Yorkshire, he decided that he wanted to be a professional actor, taking up a placement with the Jersey Repertory Company in 1939. In December 1939, Pleasence refused conscription into the British Armed Forces, registering as a conscientious objector, but changed his stance in autumn 1940, after the attacks upon London by the Luftwaffe, volunteered with the Royal Air Force.
He served as aircraft wireless-operator with No. 166 Squadron in Bomber Command, with which he flew sixty raids against the Axis over occupied Europe. On 31 August 1944, Lancaster NE112, in which he was a crew member, was shot down during an attack upon Agenville, he was captured and imprisoned in the German prisoner-of-war camp Stalag Luft I, where he was treated well reciprocally in similar prisoner-of-war camps. Here, Pleasence acted in many plays for the entertainment of his fellow captives. After the war and his release, he was discharged from the R. A. F. in 1946. Returning to acting after the war, Pleasence resumed working in repertory theatre companies in Birmingham and Bristol. In the 1950s, Pleasence's stage work included performing as Willie Mossop in a 1952 production of Hobson's Choice at the Arts Theatre, London and as Dauphin in Jean Anouilh's The Lark. In 1960, Pleasence gained excellent notices as the tramp in Harold Pinter's The Caretaker at the Arts Theatre, a role he would again play in a 1990 revival.
Other stage work in the 1960s included Anouilh's Poor Bitos and Robert Shaw's The Man in the Glass Booth, for which he won the London Variety Award for Stage Actor of the Year in 1968. Pleasence's stage work included performing in a double bill of Pinter plays, The Basement and Tea Party, at the Duchess Theatre in 1970. Pleasence made his television debut in I Want to Be a Doctor, he received positive critical attention for his role as Syme in the BBC version of Nineteen Eighty-Four from the novel by George Orwell. The adaptation featured Peter Cushing in the lead role of Winston Smith. Pleasence played Prince John in several episodes of the ITV series The Adventures of Robin Hood, he appeared twice with Patrick McGoohan in the British spy series, Danger Man, in episodes "Position of Trust" and "Find and Return". Pleasence's first appearance in America was in an episode of The Twilight Zone, playing an aging teacher at a boys' school in the episode "The Changing of the Guard". In 1963, he appeared in an episode of The Outer Limits entitled "The Man With the Power".
In 1966, he guest starred in an episode of The Fugitive entitled "With Strings Attached" In 1973, Pleasence played a sympathetic murderer in an episode of Columbo entitled "Any Old Port in a Storm". He portrayed a murderer captured by Mrs. Columbo in "Murder Is a Parlor Game". In 1978, he played Sam Purchas in an adaptation of James A. Michener's Centennial. Pleasence starred as the Reverend Septimus Harding in the BBC's TV series The Barchester Chronicles. In this series, his daughter Angela Pleasence played his onscreen daughter Susan, he hosted the 1981 Halloween episode of Saturday Night Live with music guest Fear. In 1986, Pleasence joined Ronald Lacey and Polly Jo Pleasence for the television thriller Into the Darkness. Pleasence made his big-screen debut with The Beachcomber; some notable early roles include Parsons in 1984, minor roles opposite Alec Guinness in Barnacle Bill and Dirk Bogarde in The Wind Cannot Read. In Tony Richardson's film of Look Back in Anger, he plays a vindictive market inspector opposite Richard Burton.
In the same year, Pleasence starred in the horror films Circus of Horrors directed by Sidney Hayers, playing the role of Vanet, the owner of a circus, The Flesh and the Fiends as the real-life murderer William Hare, alongside Peter Cushing, George Rose and Billie Whitelaw. Endowed with a bald head, a penetrating stare, an intense voice quiet but capable of a piercing scream, he specialised in portraying insane, fanatical, or evil characters, including the title role in Dr Crippen, the double agent Dr Michaels in the science-fiction film Fantastic Voyage, the white trader who sells guns to the Cheyenne Indians in the revisionist western Soldier Blue, the mad Doctor in the Bud Spencer–Terence Hill film Watch Out, We're Mad!, Nazi leader Heinrich Himmler in The Eagle Has Landed, the Bond arch-villain Ernst Stavro Blofeld in You Only Live Twice, the first film in which Blofeld's face is seen. His interpretation of the character has become predominant in popular culture considering the popularity of the comic villain, Dr. Evil in the successful Austin Powers film series, which parodies it.
In the crime drama Hell is a City, shot in Manchester, he starred opposite Stan
Shepherd's Bush tube station
Shepherd's Bush is a London Underground station in the district of Shepherd's Bush, located in west London, United Kingdom. The station is on the Central line, between White City and Holland Park stations, it lies in Travelcard Zone 2; the station opened in 1900, but was closed for eight months in 2008 while the surface station building was replaced with a new structure and the underground station refurbished. A number of stations in the area both past and present have borne the name Shepherd's Bush. An separate London Underground station, Shepherd's Bush Market on the Circle and Hammersmith & City lines is located 1⁄3-mile away; until 2008, it too was called Shepherd's Bush. The station opened on 30 July 1900 and was the original western terminus of the Central London Railway; the original surface-level station building was a terracotta-clad ticket hall with its entrance on the Uxbridge Road facing Shepherd's Bush Green. Like all CLR stations, the station building was designed by Harry Bell Measures.
To the north of the station was located the CLR's power station and Wood Lane depot, accessed by a single track tunnel. The eastbound tunnel ended to the west of the station in a dead-end reversing siding with a cross-over junction connecting it to the westbound tunnel; when the now disused Wood Lane station was opened on 14 May 1908 to the north, a loop tunnel was created connecting to the eastbound tunnel. An extension to Richmond planned in 1920 would have started here with the next stop at the closed London and South Western Railway station at Hammersmith; as part of London Transport's New Works Programme, 1935 - 1940, escalators were installed to replace the original lifts and in 1938, the platforms were lengthened along with those of the other existing Central line stations to accommodate eight cars instead of the previous seven. For a short period before 2008, the station was renamed Shepherds Bush Green until the rename of the separate station to Shepherds Bush Market. A large-scale redevelopment began in 2005 to redevelop the White City area to the north of Shepherd's Bush Green and to construct the Westfield Shopping Centre.
As part of this project, Shepherd's Bush Central line station was reconstructed in 2008 by Westfield as part of a Section 106 contribution. The Westfield redevelopment included the construction of an integrated bus interchange and the new London Overground Shepherd's Bush station on the West London Line; the new Overground station opened on 28 September 2008 and is close to the site of the former Uxbridge Road station which closed in 1940. During the reconstruction of the Central line station, Transport for London closed the station for eight months; this decision caused local controversy, critics claimed that the works had been timed to benefit incoming businesses involved in the planned redevelopment of the area, at the cost of local residents and small business holders. The local MP for the Shepherd's Bush constituency, Andy Slaughter, investigated the project and obtained documents under the Freedom of Information Act which showed that the contractor, had advised that the work could be completed without closing the station.
Shepherd's Bush station re-opened to passengers on 5 October 2008. During the refurbishment, Transport for London did not add lifts to the station as planned, citing installation costs of £100 million due to the various underground utilities nearby which would have to be diverted; the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham and disability pressure groups have been critical of the fact that the station remains inaccessible for those unable to use stairs. Shepherd's Bush station is an OSI for London Overground and National Rail London Buses routes 31, 49, 72, 94, 95, 148, 207, 220, 228, 237, 260, 272, 283, 295, 316, 607 and C1 and night route N207 serve the station and bus station. Shepherd's Bush stations London Transport Museum Photographic Archive Ticket hall, 1926 Shepherd's Bush, 1935 Ticket hall, 1939 Details of infrastructure improvements The front of the station building from a different angle
A windmill is a structure that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades. Centuries ago, windmills were used to mill grain, pump water, or both. There are windmills; the majority of modern windmills take the form of wind turbines used to generate electricity, or windpumps used to pump water, either for land drainage or to extract groundwater. Windmills first appeared in Persia in the 9th century AD, were independently invented in Europe; the windwheel of the Greek engineer Hero of Alexandria in the first century is the earliest known instance of using a wind-driven wheel to power a machine. Another early example of a wind-driven wheel was the prayer wheel, used in Tibet and China since the fourth century; the first practical windmills had sails. According to Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, these panemone windmills were invented in eastern Persia, or Khorasan, as recorded by the Persian geographer Estakhri in the ninth century. The authenticity of an earlier anecdote of a windmill involving the second caliph Umar is questioned on the grounds that it appears in a tenth-century document.
Made of six to 12 sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind grain or draw up water, were quite different from the European vertical windmills. Windmills were in widespread use across the Middle East and Central Asia, spread to China and India from there. A similar type of horizontal windmill with rectangular blades, used for irrigation, can be found in thirteenth-century China, introduced by the travels of Yelü Chucai to Turkestan in 1219. Horizontal windmills were built, in small numbers, in Europe during the 18th and nineteenth centuries, for example Fowler's Mill at Battersea in London, Hooper's Mill at Margate in Kent; these early modern examples seem not to have been directly influenced by the horizontal windmills of the Middle and Far East, but to have been independent inventions by engineers influenced by the Industrial Revolution. Due to a lack of evidence, debate occurs among historians as to whether or not Middle Eastern horizontal windmills triggered the original development of European windmills.
In northwestern Europe, the horizontal-axis or vertical windmill is believed to date from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries in the triangle of northern France, eastern England and Flanders. The earliest certain reference to a windmill in Europe dates from 1185, in the former village of Weedley in Yorkshire, located at the southern tip of the Wold overlooking the Humber Estuary. A number of earlier, but less dated, twelfth-century European sources referring to windmills have been found; these earliest mills were used to grind cereals. The evidence at present is that the earliest type of European windmill was the post mill, so named because of the large upright post on which the mill's main structure is balanced. By mounting the body this way, the mill is able to rotate to face the wind direction; the body contains all the milling machinery. The first post mills were of the sunken type, where the post was buried in an earth mound to support it. A wooden support was developed called the trestle.
This was covered over or surrounded by a roundhouse to protect the trestle from the weather and to provide storage space. This type of windmill was the most common in Europe until the nineteenth century, when more powerful tower and smock mills replaced them. In a hollow-post mill, the post on which the body is mounted is hollowed out, to accommodate the drive shaft; this makes it possible to drive machinery below or outside the body while still being able to rotate the body into the wind. Hollow-post mills driving scoop wheels were used in the Netherlands to drain wetlands from the fourteenth century onwards. By the end of the thirteenth century, the masonry tower mill, on which only the cap is rotated rather than the whole body of the mill, had been introduced; the spread of tower mills came with a growing economy that called for larger and more stable sources of power, though they were more expensive to build. In contrast to the post mill, only the cap of the tower mill needs to be turned into the wind, so the main structure can be made much taller, allowing the sails to be made longer, which enables them to provide useful work in low winds.
The cap can be turned into the wind either by winches or gearing inside the cap or from a winch on the tail pole outside the mill. A method of keeping the cap and sails into the wind automatically is by using a fantail, a small windmill mounted at right angles to the sails, at the rear of the windmill; these are fitted to tail poles of post mills and are common in Great Britain and English-speaking countries of the former British Empire and Germany but rare in other places. Around some parts of the Mediterranean Sea, tower mills with fixed caps were built because the wind's direction varied little most of the time; the smock mill is a development of the tower mill, where the masonry tower is replaced by a wooden framework, called the "smock", thatched, boarded or covered by other materials, such as slate, sheet metal, or tar paper. The smock is of octagonal plan, though there are examples with different numbers of sides; the lighter weight than tower mills make smock mills practical as drainage mills, which had t